J. M. (John Mackinnon) Robertson.

A short history of freethought ancient and modern; online

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Kant, ii, 289, 293 sq, 361, 369, 379

Kantsa, i, 50

Kapila, i, 50

Karaites, i, 333, 334 n.

Karians, i, 122 sq.

Karma, doctrine of, i, 56

Karmathians, the, i, 268

Karneades, i, 183, 187 n.

Keats, ii, 388

Keener, Bishop, ii, 408

Kepler, i, 471 ; ii, 83

Kett, ii, 26, 31, 32

Ketzer, orig-in of word, i, 308

Kharejites, the, i, 261

Kharvakas, the, i, 51

Kidd, B., ii, 413

Kidder, ii, 108

Kiellgren, ii, 349

Kierkegaard, ii, 399

Kindi, Al, i, 274

Kindy, Al, i, 266

King, Archbishop, ii, 129, 134

Kings, deification of, i, 181-2

Kipling, ii, 3S8

Kirkup, cited, ii, 332 n.

Kleist, ii, 395

Klitomachos, i, 183

Knaggs, ii, 108

Knight, ii, 162

Knutzen, ii, 256 sq.

Koerbagh, ii, 54

Koheleth, i, 109, 116-7

Koran, the, i, 256 sq., 264, 266

Kortholt, ii, 258

Krake, Rolf, i, 37

Krishna myth, i, 55

Kritias, i, 160

Krochmal, ii, 421

Kronos, i, 126

Kropf, cited, i, 36 n.

Ktesilochos, i, 164 n.

Kuenen, ii, 325,' 359

Kumarila, i, 51

Kuyper, ii, 201

Kyd, ii, 32

La Barre, ii, 220

Labitte, cited, ii, 22

Labour churches, ii, 343

La Bruyfere, ii, 193; cited, i, 45 n.



Lachares, i, 183

Lactantius, i, 213 «., 246

Lagrange, ii, 232

La Harpe, ii, 211, 227

Laing, cited, ii, 339 n.

Lalande, i, 11 ; ii, 232

Lamarck, ii, 365

Lamartine, ii, 385

Lamb, C, ii, 389

Lambert, Francois, i, 455

Lamennais, ii, 374 '

La Mettrie, ii, 169, 224, 232, 236, 272

La Mothe le Vayer, ii, 22, 181, 182

Lanjuinais, ii, 211

La Peyr^re, ii, 196 sq.

La Placette, i, 479

Landau, cited, i, 350 n.

Lane, cited, i, 25, 283

Lang, A., criticised, i, 42, 89, 93,

98-9 ; cited, i, 35
Lange, cited, i, 10, 137, 173, 175;

ii, 240
Langland, i, 389

Languedoc, civilisation in, i, 317 sq.
Lanson, cited, ii, 185, 194, 221, 234
Lao-Tsze, i, 80, 82 sq.
Laplace, ii, 232, 326, 361
La Primaudaye, ii, 27
Lardner, ii, 149, 343
La Rochette, ii, 220
Larroque, ii, 358
Lassen, ii, 258
Lasson, Dr., cited, i, 407
Latini, Brunetto, i, 348, 398 n.
Latitudinarians, ii, 124
Lau, ii, 265 sq.
Lavater, ii, 276
Lavergne, cited, ii, 247
Law, William, ii, 119, 149, 168
Lawrence, Dr., ii, 362 sq.
Lea, H. C, cited, i, 325
Lechler, cited, i, 13
Lecky, i, 14 ; quoted, i, 337 ».

cited, ii, 36, 165 n., 179, 232

Le Clerc, i, 478; ii,9i, 107, 129, 201

Leconte de Lisle, ii, 326, 385

Lecount, ii, 332

Lee, Dr., ii, 368

Leechman, ii, 162

Leenhof, ii, 203

Lef^vre, i, 444, 446

Legate, ii, 39, 40

Legge, Dr., cited, i, 81

Leibnitz, ii, 13 «., 46, 130, 259 sq.

Leicester, Lollardry in, i, 390

Leland, ii, 146, 149

Lemaitre, ii, 386

Lennstrand, ii, 351

Lenormant, cited, i, 69 n.



INDEX



445



Leo the Isaurian, i, 286-7

X, Pope, i, 368

Leopardi, ii, 326, 395
Leopold of Tuscany, ii, 313
Leslie, C, ii, 107, 134 «., 149

Professor, ii, 362

Lessing, i, 350; ii, 274, 282 sq.,

325-6 . „

Letourneau, 11, 380
Le Trosiie, ii, 212
Leufstedt, ii, 350
Leukippos, i, 139, 157
Leukothea, i, 145
Levallois, cited, ii, 386 ».
Levellers, the, ii, 93
Levi ben Gershom, i, 334
Levites, orig-in of, i, 44, 112
Lewes, G. H , ii, 338, 404
Lewis, ii, 26
L'Hopital, ii, 13
Libanius, quoted, i, 237
Libertin, use of word, i, ^
Libertini, or " libertines,'' use of

word, i, 2, 379-80, 466,473-4; ii, 11

tenets of, i, 466 sq.

Libraries, public, i, 205 n.

Lidgould, ii, 108

Liebknecht, ii, 341

Lightfoot, Bishop, cited, i, 148

Lilienfeld, ii, 380

Lilja, ii, 350

Lillie, cited, i, 53 n.

Lincoln, President, ii, 408

Linguet, ii, 211

Liszinski, ii, 308

Littr^, cited, i, 398

death of, ii, 416 n.

Livy, i, 206

Llorente, i, 386 n.

Localisation of Gods, i, 43 sq.

Locke, ii, 108, 116 sq., 126, 150

Loescher, ii, 259

Logos, the, i, 83, 169

Loka.yata, i, 51, 52

Lollards, i, 390, 449

Long, G., cited, i, 202 n., 203 n.

Longrais, ii, 226

Lope de Vega, ii, 58

Lord's Prayer, the, i, 212 sq.

Lorenzo dei Medici, i, 362

Louis, Saint, i, 335

Philippe, ii, 336 n.

Lowndes, Miss, cited ii, j6
Lubbock, cited, i, 30
Lucian, i, 179, 115-6, 208, 242
Lucilius, i, 199 "•
Lucretius, i, 178, 198 sq.

influence of, i, 306

Ludovicus Vives, ii, 82



Luthardt, Professor, ii, 367
Luther, i, 190, 415-41,7, 454, 457 sq.,

460 sq., 463, 470 ; ii, 82
Liitzelberger, ii, 354
Lyall, Edna, ii, 393
Lydia, civilisation in, i, 138
Lyell, ii, 403
Lyly, cited, ii, 24, 31 /;.
Lyons, ii, 135 n.
Lysimachos, i, 179 n.
Lyttleton, ii, 149

Mabad al Jhoni, i, 260

Mably, ii, 211, 233

Macaulay, ii, 332, 402 ; cited, i,

45 n.y ii, 175 ; criticised, ii, 106 n.
McCosh, cited, ii, 161
McCrie, i, 418 «., 419 »., 425 n.
Machiavelli, i, 363 sq., 373-4 ; ii, 28
Mackay, R. W., i, 12 ; ii, 325, 357

quoted, i, 146 «., 228 n.

Mackenzie, George, ii, loi, 158

Macrobius, i, 244

Madison, ii, 323

Magi, i, 66, 67

Magian religion, i, 66 sq.

Magic and religion, i, 43, 410 sq.

in Middle Ages, i, 369

Magna Graecia, culture of, i, 144,

150-1
Mahlbhirata, the, i, 58
MahafFy, quoted, i, 127-8, 131, 134,

185 n.
Mahdi, Khalif, i, 264
Mahmoud, Sultan, i, 269, 270
Maimonides, i, 320, 334
Maistre, J. de, ii, 373
Malebranche, ii, 195
Malesherbes, ii, 235
Malherbe, ii, 183
Malik, i, 270

Malthus, i, 174; ii, 367, 376
Mamoun, i, 265, 268
Mandard, ii, 7
Mandeville, ii, 136, 150, 168, 174,

379
Manfred, 1, 346

Manichaeism, i, 229, 231, 307, 310
Mannhardt, ii, 381
Mansel, ii, 376
Mansour, Khalif, i, 263
Marcion and Marcionites, i, 229
Marcus Aurelius, i, 214, 216
Mardouk-nadinakhe, i, 45
Mar^chal, Sylvain, i, 11; ii, 226,

24s «.
Margat, ii, 212
Marguerite of Navarre, i, 2 ; ii, $,

II sq., 446



446



INDEX



Maria Theresa, ii, 305

Mariner, cited, i, 36

Mariolatry, i, 378

Marius, i, 203

Marlowe, ii, 28 sq.

Marot, ii, 5, 6

Marri, El, i, 269

Marriage, ancient, i, 249

Marsiglio of Padua, i, 402

Marsilio Ficino, i, 304, 361, 363

Marsy, ii, 211

Marten, ii, 94

Martin Marprelate, ii, 28

Martin, Mrs. Emma, ii, 331

Martineau, J., ii, 338 n., 344

cited, ii, 200 n.

Harriet, ii, 414

Martyrs, i, 249 n.

Mary of Hungary, i, 433

Marx, ii, 325, 341, 370, 381

Massey, cited, ii, 173

Mass, the, i, 298

Masuccio, i, 298 «.,'357

Materialism, i, 70, 127, 146-9, 152-3,
156, 161, 334, 338; ii, 88, 127,
130. 143. 236, 240, 325, 372

Mathematics, rise of, i, 148

English in i8th century, ii, 154

Matter, doctrines concerning, i,
146 n., 149, 169, 334

Matthias of Janow, i, 428

Corvinus, i, 433

■ Maupassant, ii, 385

Maupertuis, ii, 238, 272

Maurice, ii, 378; cited, i, 253 «.,

331
Mauvillon, ii, 288
Maximillian H, ii, 49
Maximus Tyrius, i, 214
Mazarin, ii, 183, 185
Mazdeism, i, 65 sq.
Mazzini, ii, 415
Medicine, Renaissance, i, 369
Meister, ii, 225, 226
Melanchthon, i, 410, 454, 459, 460,

463, 468, 470, 471 ; ii, 3
Melissos, i, 145
Menander, i, 183
Mencius, i, 85

Mendelssohn, Moses, ii, 274, 281
Mendicant Friars, i, 375, 377
Menippus, i, 185
Menzel, cited, i, 471
Menzies, Dr., cited, i, 68, 81, 82,97
Meredith, ii, 392
Merivale, criticised, i, 203-4
Merodach, i, 45, 62, 64
Mer.senne, i, 4 ; ii, 22-3, 89 n.
Meslier, ii, 212 sq.



Mesopotamia, cults of, i, 44

religious evolution in, i, 60 sq.

Metempsychosis, ii, 66, 268
Metrodoros, i, 161

(the second), i, 177

Meung, Jean de, i, 373

Mexico, religions of, i, 87 sq.

Mey, ii, 211

Meyer, E., quoted, i, 68, 77, 80,

126 «., 128, 130, 155 n.

Louis, ii, 197 sq.

Mezentius, i, 37
M^ziferes, i, 353
Mezzanotte, i, 360 n.
Michael, Emperor, i, 288

Scotus, i, 345-6

Michelet, ii, 384 ; cited, i, 380, 414,

463 «., 464 sq.
Middleton, i, 299 ; ii, 136, 150, 166,

170
Miletos, i, 125, 139, 146
Militarism, ii, 208, 347-8
Militz, i, 427
Mill, James, ii, 375, 404

J. S. , ii, 239, 332, 338 n., 401, 404

Millar, J., ii, 163
Miller, Hugh, ii, 364, 366
Millot, ii, 233

Milman, ii, 325, 380 ; cited, i, 318 n.
Milner, Rev. J., ii, iig
Milton, ii, 47 «., 116
Minnesingers, i, 405
Mirabaud, ii, 224
Mirabeau, ii, 232
Miracles, i, 246 n.
Miriam, i, loi
Mirza AH, i, 281
Mithra, i, 67

Mithraism, i, 67, 69, 230, 231, 245
Mitra, cult of, i, 47
Moabite Stone, i, 105 n.
Mocenlgo, ii, 65
Moffat, cited, i, 27 «., 32
Mohammed, i, 27, 254 sq.
Mohl, ii, 403
Moktader, i, 268, 272
Molech, i, 102
Moleschott, ii, 372 n.
Molesworth, ii, 164
Moli^re, ii, 184
Molinists, ii, 208
Mollio, i, 422
Molyneux, i, 6 ; ii, 164
Mommsen, i, 192 n., 193, 195
Monarchism and religion, i, 45
Monk, ii, 144
Monolatry, i, 56, 81, 97
Monotheism, i, 60 sq. , 67, 77, 81,
97, 100, 121, 173



INDEX



447



Monroe, ii, 323

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, ii,

141
Montaigne, i, 479 ; ii, 16 sq., 181,

204 K., 240 ; cited, i, 2
Montalembert, cited, i, 322 «., 324«.
Montesquieu, ii, 232, 234 sq., 379
Moore, G., ii, 393
Moors. (See Arabs.)
More, Sir T., i, 172, 475 sq. ; ii, i

Henry, ii, 97-8, 114

Hannah, ii, 392

Morehead, ii, 403 n.

Morellet, ii, 233

Morgan, Professor de, cited, ii, 32

Morgan, T., ii, 146, 150, 168

Morison, J. Cotter, i, 331 «.

Morley, J., i, 464 ; ii, 338, 404

cited, ii, 219, 221, 234, 243, 271

Mornay, de, ii, 15, 36

Moroccan Letters, ii, 287

Morris, Rev. J., ii, 119

Morton, Bishop, ii, 27

Moschus, i, 79

Moses, i, loi

Mosheim, cited, i, 209, 231, 464; ii,

90, 264
Motadhed, i, 267
Motamid, i, 267
Motasim, i, 266, 268
Motawalikel, i, 266, 268
Motazilites, the, i, 260 sq., 280,

350 ''•
Motecallemin, the, i, 274, 278, 350 n.
Moxon, ii, 331
Mozdar, i, 264
Muller, J., ii, 258
K. O., 124, 133, 163 «.; cited,

i. 132
Max, cited, i, 57 ; criticised,

i, 46 K., 94 «.
Munter, ii, 308
Muratori, ii, 312
Murchison, ii, 366
Murray, Professor G., cited, i,

137 n., 167 n.
Musaeus, ii, 25S
Musset, ii, 385
Mutianus, i, 452
Mylius, ii, 283
Mysteries, Eleusinian, i, 179 n.

Pythagorean, i, 131

Bacchic, i, 208

Mystery-plays, Christian, i, 320
Mysticism, i, 230 n.

Arab, i, 266, 271 sq.

Mythology, ii, 326, 380 sq.

Nabonidos, i, 44, 64



Naigeon, ii, 226, 243

Nanak, ii, 428 *

Nantes, revocation of Edict of, ii,

208
Napier, ii, 158
Naples, freethought in, i, 356-7,419,

426
Napoleon, i, 203 ; ii, 384
Nash, ii, 28, 37
Natura naturans, i, 337
"Naturalist," use of word, i, 2
Naudi, Gabriel, ii, 13 n., 181
Neander, cited, i, 467-8
Nebo, i, 45
Necker, ii, 246

" Negative criticism," i, 17; ii, 197
Neo-Platonism, i, 75, 185
Nero, i, 21 1

Nestorians, the, i, 246, 262
Netherlands, i, 407 sq., 414, 426,

476 sq.,; ii, 51 sq., 197 sq., 347
Netzahuatlcoyotl, i, 39, 88 n.
Nevill, ii, 95
Newman, J. H., ii, 189 «., 356, 380

F. W., ii, 325, 338 n., 356, 404

C. R. , ii, 356 n.

New Testament, criticism of, ii,

124, 146, 214, 220, 285, 325, 352 sq.
Newton, ii, 81, 116, 120 sq., 150, 361
New Zealand, freethought in, ii,

412

superstition in, i, 44 n.

Nichirenites, ii, 424
Nicholas, the painter, i, 315 «.

of Amiens, i, 328

Nichols, ii, 108

Nicholson, ii, 174

Nicolai, ii, 274

Nicolaus of Autricuria, i, 358, 405

of Cusa, i, 356, 358, 407 ; ii, 61

Nicholas HI, Pope, i, 387

V, Pope, i, 357

Nicoletto, Vernias, i, 359
Nicon, ii, 309
Nietzsche, ii, 371
Nifo, i, 359-360
Niketas. (See Iketas.)
Ninon de I'Enclos, ii, 215
Niphus. (See Nifo.)
Nirvana, doctrine of, i, 55
Nodier, cited, ii, 11 n.
Nominalism, i, 293, 302 sq., 329,

341, 402, 430
Nous, doctrine of, i, 153
Numa, i, 364

Numbers, doctrine of, i, 148-9
Nystrom, ii, 351

Occam. (See William.)



448



INDEX



Ochino, i, 419, 468; 11,^,378

Ogilvie, cited, ii, 178

Oglethorpe, ii, 239 n.

Okeanos, i, 127

O'Keefe, ii, 175

Oldcastle, i, 390

Oldfield, ii, 109

Old Testament, criticism of, ii, 105,

107, 124,144, 153, 196, 199, 277 sq.,

325, 331-2, 352 sq.
Omar, the Khalif, i, 257, 259 n.
Omar Khayy3.m, i, 269 sq.
Omens, belief in, i, 195
Origen, i, 228, 240 sq.; ii, 378
Orleans, Duchesse d', cited, ii, 190
Ormazd. (See Ahura Mazda.)
Orpheus, i, 127 «.
Orphicism, i, 147 «. , 148
Ortlieb, i, 374
Orzechowski, i, 440
Osborn, Major, cited, i, 262 n.

Francis, cited, ii, 31 n,

Ostrorog, i, 438

Overton, ii, 95

Ovid, i, 206, 213 ; ii, 364

Owen, Rev. John, i, 11 j cited, i, 318

»., 319 /(., 364 n., 368m.; ii, 18,

19, ,22

Robert, ii, 326, 332

Robert Dale, ii, 319 n.

Oxford in i6th century, ii, 24, 64

in i8th century, ii, 136

Ozanam, cited, i, 232 n.

Pachacamac, i, 89

Padua, school of, i, 354, 370, 438

Paganism, suppression of, i, 237

Pagitt, ii, 96

Paine, ii, 179, 317, 320 sq., 324, 327,

350. 361
Paleario, i, 423
Palestrina, ii, 4
Paley, ii, 231 ; cited, ii, 178
Palmaer, ii, 350
Palmer, Professor, i, 255 «., 256 n.

Elihu, ii, 322, 328

Pannonicus, i, 433

Pantheism, i, 2, 48, 74, 83, 132, 280,

361. 363- 374. 466 ; i". 69, 195, 200,

221, 32s
Paolo Giovio, i, 364 n.
Papacy, growth of, i, 310 sq.,

354 sq-

power of, 1, 317 sq., 355

hostility to, i, 311, 3S7> 366.

371, 391, 442 sq.
Paris, university of, i, 336, 338-9,

3.'!2. 397. 398. 404-S .
Parker, Archdeacon, ii, 106



Parker, Theodore, ii, 325, 356

Thomas, ii, 350

Parkes, Professor, cited, ii, 426

Parmenides, i, 139, 145

Parr, ii, 378

Parsees, the, i, 112, 280

Parsons, ii, 30

Parvish, ii, 144

Pascal, ii, 185, 186, 188

Paschasius Radbert, i, 296

Passerano, ii, 206

Pastoret, ii, 226

Pastoris, i, 439

Paterini, i, 313, 315, 398

Patin, Gui, ii, 181

Professor, i, 133

Patot, Tissot de, ii, 223

Pattison, Mark, i, 461, 464-5 ; ii,

156, 189
Paul, i, 224, 249

of Samosata, i, 233

II, Pope, i, 360

Ill, Pope, i, 421

IV, Pope, i, 423

Paul, Herbert, ii, 143 n.
Pauli, Gregorius, i, 441
Paulicians, the, i, 288 sq., 304 sq.,

306 sq.
Paulus, ii, 352
Pavlovsky, cited, ii, 398 n.
Pazraany, i, 436
Pearson, Bishop, ii, 31
Peasant wars, i, 430, 433, 454
Pecock, i, 393 sq. ; ii, 34
Pedro II, i, 381
Pedro de Osma, i, 384
Peele, ii, 37

Pelagianism, i, 233 sq., 286
Pelagius, i, 232
Pelham, Professor, i, 197 n.
Pellicier, ii, 11
Pelling, E., ii, 108
Penn, ii, 123
Pentateuch, criticism of, i, 463 ;

ii, 124, 144, 146, 19s sq., 267
Pericles, i, 153-6
Perrault, cited, ii, 182
Perrens, cited, i, 2 ». , 13, 358
Persecution, primitive, i, 33 n.
Christian, i, 226, 235, 237, 299,

317 sq., 325, 445 sq.; ii, 4, 5, 26,

39. 40. 54. 73. 123. 127. 147. 158.
161 sq., 183, 210 sq., 257, 328 sq.,
350-1. 353. (See Inquisition.)

Greek, i, 154, 156 sq., I7i,i79>

182, 189-190

Roman, i, 196-7, 214

Persia, religions of, i, 64 sq.
freethought in, i, 64, 271



INDEX



449



Persia, culture-history of, i, 148,

271, 280 sq.
Peru, ancient freethoug^ht in, i, 38,

89-90

religfion of, i, 88

modern freethoug^ht in, ii, 349

Perugino, i, 360
Pessimism, i, 132
Pestalozzi, ii, 301 n.
Peter the Hermit, i, 312

the Great, ii, 309

of Alliaco, i, 388

de Brueys, i, 312

Martyr, i, 419

of St. Cloud, i, 372

of Vaux, i, 316

Petit, Claude, ii, 183

Petrarch, i, 351 n., 352 sq., 368

Petrie, W. M. F., cited, i, 73 notes

Petrobrussians, the, i, 312

Petronius, i, 208

Peucer, i, 472

Peyrat, ii, 358

Peyr^re, ii, 196 sq.

Pfaff, ii, 258

Pfeiff, ii, 350

Pfeiffer, i, 472

Pheidias, i, 156

Pherekydes, i, 147

Philanthropic Institute, ii, 275

Philips, A., i, 7

Philiskos, i, 197

PhiUips, Stephen, quoted, ii, 74

Philo, i, 119, 333 ; cited, i, 180 «.

Philolaos, i, 149

Phoenicia, religious evolution in, i,

75 sq-. 99

freethought in, i, 78-9

Photinus, i, 247

Photius, i, 288

Phrenology, ii, 332, 3S2

Pico della Mirandola, i, 361, 362 sq.

Pierre Aureol, i, 402

Pierre d'Ailly, i, 349 «., 404

Piers Ploughman, vision of, i, 389

Pietism, ii, 262

Pietro of Abano, i, 348, 366

Pilkington, Bishop, cited, ii, 33

Pindar, i, 130-1

Pinkerton, cited, i, 294

Pirnensis, i, 438

Pitt, the elder, ii, 146, 169

the younger, ii, 177

Pius II, i, 356

IV, i, 423

V, i, 423 ; ii, 4

Plainer, ii, 302

Plato, i, 146, 165, 166, 168 sq.
Platonism, i, 227 sq., 361
VOL. II



Playfair, ii, 154

Pliny, i, 184, 207-8, 20^

Plotinus, i, 74

Plutarch, i, 140, 153, 155 k., 156,

180 »., 188-9
Poe, ii, 394
Poetry, Greek, i, 128
Poland, culture-history of, i, 4^7 ;

i!- SS. 308
Pole, Cardinal, i, 364 it.
Polybius, i, 187, 365 «
Polytheism, i, 42 sq., 59, 71, 226
Pomare, i, 35
Pombal, ii, 315
Pompeius, i, 203 n.
Pomponazzi, i, 367 sq. , 369
Pomponius Lsetus, i, 370
Poole, R. L., cited, i, 304
Pope, ii, 141-2, 150
Porphyry, i, 242-3
Porteous, Bishop, cited, ii, 180
Portugal, inquisition in, i, 316

freethought in, ii, 315

Posidonius, i, 245

Postell, ii, II

Potapenko, ii, 398

Pougens, ii, 226

Poushkine, ii, 398

Prades, Abbi5 de, ii, 2.22, 224, 225, 241

Praxeas, i, 233

Prayer, popular view of, i, 33

Preaching, early, i, 215 n.

Pr^montval, ii, 224, 225, 227

Press Licensing Act, ii, 99, log, 1 10

Prideaiix, ii, 108

Priestcraft, i, 26, 33 n.

Priesthoods, evolution of, i, 59) 6^'

69, 91, 136-7
Priestley, ii, 156, 343
Printing, rise of, i, 456, 457 H.
Proclus, i, 246
Prodikos, i, 165
Progress, i, 143
Prophecy, i, 107, 108, no
Prophets, Hebrew, i, 104 bq., 1 10 ^q.
Protagoras, i, 139, 157
Protestantism in Italy, i, 417 sq.
fortunes of, i, 425, 436, 455,

459, 469, 471. (See Reformation.)
Provence, civilisation of, i, 315, 317

sq.
Providence, popular view of, i, 33
Psammetichus, i, 132
Psychology, ii, 326, 381 sq.
Ptolemy, i, 184 n., 225 n.
PuflFendorf, ii, 307
Pulci, i, 358
Punjaub, ancient, freethought in, 1,

S3. 56

2G



45°



INDEX



Piinjer, cited, ii, 280, 281
Puritanism, ii, 89, 99, 317-8
Pusey, cited, ii, 262, 280
Pyrrho, i, 176-7, 187
Pyrrhonism, i, 186-7
Pythagoras, i, 139, 147 sq.; ii, 364
Pythagforeanism, i, 148 sq.

Quakers, ii, 222, 321
Quetzalcoatl, i, 88
Quinet, ii, 373, 384

Rabanus, i, 293, 298-9
Rabelais, i, 471 ; ii, 6 sq.
Rabia, i, 271

Race-character, theories of, i, 64,
101-2, I23sq., 174-5, 193, 417 sq..
448, 449
Raleigh, ii, 28 sq.
Ramsay, Chevalier de, ii, 209

W. M., cited, i, 126 n.

Ramus, ii, 60, 82-3
Ranke, cited, i, 415, 457 n.
Raoul de Houdan, i, 319
Rappolt, ii, 258
Rashdall, Dr., cited, 1,331, 370
Rastus, i, 25 n.

Rationalism and Rationalist, use of

terms, i, S, 8 ; ii, 95, 125, 285, 286

Rationalist Press Association, ii,

405 «.
Ratramnus, i, 296-7
Rawley, ii, 32
Rawlinson, Canon, cited, i, 69

Ray, John, ii, 108

Raymond Berenger, i, 319 sq.

of Sebonde, i, 408 ; ii, 16

Archbishop, of Toledo, i, 381

Raynal, ii, 211, 232, 253, 328

Reade, Winwood, ii, 326
Realism, philosophic, i, 146, 302 sq.,
402, 430

Reason, deification of, i, 213; ii,
248 sq.

religious defence of, i, 293

Reboult, ii, 212

Recared, i, 381

Rechenberg, ii, 259

Reformation, the, politically con-
sidered, i, 413 sq.

in Britain, i, 449 sq., 473 sq.

in France, i, 443 sq.

in Germany, i, 413 sq.

in Hungary, i, 433 sq.

in Italy, i, 417 sq.

in the Netherlands, i, 476 sq.

in Poland, i, 439 sq.

in Spain, i, 425

Reformers, anti-pagan, i, 237



Regis, ii, 194

Regnard, ii, 193

Reimarus, ii, 278, 284

Reimmann, i, 11

Reinach, i, 122 n.

Reinhard, ii, 339

Reinhold, i, 472

Religion and conquest, i, 43-5, 47

psychology of, i, 26

of lower races, influenceof, i,4;

Remigius. i, 297

Renaissance in Italy, freethough

in. i. 343 sq-

in France, i, 371, 396

in England, i, 371, 387 sq.

Renan, ii, 325, 350, 358, 381

cited, i, loi, 102, 209,274/1.

279 «-. 3.35. 348.. 353. 378
Ren^e, Princess, i, 421
Reuchlin, i, 413
Reuter, H., cited, i, 13, 293 n.
Riville, Dr. A., i, 88 n., 97
Revolution, French, ii, 179, 245 sq,

American, ii, 317

Rewandites, the, i, 264

Reynard the Fox, i, 372-3, 405

Rheticus, i, 472'

Richardson, cited, ii, 166

Richelieu, ii, 181

Richter, ii, 353

Riddle, i, 14, 15

Riem, ii, 274

Rihoriho, i, 35

Rings, the Three, i, 350

Ripley, G., ii, 373 n.

Ritchie, cited, ii, 164

Ritual and ritualism, i, 29

Rivarol, ii, 232, 250 sq. ; cited, i

209 ;;.
Roalfe, Matilda, ii, 331
Robertson, W., ii, 164

ProfessorCroom, cited, 11,83 )

Robespierre, ii, 232, 250

Robinet, ii, 226, 23S

Rolf Krake, i, 37

Roman religion, i, 193, 204 sq. , 20

law, i, 214

Romano, ii, 311,
Rome, papal, i, 311,354
Romilly, ii, 401
Ronsard, ii, 12
Roos, ii, 3

Roscelin, i, 302 sq., 328
Rose, roniaii de la, i, 373
Rossi, M. A. de, i, 370
Rousseau, J. B., ii, 215

J. J., ii, 211 sq.,2i8, 233, 2i

253



INDEX



451



Royal Society, ii, 95

Rudiger, ii, 272

Rudrauf, ii, 259

Rugre, ii, 370

Rum Bahadur, i, 25 n.

Rupp, ii, 340

Ruskin, ii, 391

Russia, ii, 306, 39S, 419 sq.

Rust, ii, 107

Ruteboeuf, i, 319

Rutherford, ii, 158

Rydberg, ii, 350

Ryswyck, i, 408

Sabbath, origin of, i, 1 1 1

Sabellius, i, 233

Sack, ii, 268 n.

Sacraments, Mexican, i, 87, 89

Sacred Books, i, 40-41, 137, 191, 215

Sacrifices, causation of, i, 49, 93 sq.

early disbelief in, i, 41, 49, 62,

85.89, 213

human, i, 63, 85, 87, 89

Sadducees, i, 120
Sadi, i, 272
Saga, ii, 4
Sahagun, i, 90
Sainte-Beuve, ii, 373, 386

cited, ii, 1S4 //.

St. Bartholomew, massacre of, ii, 13

St. Evremond, ii, 193

St. Glain, ii, 207 n,

St. Hilaire, B., cited, i, 57

Geoffrey, ii, 365

St. Simon, ii, 336

Saintsbury, cited, i, 373

Saisset, cited, ii, 375

Saladin, i, 350

Salaville, ii, 250

Sales, Deslisle de, ii, 211, 226

Salverte, ii, 379

Salvian, i, 239, 250

Samaritans.!, iii n.

Samoans, religion of, i, 34-35

Samson, ii, 278

Sanchez, ii, 60, 74

Sanchoniathon, i, 77

Sand, George, ii, 385

Sankara, i, 51

Saracen culture, i, 119, 274 sq., 319,

350. (See Arabs.)
Satan, i, 112, 1 14
Saturninus, i, 229
Satyre Menipp^e, ii, 20
Saul, i, loi
Saunderson, ii, 131
Savages, frecthought among, i, 32,

33sq.,38sq.,42
religion of, 1, 25, 30 ^q.



Savages, ethics of, i, 28

mental life of, i,'24 sq.

Savile, ii, 121

Saviour-Gods, i, 87

Savonarola, i, 351, 360, 363, 417 sq.

Sayce, cited, i, 62

Sayous, i, 13

Sbinko, i, 429

Scsevola, i, 200 n.

Scaliger, cited, ii, 5

Scandinavia, freethought in ancient,

'>37

in modern, ii, 399

Scaurus, i, 202

Sceptic. (See Skeptic.)

Schade, ii, 275

SchafHe, ii, 380

Schelling, ii, 303, 305, 369

Scherer, E., ii, 232, 386

Schiller, ii, 292

Schism, the Great Papal, i, 354 sq.

Schlegel, A., quoted, i, 163

Schleiermacher, ii, 305, 351

Schmidt, W. A., cited, "i, 12, 189,

204 «.. 210 n.
Schmidt, J. L. , ii, 266
Schmiedel, ii, 360

Scholastics, the, i, 302 sq., 333 sq.
Schoner, ii, 56
Schopenhauer, ii, 370
Schopp, ii, 70-1
Schrader, i, 126
Scliulz, ii, 287
Schiirer, i, 148
Schwartz, ii, 259
Schwegler, i, 192 n.
Schweizer, cited, i, 37 «.
Science, ancient, i, 61-3, 95, 13S,

140, 141, 149, 152, 157, 166, 175,

,84
Scot, Reginald, i, 3 ; n, 25, 203

' \V.,ii, 108

Scotland, Reformation in, i, 415, 450
freethought in, ii, loi, 158 sq.,

410 sq.
Scott, Thomas, ii, 325, 357

Walter, ii, 387

Secularism, ii, 331

Sedillot, cited, i, 257 ;;.

Segarelli, i, 37S sq.

Selden, ii, 91

Sembat, i, 289 n.

Semele, i, 126

Somites, religions of, i, 44, 97 sq.,

123 bq., 139 . ■ . o
theories concernmg, 1, 64, 00,

101-2
Semitic influence on Greeks, i,

122 sq., 138



452



INDEX



Semler, ii, 277 sq.

Seneca, i, 207, 214

Serre, De la, ii, 224

Serra, ii, 312 n.

Servetus, i, 461 sq. ; ii, 3, 378

Seton-Merriman, ii, 393

Sevign^, Madame de, i, 2 n. ; ii,

195
Sextus Empiricus, i, 186-7 ! ''' '4'

17, 30, 224
Shaftesbury, i, 6 ; ii, 109, 120, 132,

143, 149, 150, 168, 240

cited, i, 7 n.

Shakespeare, ii, 34 sq.

Sharpe, i, 113 ; ii, 344

Shelley, ii, 326, 386

Sherlock, W., i, 4 ; ii, 123, 149, 150

Shiites, the, i, 261 sq. , 281 n.

Sibylline books, i, 202 n.

Sichel, W. , criticised, ii, 171, 172

Sicily, culture of, i, 319, 337,, 344

Sidgfvvick, H., cited, ii, 91 n.

Sidney, A., ii, 95

Sidney, Sir P., ii, 64-5

Sifatites, the, i, 261

Sikhs, ii, 428

Silvanus, i, 289

Simeon Duran, Rabbi, i, 350

Simon de Montfort, 1, 321, 323, 324

Simon of Tournay, i, 326-7, 333

Simon, Richard, ii, 195 sq.

Simonides, i, 152

Simpson, cited, ii, 180

Simson, ii, 131

Sismondi, quoted, 1,329".; ii, 58 n.

Sixtus IV, i, 359, 367

Skelton, cited, ii, 166

Skeptic, meaning' of word, i, 12

Skepticism, academic, i, 183 sq.

Pyrrhonic, i, 12, 176-7

dialectic, among Christians, i,

479; ". 139. 14O1 188
popular, among Christians, i,

33. 479
Skytte, ii, 257
Slavery, Christianity and, i, 225

Paine and, ii, 320 n.

Smalbroke, ii, 149

Smith, Adam, ii, 162, 170, 376, 379

John, ii, 97

W. Robertson, i, 49, ■^59

S., i, 6

Smyrna, ancient, i, 124-5

Social causation, ii, 148, 153, 172,



Online LibraryJ. M. (John Mackinnon) RobertsonA short history of freethought ancient and modern; → online text (page 42 of 43)