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J. O. Braithwaite.

Year-book of pharmacy, comprising abstracts of papers relating to pharmacy, materia medica, and chemistry contributed to British and foreign journals .. online

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1928



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YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY

COMPRISING

ABSTRACTS OF PAPEES

RELATING TO

PHARMACY, MATERIA MEDICA, AND CHEMISTRY

CONTRIBUTED TO BRITISH AND FOREIGN JOURNALS,
FROM JULY 1, 1890, TO JUNB 30,

1891.



WITH THS

TEANSACTIONS

OF THS

BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL
CONFEBENCE

AT THB

TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING

aiu> AT

CARDIFF,
' AUGUST, 1891.



LONDON:
J. & A. CHURCHILL, 11, NEW BURLINGTON STREET.

MDCCOXCI.



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HARVARD CCLLFG? JBRARY
FROM T-' r i.'-RAj"v OF

NCVLf • . -»



YEAR-BOOK Of PHARMACY AND TRANSACTIONS

OF THS

Bntist) fftarmatetitfcal Conftrencr.

1890-91.



Committee of Publication.

E. C. C. STANFORD, P.I.O., F.C.S.,
President of the Conference, 1891-98.

W. MARTINDALE, F.O.S.
MICHAEL CARTEIGHE, F.I.C., F.C.S.
THOMAS B. GROVES, F.C.S.
RICHARD REYNOLDS, F.I.C., F.C.S.

W. A. H. NATLOR, F.I.C., F.C.S.,
Secretary to the Committee.



Editor of the Teae-Book.
LOUIS SIEBOLD, F.I.C., F.C.S.



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BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE.

OFFICERS FOB 1891-92.

PRESIDENT.

E. C. C. STANFORD, F.I.C., F.C.S., Dalmmr.

VICE-PRESIDENTS,

Who have filled the office of President.

Emeritus Prof. BENTLEY, F.L.S., M.R.CS., London.

THOMAS B. GROVES, F.CfiL, Weymomth.

Emeritus Prof. REDWOOD, Ph.D., F.LC, F.CS., BoTerton, Glam.

G. F. SCHACHT, F.I.C., F.C.S., Clifton, Bristol.

RICHARD REYNOLDS, F-I.C, F.CS., Leeds,

Prof. ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.LC, F.C.8., London.

J. B. STEPHENSON, Edinburgh.

THOMAS GREENISH, F.C.S., F.R.M.&, London.

S. R. ATKINS, J.P., SaKsbary.

F. B. BENGER, F.LC, F.CS., Manchester.

C UMNEY, F.I.C, F.CS., London.

W. MARTINDALE, F.CS., London.

ViCE-PEEMDENTS.

M. CARTEIGHE, F.I.O., F.C.S., London.
W. GILMOUR, F.R.S.E., Edinburgh.
J. C THRESH, M.B., D.Sc, Chelmsford.
J. B. YOUNG, J. P., Edinburgh.

Treasuerr.
R. H. DAYIES, F.I.C., F.O.S., London.

Honorary General Secretaries.
W. A. H. NAYLOR, F.I.C, F.CS., London.
F. RANSOM, F.CS., Hitchin.

Honorary Local Secretary.
PETER BOA, Edinburgh.

Other Members of the Executive Committer.
D. B. DOTT, F.R.S.E., Edinburgh. J. HODGKIN, F.I.C, F.CS., London.

J. L. EWING, Edinburgh. E. M. HOLMES, F.L.a, London.

A. W. GERRARD, F.CS., London. W. KIRK BY, F.R.M.S., Manchester.

Prof. GREEN, M.A., B.So, London. J. MUNDAY, Cardiff
ALFRED COLEMAN, Cardiff.

These Officers collectively constitute the Executive Committee. Three retire
annually, being eligible for re-election.

Assistant Secretary,
M. K. JOHNSON, London.

Auditors.
DAVID ANTHONY, Cardiff* and THOMAS THOMPSON, Edinburgh.

Honorary Colonial Secretaries.



For Bengal .
„ Bombay .
„ Canada .

„ Cape Colony and Natal
„ Madras .
„ New South Wales
„ New Zealand .
„ South Australia .
„ Tasmania
„ Victoria .
M West Indies .



C N. KERNOT, M.D., etc., Calcutta.

E. BEYNON, Bombay.

J. BEMROSE, F.CS., Montreal.

A. WALSH, Port Elisabeth.

D. HOOPER, F.CS., Ootacamund.

H. W. SADLER, New South Wales.

T. M. WILKINSON, Dunedin.

J. PARKER, Adelaide.

A. P. MILLER, Hobart.

H. SHILLINGLAW. Melbourne.

W. C ROSS, Port of Spain.



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THE

BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE

AN ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED IN 1863 FOB THE ENCOURAGE-
MENT OF PHABMACEUTICAL BESEABCH, AND THE PBOMOTION OF
FRIENDLY INTERCOURSE AND UNION AMONGST PHARMACISTS.



The most important ways in which a member can aid the objects of
the Conference are by suggesting subjects for. investigation, working
upon subjects suggested by himself or by others, contributing infor-
mation tending to throw light on questions relating to adulterations
and impurities, or collecting and forwarding specimens whose exa-
mination would afford similar information. Personal attendance at
the yearly gatherings, or the mere payment of the annual subscrip-
tion, will also greatly strengthen the hands of the executive.

A list of subjects suggested for research is sent to members early
in the year. Resulting papers are read at the annual meeting of the
members ; but new facts that are discovered during an investigation
may be at once published by an author at a meeting of a scientific
society, or in a scientific journal, or in any other way he may desire ;
in that case, he is expected to send a short report on the subject to
the Conference.

The annual meetings are usually held in the provinces, at the
time and place of the visit of the British Association ; that for
1892 will be held at Edinburgh.

Gentlemen desiring to join the Conference can be nominated at
any time on applying to the Secretary, or any other officer or
member. The yearly subscription is payable in advance, on July
1st. The amount, which includes free delivery of the Year-Book,
is 7s. 6d. for members residing in any European country, Canada,
or the United States of America. For those resident in other
countries, if the Year-Book be mailed direct to members, it is as
follows : — Australasian Colonies, 10*. ; South Africa, India, China,
and Japan, 9*. 6d. ; West Indies and Mauritius, 8s. lOd. Further
information may be obtained from

The Asst. Secretary; Brit. Pharm. Conf.,

17, Bloomabury Square, London, W.C.



THE YEARBOOK OP PHARMACY.
The Conference annually presents to members a volume of about
600 pages, containing the proceedings at the yearly meeting, and au
Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacy, or Year-Book, which
includes notices of all pharmaceutical papers, new processes, prepa-
rations, and formulae published throughout the world. The neces-
sary fund for accomplishing this object consists solely of the sub-
scriptions of members. The Executive Committee, therefore, call
on every pharmacist — principal, assistant, or pupil — to offer his
name for election, and on every member to make an effort to obtain
more members. The price of the Year-Book to non-members is
ten shillings. The constitution and rules of the Conference, and a
convenient form of nomination, will be found at page 319.



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LIST OP CONTENTS.



Introduction 1

Chemistry 19

Materia Medioa and Pharmacy 157

ffotes and Formula 267

Bibliography 299

Constitution and Boles of the British Pharmaceutical Conference .819

Honorary Members of the Conference 320

Foreign and Colonial Members 821

Home Members 327

Societies and Associations invited to send Delegates to the Annual Meeting 353

Presentation Copies of the Tear-Book, to whom forwarded . 355

list of Journals presented to the Conference 355

Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference .317

General Index 513



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INTRODUCTION.



In a summary of the leading contents of this volume, such as we
intend to give in its opening pages, we may fitly commence our
observations with a brief sketch of the recent contributions to the
chemistry of vegetable alkaloids, on account of the special interest
attaching to this subject from a pharmaceutical point of view. It
will be remembered that of late the investigation of these bodies
has not been confined to the study of their constitution and proper-
ties and the discovery of new members of this group, but that the
question has arisen whether some of the most important of their
number, hitherto accepted without doubt as the chief active con-
stituents of the respective medicinal drugs from which they are
obtained, have any existence in the latter at all, or whether they
are wholly or in part products of change formed in the process of
their extraction and purification. This tendency to transformation,
so strikingly illustrated in the case of the alkaloids of Atropa
belladonna, obviously renders the isolation of pure active plant
principles a task of increased difficulty and delicacy. Similar
changes, moreover, as are observed in the chemist's laboratory,
may also occur spontaneously in the drug on keeping, as well as in
the living plant under the influence of age, cultivation, and other
varying conditions. It is therefore not surprising that renewed
efforts to ascertain the real nature of such bodies as the mydriatic
bases pre-existing in the more important members of the Solanacece
should fail to show concordant results, notwithstanding the use of
every precaution on the part of the various investigators to avoid
alteration in the substances under examination. E. Schmidt and
M. Schtitte report that the alkaloid from young belladonna roots,
collected at different seasons from wild plants, proved to consist
entirely of hyoscyamine, whereas roots of not less than eight years
of age were found to yield chiefly hyoscyamine, with a .very small
proportion of atropine. Much hyoscyamine and very little atropine
were also detected by them in the leaves of uncultivated belladonna,

I B



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2 INTRODUCTION.

while the ripe fruit gave evidence of the presence of atropine only.
The keeping of dried belladonna root, even for long periods, did
not produce any change in the nature of the pre-existing alkaloid.
In stramonium seeds hyoscyamine was found to be associated with
small quantities of atropine and hyoscine. Of Duboisia leaves two
specimens were examined, one of which contained chiefly hyoscya-
mine, the other only hyoscine. In Solatium tuberosum. Solatium
nigrum, Lycium barbarum, and Nicotiana tabacum the same
authors succeeded in recognising traces of mydriatic bases
resembling those occurring in belladonna, but requiring further
study for their identification. It will be observed that the fore-
going results, with regard to the belladonna bases, are not in
accord with the experience of 0. Hesse, who found atropine to
predominate in the leaves, and to be entirely absent in a specim?n
of old roots. In his opinion, the amount of atropine in belladonna
is subject to great variations. A feature of special interest in his
recent investigation of the root is the discovery of a new base,
atropamine, possessing no mydriatic properties, and agreeing in
its formula with pure belladonnine, but differing from the latter
and all other belladonna alkaloids in forming readily crystallizable
haloid salts. The ease with which it is converted by hydrochloric
and other mineral acids into belladonnine, and subsequently into
pseudotropine and an acid, may account for the fact that its
existence has been hitherto overlooked. It should be added, how-
ever, that this new base does not appear to be a constant con-
stituent of belladonna root, that its proportion in different samples
of the wild root containing it varies considerably, and that it has
not been observed in the roots of cultivated belladonna or in the
leaves of either wild or cultivated plants. We conclude our refer-
ences to solanaceous alkaloids by mentioning that solanine has been
detected by M. E. Wotczal in no fewer than nine species of
Solatium, and in three of Scopolia ; and that the shoots thrown out
by potatoes kept in the dark have been found by A. Jorissen
and L. Grosjean to contain, in addition to solanine and solaneine,
a base of the formula C 26 H 41 N O g , identical in all respects with
solanidine obtained from solanine.

Some interesting light has been thrown on the chemical relation
between atropine and cocaine by A. Einhorn, who has obtained
tropidine among the decomposition products formed from anhydro-
ecgonine by the action of strong hydrochloric acid at high tempera-
tures. He regards a suitable process for the formation of tropine
from tropidine by the addition of the elements of water as the only



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INTRODUCTION. 3

step now wanting for effecting the conversion of cocaine into atro-
pine. Snccess in this direction is approached by A. Ladenbnrg's
recent observation, that a small quantity of tropine is formed from
tropidine on treating the latter with hydrobromic acid.

A new alkaloid, discovered in Conium maculatum, is reported
upon by E. Merck and A. Ladenburg, and is described under the
name pseudoconhydrine as a crystalline body isomeric with con-
hydrine, and, like the latter, belonging to the class of bodias
termed alkines. It is contained in small quantities in the hig'i
boiling portions of crude coniine, from which it may be separate 1
by fractional distillation in vacuo.

W. R. Dunstan and W. H. Ince have published the first of a
series of contributions to the chemistry of the aconite bases, in
which they deal chiefly with aconitine, the crystalline alkaloid of
Aconitum napeUxis. Extracted from the root with amyl alcoho 1 ,
and thoroughly purified, this body proved to have a composition
corresponding to the formula C 33 H 45 N0 1 2, which differs from
Wright and Luffs formula (CS3H43 N0 12 ) by two atoms of hydro-
gen. Contrary to the statements of previous observers, these
chemists find aconitine to be dextro-rotatory, though the hydrc-
bromide is laevo-rotatory. Their results with regard to tho
derivatives of aconitine confirm the existence of apoaconitine,
C S3 H 43 N O n , and aconine, C 86 H 41 N O n , previously described by
Wright and Luff. E. Richards and F. A. Rogers assign to aconi-
tine a formula contrasting materially with those already referred
to in the amount of nitrogen, while agreeing with the latter in tho
number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are in-
clined to assume the existence of two isomeric forms of aconitine,
differing essentially in their degree of toxicity. From two varieties
of Japanese aconite, presumably derived from Aconitum chinense,
A. Lubbe and 0. Lezius have isolated a crystallizable alkaloid
identical with aconitine from Aconitum napdlus.

Gytisine, the alkaloid obtained by Husemann and Marm6 from
the seeds of laburnum and other species of Cytisus, has been re-
investigated by A. Partheil, whose results seem to leave little
doubt as to the identity of this body with ulexine, the base pre-
pared by A. W. Gerrard and W. H. Symons from the seeds of
Ulex europoeus. This conclusion confirms an opinion to the same
effect already expressed by R. Robert on physiological grounds.
While ulexine is thus deprived of its claim to individuality, its
formula, C n H 14 N g O, is adopted for cy tisine in the place of the
one previously assigned to it.



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4 INTRODUCTION.

A further addition to the number of known opium bases has
been made by M. Kander's discovery of a new alkaloid occurring
in the drug in even smaller quantities than protopine, and sharing
with morphine and laudanine the property of being soluble in
solution of soda. It is described under the name of tritopine, and
is stated to crystallize in characteristic needle-like plates, fusing
at 182° C, and having a composition represented by the formula
C 42 H 64 N 2 7 . Protopine is now known to be not confined to
opium, but to occur also in the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis
and Chelidonium majus, in the former of which it is associated
with chelerythrine, sanguinarine, and homochelidonine, and in the
latter with chelidonine, chelerythrine, and homochelidonine. The
perfect identity of specimens of protopine prepared from these
three sources has been proved by G. KCnig.

Laurotetanine, a new crystalline base giving very characteristic
colour reactions, has been detected by M. Greshoff in a number of
plants belonging to different genera of the Laurinece. It is re-
ported to be a powerful poison, acting like strychnine on the spinal
cord, and, like the latter, producing tetanic spasms.

E. Grimauz and A. Arnaud have succeeded in effecting the
transformation of cupreine into quinine, and have fully confirmed
the inference drawn by 0. Hesse from a comparison of the formulas
of the two alkaloids that the latter (quinine) may be regarded as
the methyl ether of the former. By heating a solution of cupreine
in methyl alcohol with sodium and an excess of methyl chloride in
a sealed tube, they have obtained a base conforming to all the
physical and chemical characteristics of quinine. In an essay on
quinine, cinchonidine, and their isomers, 0. Hesse refers to the
differences between the two forms of anhydrous quinine, showing
among other points of distinction that the melting point of the
anhydride obtained by direct crystallization is 3° C. higher than
that of the base obtained by heating the dry hydrate or the ben-
zene compound. He regards ordinary quinine and the crystalline
anhydride as different isomeric forms, and proposes to distinguish
them by applying to the higher melting base the name homoquinine,
a term formerly appropriated for another substance by Howard
and Hodgkin, but now abandoned in that sense. He also deals
with the relations between cinchonidine and homocinchonidine,
giving a brief sketch of the history of this subject calculated to
clear up the confusion met with in chemical literature respect-
ing these two bases. M. Tarozyi calls attention to a compound
of quinine and albumen prepared from sulphate of quinine and



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INTRODUCTION. O

albuminate of soda by doable decomposition, and possessing the
property of not being decomposed by the strongest alkalies.

The conflicting statements of various observers as to the pro-
portion of emetine occurring in ipecacuanha, and the comparative
ignorance prevailing with regard to the other constituents of the
drug, have induced R. A. Cripps and A. Whitby to submit the
root to a general chemical analysis. Their results show that the
total quantity of alkaloid extracted by various solvents amounted
to 2*4 per cent., and that the other constituents consisted of saccha-
rose, dextrose, dextrin, a very large percentage of starch, a trace
of volatile oil, tannin, free fatty acid, neutral fat, various resins,



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