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CHIN/1 UNDER THE
EXPRESS DOUIdGER




J.O.P.BLrfND &
E.B/ICKHOU5E



GIFT OF
A. P. Morrison




CHINA UNDER THE
EMPRESS DOWAGER



CHINA UNDER THE EMPRESS DOWAGER

(SOME LONDON PRESS OPINIONS)

" Rarely is a book written round State papers which is at
once so sound in learning, so informing, and so fascinating to
read as this. It publishes for the first time documents which,
but for the diligence of the authors, would probably never have
come under English eyes ; it gives us an enthralling narrative
of the vicissitudes of feeling and policy in the Forbidden City
at the time of the Boxer rising and the attacks on the
Legations in Pekin ; and it comes as near as any book could to
explaining the enigmatic character of the Empress Dowager.
She was the Queen Elizabeth of the Chinese Throne. No one
who wishes to understand the China of the last half-century
we might say also the China of immemorial ages should leave
this book unread." The Spectator.

" For the first time this remarkable volume lifts the veil that
diplomacy had allowed to fall over the share of the Empress in
the events of 1900. It is a document more illuminating than
perhaps any that has ever come out of China. We see, as in
a looking-glass, the inner life of the Palace. It presents for
the first time a vivid and coherent picture of the whole career
and character of the masterful woman who was for half-a-
century a de facto ruler of the Chinese Empire. Historically
this document is of the highest importance." The Times.

"Of the greatest possible interest. The diary affords a
panorama of Chinese Court life in its most poignant moments,
such as without doubt has never before been offered to
European judgment. The whole of the historical narrative is
carefully wrought and closely argued ; the authorities consulted
are first-hand and valuable ; and the picture is always full of
movement and colour." The Daily Telegraph.

"The authors have done more than write an admirable
biography. They have given a picture, authoritative, in-
structive, and absorbingly interesting, of the tangled skein of
China's political vicissitudes in the last sixty years. And it is
out of the China of yesterday that the China of to-morrow
must emerge." The Daily News.

" We have the Empress Dowager to the life .... a vital,
arresting, commanding woman, whose word was law in China
for half-a-century. It is a narrative that holds one with an
intense fascination. This sober record of events surpasses in
interest the wildest fancies of romantic writers."

The Daily Chronicle.



, I , . I

, . . ,




[Frontispiece



THE " HOLY MOTHER," HER MAJESTY Tzu Ilsi.

(From a photograph taken in 1903)



CHINA UNDER THE
EMPRESS DOWAGER

BEING THE HISTORY OF THE LIFE
AND TIMES OF TZO HSI

COMPILED FROM STATE PAPERS

AND THE PRIVATE DIARY OF

THE COMPTROLLER OF

HER HOUSEHOLD



BY



I. O. P. BLAND AND E. BACKHOUSE
J \i



NEW AND REVISED CHEAPER EDITION



iJ.LUSTRAl F.D




BOSTON AND NEW YORK

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

1914



Printed in England



GIFT PF



PREFATORY NOTE

H.R.H. PRINCE HENRY OF PRUSSIA AT THE
COURT OF TZtf HSI

THE Authors have been honoured by the following com-
munication from His Royal Highness Prince Henry of
Prussia concerning his audience with the Empress
Dowager on the I5th of May 1898. The account herein
given of the circumstances which led to the first reception
of the ladies of the Diplomatic Body at the Court of
Peking is of permanent interest, and the Authors gratefully
avail themselves of the opportunity which presents itself,
in preparing the revised edition of this work, to make
it public.

"Whilst holding an appointment as Rear-Admiral,
Second in Command of the German Cruiser Squadron in
China in 1898, I had the opportunity of visiting Peking and
of being admitted to an audience before the late Empress
Dowager and the late Emperor.

" I was given to understand that an audience of this kind
was quite out of the common, and that no European had,
in the past, ever stood before a Chinese Empress so long
as Chinese history existed, but that it had been Her
Majesty's particular wish to receive me on this occasion,
probably much against the wishes of her advisers, though
perhaps her object was to prove that she was the sovereign
in power.

"The audience took place on the I5th of May 1898, at the
Summer Palace, Wan Shau-Shan, on which occasion all



M103880



vi PREFATORY NOTE

the pomp of a Chinese ruler was displayed ; the audience
with the Emperor took place after I had been to see the
Empress.

"The day before my reception, I had called on the
Foreign Ministers in Peking, making the acquaintance of
the British Minister, Sir Claude Macdonald and of Lady
Macdonald. They both showed a keen interest in next
day's event; so much so that, in the course of conversa-
tion, Lady Macdonald asked me if I would mind conveying
a message to the Empress Dowager on behalf of the ladies
of the Foreign Legations then residing in Peking. I con-
sented, whereupon Lady Macdonald requested me to ask
the Empress whether she would be willing to receive the
ladies of the Foreign Legations at any time, or on any day,
that would be convenient to Her Majesty. I promised I
would do my best, should a favourable opportunity present
itself, but that I could not, of course, guarantee my success,
knowing nothing of the circumstances under which I would
be received nor being sufficiently acquainted with Chinese
etiquette.

"The occasion did present itself, however, during a lull
in the conversation, when I shot my bolt and laid the
question before Her Majesty, who, after some consider-
able hesitation, answered that she was willing to receive
the ladies in about a fortnight or three weeks' time.

"On my return to Peking, this news was received with
much enthusiasm, and, as far as I recollect, the ladies were
received some three weeks afterwards. Should there be
any doubt about my statements, I am sure Sir Claude as
well as Lady Macdonald will confirm them.

"The reason why I mention these facts is that, at the
time, this interview created quite a sensation and was
looked upon as a new departure in Chinese history, which,
to the best of my knowledge, it was. Furthermore, I refer
to them because there is no mention of these proceedings
in the famous book China Under the Empress Dowager,
which otherwise contains so many interesting details of
the late Empress's life. Probably the Authors were



PREFATORY NOTE



v



ignorant of the aforesaid facts, which, I think, merit to
be related, inasmuch as they form a missing link in the
description of the life of that great and powerful ruler,
for whom, since I saw her, I always have had the greatest
admiration.



MSNBCS








"KIEL: February 1912."




CONTENTS
I



PACK

THE PARENTAGE AND YOUTH OF YEHONALA ... I



II
THE FLIGHT TO JEHOL ....... 13

III
THE TSAI YUAN CONSPIRACY ...... 26

IV
THE FIRST REGENCY ....... 40

V
TZG HSI AND THE EUNUCHS ...... 51

VI
MAJORITY AND DEATH OF THE EMPEROR T'UNG-CHIH . . 74

VII

.. 88



VIII
HSI BECOMES SOLE REGENT ..... IOO



IX

Tzt; HSI "EN RETRAITE" ...... 109



THE REFORM MOVEMENT OF 1898 . . . . .119

ix



x CONTENTS

XI

PAGB

THE HUNDRED DAYS OF REFORM ..... 128

XII
THE COUP D'ETAT OF 1898 ...... 136

XIII
TZU" HSI RESUMES THE REGENCY (1898) . . . .145

XIV
THE DIARY OF HIS EXCELLENCY CHING SHAN . . . 1 66

XV

THE FLIGHT FROM PEKING AND THE COURT IN EXILE . .217

XVI

THE OLD BUDDHA PENITENT 235

XVII
THE RETURN OF THE COURT TO PEKING .... 242

XVIII

HER MAJESTY'S NEW POLICY 258

XIX

HER MAJESTY'S LAST DAYS . . . . . .270

XX

TZtJ HSI'S DEATH AND BURIAL ...... 290

XXI

CONCLUSION . . . . , . . . . . 297
INDEX 317



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

THE "HOLY MOTHER," HER MAJESTY TZU HSI . Frontispiece

MAP OF PEKING p. xiv-XV

To face page
THE REGENT PRINCE CH'UN, WITH HIS TWO SONS, THE

YOUNG EMPEROR (STANDING) AND PRINCE P'U CHIEH . 4

THE IMPERIAL DAIS IN THE CHIAO-T'AI HALL . . 1 6

HER MAJESTY TZU HSI IN THE YEAR 1903 . . . . 32

EXTERIOR OF THE CH'lEN CH'lNG PALACE .... 42

H.M. TZtf HSI, WITH THE CONSORT (LUNG Yt)) AND PRINCIPAL
CONCUBINE (CHIN FEl) OF H.M. KUANG-HSU, ACCOMPANIED
BY COURT LADIES AND EUNUCHS .... 58

INTERIOR OF THE I KUN KUNG IOO

CIRCULAR THRONE HALL IN THE GROUNDS OF THE LAKE

PALACE LOOTED BY ALLIED TROOPS IN IQOO . .142

PAVILION ON LAKE TO THE WEST OF FORBIDDEN CITY . . 142

FACSIMILE OF A FRAGMENT OF THE DIARY . . . p. 211

To face page
MARBLE BRIDGE IN THE GROUNDS OF THE LAKE PALACE . 226

IN THE GROUNDS OF THE PALACE IN THE WESTERN PARK . 226

HIS HIGHNESS PRINCE TSAI HSUN ..... 242

xi



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

To j

H.M. THE EMPRESS DOWAGER AND LADIES OF HER COURT (1903) 256

VIEW, FROM THE K*UN MING LAKE, OF THE SUMMER PALACE 278

THE EMPRESS DOWAGER, WITH THE CHIEF EUNUCH, LI LIEN-

YING ......... 282

THE SON OF HEAVEN . . ... . . . 286

PORTRAIT OF THE EMPRESS DOWAGER .... $O2

THE IMPERIAL DAIS IN THE CH'lEN CH'lNG HALL . .316



INDEX TO NUMBERED MAP OF PEKING



(1) Tung Hua Men, the East Gate

Glorious. This is the usual
entrance to the Forbidden
City for officials attending
audience when the Court is
there resident. (It was here
that was suspended in a
basket the head of the
foreigner captured by the
Boxers on 2oth June.)

(2) Huang Chi Tien, or Throne

Hall of Imperial Supremacy.
In this Hall the Empress
Dowager, after the return of
the Court from exile, was
accustomed to receive her
officials in audience on the
rare occasions when she lived
in the Forbidden City. It
was here that her remains lay
for nearly a year awaiting the
day of burial.

(3) Ning Shou Kung, or Palace

of Peaceful Longevity. Here
the Old Buddha resided during
the siege; here she buried
her treasure. She returned
hither after the days of exile
and lived in it pending the
restoration of the Lake Palace,
desecrated by the foreign
occupation.

(4) Chien Ching Kung, or Palace

of Heavenly Purity. The
Hall in which China 's Emperors
were accustomed to give
audience to the Grand Council.
After the Boxer rising, in
accordance with the new
ceremonial laid down by the
Peace protocol, the Diplo-
matic Body were received
here. In this Hall the Em-
peror Kuang Hsu discussed
and decided with K'ang Yu-
wei the reform programme of
1898, and it was here that
his body lay awaiting sepulture
between November 1898 and
February 1909.

(5) Shea Wu Men, or Gate of



Divine Military Genius.
Through this, the Northern
gate of the City, the Old
Buddha fled in the dawn of the
1 5th August 1900.

(6) The Rock Garden in which Her

Majesty used to walk during
the days of the siege of the
Legations and from which she
witnessed the burning of the
Han-lin Academy.

(7) Yang Hsin Tien, or Throne
Hall of Mental Growth. In
this Palace the Emperor T'ung-
Chih resided during the whole
of his reign.

(8) Hsi Hua Men, or West Gate

Glorious. One of the main
entrances to the Forbidden
City.

(9) Tai Ho Tien, Throne Hall of

Exalted Peace. Used only
on occasions of High cere-
mony, such as the accession
of a new Emperor, an Im-
perial birthday celebration,
or the New Year ceremonies.

(10) Shou Huang Tien, or Throne
Hall of Imperial Longevity.
In this building the reigning
sovereign unrolls on the day
of the New Year the portraits
of deceased Emperors, and
pays sacrifice to them.

(n) Hsi Yuan Men, Western Park
Gate. It is through this that
the Grand Council and other
high officials pass to audience
when the sovereign is in resi-
dence at the Lake Palace.

(12) At this gate the Emperor was
wont to await, humbly kneel-
ing, the arrival of the Old
Buddha on her way to or
from the Summer Palace.

(13) The Altar of Silkworms, at

which the Empress Consort
must sacrifice once a year, and
where the Old Buddha sacri-
ficed on occasion.
(14 A Lama Temple where the



xni



o





D



LU



I



xvi INDEX TO NUMBERED MAP OF PEKING



Old Buddha frequently wor-
shipped.

(15) Ta Hsi Tien, the Temple

of the Great Western Heaven.
A famous Buddhist shrine
built in the reign of the Em-
peror Kang Hsi.

(16) The Old Catholic Church built

within the Palace precincts
by permission of the Emperor
Kang-Hsi. It was converted
by the Empress Dowager into
a Museum in which was kept
the collection of stuffed birds
made by the missionary Pere
David. Eye-witnesses of the
siege of the French Cathedral
in 1900 have stated that the
Empress and several of the
ladies of the Court ascended
to the roof of this building
to watch the attack on the
Christians ; but it is not likely
that they exposed themselves
for any great length of time
in what must have been a
dangerous position.

(17) Tzu Kuang Ko, Throne Hall

of Purple Effulgence. The
building in which the Emperor
is wont to receive, and enter-
tain at a banquet, the Dalai
and Panshen Lamas and cer-
tain feudatory chiefs. Before
1900 Foreign Envoys were also
received here.

(i 8) Ching Cheng Tien, or Throne
Hall of Diligent Government.
Used for the audiences of
the Grand Council when the
Court was in residence at the
Lake Palace.

(19) Li Yuan Tien, Throne Hall of

Ceremonial Phoenixes. Part
of the Empress Dowager's
new Palace, built for her in
the early years of Kuang
Hsu's reign. Here she re-
ceived birthday congratu-
lations when resident at the
Lake Palace, and here she
gave her valedictory audience,
just before her death.

(20) Ying Tai, or Ocean Terrace,

where the Emperor Kuang
Hsu was kept under close
surveillance after the coup
d'ttat in 1898, and which he
never left (except on one
occasion when he attempted



to escape) between September
1898 and March 1900. By
means of a drawbridge, this
Ocean Terrace was made a
secure place of confinement.
After the return of the Court
in 1902, His Majesty lived
here again, but under less
restraint, and it was here that
he met his death.

(21) At this point stood the high

mound which Her Majesty
is reported to have ascended
on the night of i3th June
1900, to watch the conflagra-
tions in various parts of the
city.

(22) The White Pagoda, built in

the time of the Yuan dynasty
(circa 1290 A.D.), when the
artificial lake was also made.

(23) Wan Shou ssu, the Temple

of Imperial Longevity. Here
the Empress was accustomed
to sacrifice on her journeys
to and from the Summer
Palace.

(24) The residence of Ching Shan,

where the Diary was written.

(25) The residence of Wen Lien,
Comptroller of the Household
and friend of Ching Shan.

(26) Residence of Jung Lu.

(27) Place of the Princess Imperial,

the daughter of Prince Kung,
whom the Empress Dowager
adopted.

(28) Birthplace of the present in-

fant Emperor, Hsiian T'ung,
son of Prince Ch'un and grand-
son of Jung Lu. In accord-
ance with prescribed custom,
it will be converted into a
shrine.

(29) Birthplace of H.M. Kuang

Hsu. Half of this building
has been converted into a
shrine in honour of HisMajesty
and the other half into a
memorial temple to the first
Prince Ch'un, grandfather of
the present infant Emperor.

(30) Pewter Lane, where Yehonala

was born.

(31) Palace of Duke Chao, younger

brother of Tzu Hsi.

(32) Palace of Duke Kuei Hsiang,

elder brother of Tzu Hsi
and father of the present
Empress Dowager.



INDEX TO NUMBERED MAP OF PEKING xvii



(33) At this point was erected the

scaffolding from which guns
were trained on the Legations.
The soldiers on duty here
were quartered in the house
of Ching Shan.

(34) The execution ground where

were put to death the Re-
formers of 1898 and the
Ministers who, in 1900, pro-
tested against the attack on
the Legations.

(35) The residence, in 1861, of

Tsai Yuan, hereditary Prince
Yi, who was put to death by
Tzu Hsi for usurping the
Regency.

(36) Residence of Tuan Hua, the
Co-Regent with Tsai Yuan,
also allowed to commit suicide
in 1861.

(37) The Imperial Clan Court, in

which is the " Empty Cham-
ber," where the usurping
Princes met their deaths.

(38) Residence of the " Beileh "

Tsai Ying, son of Prince Kung,
cashiered for complicity in
the Boxer rising.

(39) The site of the Chan-Ta-ssu,

a famous Lama Temple, de-
stroyed by the French in 1900
for having been a Boxer
drilling ground.

(40) Residence of the Chief Eunuch,

Li Lien-ying.

(41) Now the Belgian Legation

premises, but formerly the
residence of the Boxer pro-
tagonist, Hsu T'ung, that
fierce old Imperial Tutor whose
ambition it was to have his
cart covered with the skins
of foreign devils.

(42) The Imperial Canal, by way

of which the Old Buddha
used to proceed in her State
barge to the Summer Palace.

(43) The graves of the Empress

Dowager's parents. They are
adorned with two marble
pillars, bearing laudatory in-
scriptions.

(44) Here was erected the tem-

porary railway station at
which the Empress alighted
on her return from exile.

(45) In the north-west corner of

the enceinte of the Chien Men,
a shrine at which the Empress



Dowager and the Emperor sac-
rificed to the tutelary god
of the dynasty (Kuan Yii),
the patron saint of the
Boxers.

(46) At this point many Christians

were massacred on the night
of the 1 3th June 1900.

(47) Palace of Prince Chuang, the

Boxer leader, mentioned by
Ching Shan as the place where
the Christians were tried.

(48) Residence of Yuan Ch'ang,

where he was arrested for
denouncing the Boxers.

(49) Residence of the Grand Secre-

tary, Wang Wen-shao.

(50) Residence of Yang Li-shan,

the President of the Board
of Revenue, executed by
order of Prince Tuan.

(51) Residence of Duke Lan, the

Boxer leader. At present
occupied by Prince Pu Chiin,
the deposed Heir to the
Throne and a most notorious
reprobate.

(52) Tzu Ning Kung, or Palace of

Maternal Tranquillity, where
the Empress Dowager Tzu
An resided during most of
the years of the Co-Regency.

(53) Chang Ch'un Kung, or Palace

of Perpetual Spring, where
Tzu Hsi resided during the
reign of T'ung Chih.

(54) Residence of the actors engaged

for Palace performances;

(55) The Nei Wu Fu, or Imperial

Household Department
Offices.

(56) The Taoist Temple (Ta Kao

Tien), where the Emperor
prays for rain or snow.

(57), (58) In these two Palaces
resided the chief Imperial
concubines. After Tzu Hsi's
resumption of the Regency in
1898, Kuang Hsu and his
consort occupied small apart-
ments at the back of her
Palace, on the brief visits of
the Court of the Forbidden
City.

(59) Chung Ho Tien, or Throne
Hall of Permanent Harmony.
Here H.M. Kuang Hsu was
arrested in September 1898
and taken away to confine-
ment in the " Ocean Terrace."



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF HIGH OFFICIALS

AND

OTHER PERSONAGES MENTIONED IN THIS BOOK

(1) Prince Tun (" generous ") : honorific title of Yi Tsung,

fifth son of Emperor Tao Kuang. He was adopted to
be son to his uncle, Mien K'ai, son of Emperor Chia-ch'ing
(1796-1820).

(2) Prince Tuan (" orthodox ") : honorific title of Tsai Yi,

second son of Prince Tun ; he was adopted to be son of
I-Yo, Prince Jui, grandson of Chia-ch'ing.

(3) Duke Tsai Lan : third son of Prince Tun, a Boxer leader.

(4) Prince Rung (" respectful ") : honorific title of Yi Hsin,

sixth son of Tao Kuang. Born Jan. n, 1833, died May
29, 1898.

(5) Prince Ch'un (" generous ") : seventh son of Tao Kuang.

Born Oct. 16, 1840. Died Jan. i, 1891.

(6) Tsai T'ien : the Emperor Kuang Hsu, second son of Prince

Ch'un. Canonized as Emperor " Virtuous and Illus-
trious " ; Married Yehonala, daughter of Duke Kuei
Hsiang, who survives him and is now the Empress
Dowager Lung Yu (" blessed and prosperous ").

(7) Tsai Feng : the present Regent. Third son of Prince Ch'un

by a concubine. (His personal name is taboo.)

(8) P'u Yi : Emperor Hsiian-Tung, son of (7).

(9) P'u Lun : son of Tsai Chung ; is now president of National

Assembly. In the legitimate line of succession he was
the rightful heir to the Throne.

(10) Duke Tsai Tse : grandson of Prince Hui, the fifth son of
Emperor Chia Ch'ing. He married the Empress Lung
Yii's sister. Is generally considered one of the strongest
Manchus now in office.

(n) Beileh Tsai Ch'u : son of Prince Fu (" trustworthy "), ninth
son of Emperor Tao Kuang. Cashiered and imprisoned
by Tzti Hsi at the time of the coup d'etat; restored to
office by Regent on the same day that Yuan Shih-k'ai was
dismissed. He married Tzii Hsi's favourite niece.

xix



xx LIST OF HIGH OFFICIALS

(12) Prince Su (" reverential ") : descended from a younger son

of Nurhachu. He is one of the eight " Iron-capped "
Princes, whose titles are hereditary for ever.

(13) Prince Cheng (" sedate ") : named Tuan Hua, one of the

usurping Regents. An " Iron-capped " Prince and de-
scendant of Nurhachu.

(14) Prince Yi (" harmonious ") Tsai Yuan : one of the usurping

Regents. Descended from younger son of K'anghsi.

(15) Jung Lu : kinsman and favourite official of Tzii Hsi.

(16) Huai Ta Pu (son of Grand Secretary Jui Lin, who com-

manded the Manchu force at the battle of Pa-li-chiao
against the British and French forces in 1860) : a kinsman
of Tzii An. He committed suicide in 1900, overcome
by his grief and wrath at being forced by the Japanese
troops to work at carting sand amongst a crowd of
coolies.

(17) Kuei Hsiang : Duke Kuei, younger brother of Tzii Hsi and

father of Lung Yii.

(18) Duke Chao : younger brother of Tzii Hsi and father of

Duke Te\

(19) The Princess Imperial, or Ta Kung chu : daughter of

Prince Kung (No. 4 above). Specially adopted as
daughter by Tzii Hsi; now a widow with three sons,
all holding appointments in the army.

(20) Lady Liu : wife (originally concubine) of Jung Lu. The

Empress Dowager's closest friend.

(21) Po Chiin : Grand Secretary. Decapitated as the result of

Su Shun's jealousy in Hsien Feng's reign; grandfather
of Na T'ung.

(22) Na T'ung : Grand Councillor and present head of Foreign

Office. Probably the most powerful of the Regent's
advisers and the head of his party.

(23) Ch'i Ying : was Manchu viceroy of Canton after Treaty of

Nanking; was allowed to commit suicide, at Yehonala's
suggestion, for failing to procure withdrawal of the
foreign warships from Tientsin in 1856. He was con-
sidered to have leanings to Christianity, which made
him the more unpopular.

(24) Su Shun : one of the usurping Regents of the Tsai Yuan

conspiracy.

(25) Chon Tsu-p'ei : Grand Secretary during ist regency.
26) Kuei Liang : Grand Secretary during ist regency.



LIST OF HIGH OFFICIALS xxi

(27) Ho Shen : the famous Grand Secretary under the Emperor

Ch'ien Lung, who was allowed to commit suicide by Chia
Ch'ing. Said to have accumulated 14,000,000 in
bullion.

(28) Ching Shan : Grand Councillor on Tung-Chih's succession.

(29) Mu-Yin : Grand Councillor on T'ung-Chih's succession.

(30) Muyanga : sometime Taotai in Kuangsi ; father of Empress

Tzu An, and benefactor of Tzti Hsi.

(31) Ch'ung Ch'i : father of A-lu-te and tutor to Heir Apparent,

P'u Ch'iin. Was President of Board of Revenue; his
suicide was recorded by Jung Lu.

(32) Prince Chuang, Tsai Hsiin (Chuang, honorific title, meaning

" austere ") : a Boxer prince and descendant of younger
son of Nurhachu.

(33) Tsai Rung, Duke Rung : younger brother of Prince Chuang,

and now inheritor of latter 's title. Tzii Hsi restored the
hereditary princedom on the ground that it would be an
insult to Nurhachu's memory if it were abolished.

(34) Ruei Pao : Minister of Household under T'ung-Chih.

(35) Wen Hsi : Minister of Household under T'ung-Chih.

(36) Ruei Ching : uncle of Tuan Fang ; Minister of Household.

(37) Tuan Fang : ex- Viceroy ; cashiered in 1909. It is recorded

that on one occasion the Empress Lung Yii, observing
that he stared at her, exclaimed : " Had her late Majesty
been in my place, where would your head have been ! "
Tuan Fang is unpopular with Manchus for his outspoken-
ness. At the time of his cashiering, was impeached by
Li Hung-Chang's eldest grandson and heir, Li Ruo-chieh
(now Minister at Brussels). He lives in retirement, but
is said to be intriguing to secure Lung Yii's favour
and a post in the new cabinet.

(38) Ch'en Tu-en : one of Hsien Fing's high officials ; removed

from office by Tzii Hsi.

(39) An Te-hai : favourite eunuch of Tzii Hsi ; decapitated in

Shantung by orders of her Co-Regent, the Empress
Tzu An.

(40) An Wei-chun : Censor, removed from office and banished

at Tzu Hsi's instigation, in 1895, for criticising her private
life, Restored to office in October 1910 by the Regent,
and given a high place at Court.



Online LibraryJ. O. P. (John Otway Percy) BlandChina under the empress dowager; being the history of the life and times of Tzu Hsi → online text (page 1 of 31)