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THE

HISTORY

or NATIONS



AFRICA






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THE HISTORY OF NATIONS

HENRY CABOT LODGE,Ph.n.LLD.,n)ITOR-lN-CHIEF



AFRICA

by

JSCOTTKELTIC.LL.D.

President of the Royal Geographical Society

Revised and E^dited
by

ALBERT GALLOWAY RELLLRPhD,

Professor of the Science of Society
Yale University



Volume XIX




Illustrated



The H .W. Snow and Son Company

C li i c- a s? o



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lollX I). MORRIS .K: COMI'AXN'



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J



THE HISTORY OF NATIONS

EDlTOR-IN CHIEF

HENRY CABOT LODGE, PLD., L.L.D.
Associate Editors and Authors

ARCHIBALD HERRT SAYCE. LL.D.. SIR ROBERT K. DOUGLAS,

Profeuor of Aisyriolouy, Oxford Uni- Professor of Chinese, King's College, Lon-



veruly



don



JEREMIAH WHIPPLE JENKS. Ph.D., LL.D..
CHRISTOPHER JOHWSTOH. M.D.. Ph.D.. Professor of Political Economy and Pol-

Auociate Professor of Oriental History and itics, Cornell University

Archaeology, Johns liopkins University

KARICHI ASAKAWA, Ph.D.,

r- jtt n riwAH it n Instructor in the History of Japanese

t. W. t. UMAn, LL.u.. Civilization, Yale University



Profeor of History, Oxford University



WILFRED HAROLD MUNRO, Ph.D.,



THEODOR MOMMSEN. ^'university '"'"^^P**" "'*'^^- ^''



G. MERCER ADAM,

Historian and Ivditor



Late Professor of Ancient History. Uni-
versity of Berlin



ARTHUR C. HOWLAND, Ph.D.,

^sX"ma"' "^ ""'"''' ^'"'''"''^ "^ ^'"- FRED MORROW FLING, Ph.D..

Professor of Kurojjean History, University
of Nebraska

CHARLES MERIVALE, LL.D.,

Late I>ean of Ely, formerly Lecturer in FRATi^OIS AUGUSTS MARIE MIGWET,

History, Cumbrid({c University Late .Member of the French .Academy

JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSON, Ph.D.,
J. HIOGINSOrr CABOT. Ph.D.. Department of History, University of

Depaitrnent of History, Wellesley College Chicago

SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER, LL.D.,
SIR WILLIAM W. HUNTER. F.R.S., Professor of .Modern History, King's Col-

I-ite Dirrc tor (".er.i-rul of Statistics in India lege. London

R. W. JOYCE, LL.D.,
GEORGE M. DUTCHER, Ph D.. Commissioner for the Publication of th.

Profevior of Hutory. Wesleyan University Ancient Laws of Ireland



ASSOCIATE EDITORS AND AUTHORS-Continued



JUSTIN McCarthy, ll.d..

Author and Historian



PAUL LOUIS LEGER,

Professor of the Slav Languages, C<5lleg;8
de France



AUGUSTUS HUNT SHEARER, Ph.D.,

Instructor in History. Trinity College. WILLIAM E. LIN8LEBACH, Ph.D.,

Hartford Assistant Professor of European History,

University of Pennsylvania

W. HAROLD CLAFLIN, BJi.,

Department of History. Harvard Uni- BAYARD TAYLOR,



versjty



Former United States Minister to Germany



CHARLES DANDLIKER, LL.D..

President of Zurich University



SIDNEY B. FAY, Ph.D

Professor of History, Dartmouth College



ELBERT JAY BENTON. Ph.D.,

Dartment
University



Department of History, Western Reserve
tJr



SIR EDWARD S. CREASY,

Late Professor of History. University Col-
lege, London



ARCHIBALD CARY COOLIDGE, Ph.D.,

Assistant Professor of History, Harvard
University



WILLIAM RICHARD MORFILL, M.A.,

Professor of Russian and other Slavonic
Languages, Oxford University



CHARLES EDMUND FRYER, Ph.D.,

Department of History, McGill University

E. C. OTTE,

Specialist on Scandinavian History



J. SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D.,

President Royal Geographical Society



ALBERT GALLOWAY KELLER, Ph.D.,

Assistant Professor of the Science of So-
ciety, Yale University



EDWARD JAMES PAYNE. M.A.,

Fellow of University College, Oxford



PHILIP PATTERSON WELLS, Ph.D.,

Lecturer in History and Librarian of tha
Law School, Yale University



FREDERICK ALBION OBER,

Historian, Author and Traveler



JAMES WILFORD GARNER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Political Science, University
of Illinois



EDWARD S. CORWIN, Ph.D.,

Instructor in History, Princeton Uni-
versity



JOHN BACH McMASTER, Litt.D., LL.D.,

Professor of History, University of Pexm-
sylvania



JAMES LAMONT PERKINS, MiM^ini Editor



The editors and publishers desire to express their appreciation for valuable
advice and suggestions received from the following: Hon. Andrew D. White,
LL.D., Alfred Thayer Mahan, D.C.L., LL.D., Hon. Charles Emory Smith,
LL.D., Professor Edward Gaylord Bourne, Ph.D., Charles F. Thwing,
LL.D., Dr. Emil Reich, William Elliot Griffis, LL.D., Professor John
Martin Vincent, Ph.D., LL.D., Melvil Dewey, LL.D., Alston Ellis, LL.D..
Professor Charles II. McCarthy, Ph.D., Pr<jfessor IIer.man V. Ames, Ph.D.,
Professor Walter L. Fleming, Ph.D., Professor David Y. Thomas, Ph.D.,
Mr. Otto Reich and Mr. O. M. Dickerson.

vii



PREFACE

The activities of the editor of this volume have been confined to
the following lines: the excision or condensation of such passages
as are, for various reasons, of less value to the general reader ; the
tempering of the admittedly chauvinistic attitude and bias charac-
teristic of the book ; the substitution of more recent figures, and the
addition of certain details in the main body of the text, and
bibliography; and finally the interpolation of a chapter (XVIII)
which attempts to summarize in an impartial manner the main
events which have taken place since the author printed his
second edition, in 1895. The author, though cognizant of the
present undertaking, is in no way responsible for such omissions or
additions as have been made with a view to adapting his volume to
the use of the general American public.

The once " Dark Continent " has been, in our own day, the
scene of international rivalries and concessions, heartburning and
complacency, successes and failures on a scale hitherto unknown in
the history of the world. The conditions of African development
have called into action variations of human activity, individual and
governmentalj of the most picturesque nature. Africa is no longer
the " Dark Continent," knowledge of which is regarded as a sort of
interesting specialty it is time that every reasonably educated man
should be conversant with the main facts of its history if he is to be
fitted to hold an opinion regarding the status and future of one of
humanity's greatest and most momentous enterprises.



{jMut^. /^^-iU-



Yale University



CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I. North Africa From the Ancients to the Arabs

2000 B. C.-1800 A. D.
II. The Portuguese in Africa. 1364- 1580

III. The Beginning of Rivalry. 1520-1769

IV. Stagnation and Slavery. 1700- 181 5

V. The Position in 181 5 .....
VI. Sixty Years of Preparation. 1815-1875
VII. Preliminaries to Partition. 1875-1883
VIII. England, France, and Portugal in Africa. 1875

1884

IX. Germany Enters the Field. 1884
X. Germany in the Cameroons and the Gulf of

Guinea. 1884

XI. The Berlin Conference and the Congo Free

State. 1884-1910

XII. German East Africa. 1865-1910

XIII. The Struggle for the Niger. 1817-1910

XIV. German Progress in West Africa. 1865-1910
XV. British East Africa. 1886-1910

XVI. The Italian Sphere and the Islands. 1875-1910
XVII, British Central and South Africa. 1877-1895

XVIII. Africa Since 1895

XIX. The Economic Value of Africa

Appendix

Bibliography ..........

Index ......



3
15
27

35
42

47
58

71

86

105

114
127

147
172
182
207
214

245
286

315
319
329



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



In the Heart of Darkest Africa (Photogravure) Frontispiece



David Livingstone .......

The Murder of Gordon ......

In the Country of the Tuaregs ....

Battle off Omdurman ......

Lobengula Warriors Assagai ng an English Trooper
The Sultan of Morocco on his Way to the Kutubia
Mosque ........

The Battle of Tel-el-Kebir .....

Dr. Jameson's Raid into the Transvaal



FACING PAGE

52
84
152

206
220



246

266
278



TEXT MAPS

Africa according to Herodotus. 456 b.c. .

Voyages and Discoveries along the African Coast

Africa. 181 5 .....

The Congo Region ....

The Gulf of Guinea ....

Africa after the Berlin Conference

The Niger Region ....

East Africa .....

The Italian Sphere ....

British Central and South Africa .

Railroads and Water Highways of Africa



PAGE

8

19

43

73

108

118

148

187

211

230

299



xiii



HISTORY OF AFRICA



HISTORY OF AFRICA



Chapter I

NORTH AFRICA FROM THE ANCIENTS TO THE ARABS.
2000 B. C.-1800 A. D.

THE African continent is no recent discovery; it is not a
new world like America or Australia. It enters into the
oldest traditions and the most ancient history. While yet
Europe was the home of wandering barbarians, long before Abra-
ham left his father's fields or the Phoenicians had settled on the
Syrian coast, one of the most wonderful civilizations on record had
begun to work out its destiny on the banks of the Nile. It does not
enter into the scope of this work to discuss the origin or trace the
history of Egypt; it is enough for us that the continent on which
the oldest, or, at least, one of the oldest, civilizations was born and
was developed through thousands of years is even now less known
than a continent discovered four hundred years ago, and has only
during the past few years been taken seriously in hand by the
peoples who have the making of the world's commerce and the
world's history.

Let us briefly trace the earliest efforts made to appropriate the
African continent by those whose interests have extended beyond
their own homes. Ages before the seed of Egyptian civilization
was sown, humanity had begun to pour in from Asia, and the north
coast of Africa must have been peopled by a race whicli formed the
basis of the Berber population of the present day. But these were
wandering barbarians, just as were the pigmies, the Zulus, the
Hottentots, farther south. The portion of Africa on which the
Egyptians flourished for ages was even to a late period regarded
as a part of Arabia. The Egyptians are not generally credited with
being great navigators till the time of the Ptolemies; except along
the coastland of the Mediterranean, tlicir knowledge of Africa west-
ward was probably limited to the Nile valley. Very early in their



4 AFRICA

2000-1100 B. C.

history, as early, probably, as 2000 b. c, they had dealings with
I''thiopia (the country g^ciicrally lying south of l^gyi)t projier, in-
chuling Xubia. Xorthcni Abyssinia, and possibly Kordofan), and
so their knowledge of the river may have extended as far as the site
of Khartum. Let us realize how* vague were the notions of both
the Circeks and the Romans of central and northern h.urope, and of
Asia l)eyond India and Persia. For untold ages the Old World
knew ncUhing of the Xew, and only half a century ago the map of
Central Africa was for Furopeans. so far as anylliing like even
approximately accurate knowledge goes, a l)lank from 10 nortli
latitude to the confines of the Cape Colony. It is about forty years
since we (obtained any certain knowledge of those great lakes which
from an early period were rumored to exist in the center of the
continent. It is only a little over twenty-five years since the course
of Africa's greatest river was traced out by Stanley.

If. then, four hundred years after the discovery of a new con-
tinent, witli all tlie intense eagerness of the modern world for
increasing knowledge, with half a dozen great nations representing
some 200.000.000 of the most advanced peoples of the eartli keenly
comjieting in the exploration of the world and in the accpiisition of
wealth and c^f power, we are still ignorant of great areas in Central
Africa, need we be suqorised that the Egyptians and otlier nations
of antiquity, with wants insignificant compared with ours, with a
total pr)])ulation scarcely equal to that of one of our great states,
with all Euro])e and all Asia before them, should leave the torrid,
impenetrable, unproductive continent and its savages alone, taking
from it only what could i)e conveniently reached from trading sta-
tions on tl'.c coast or through the navigable channel of the Xile?
X'orth Africa was practically the only Africa that the ancients
knew, but it should be remembered that the camel is a compara-
tively modern inlrodnctif)n into Africa, and both the ox and the
horse \\<uld be but poor substitutes ior it in traversing tlic Sahara,
the mr)st formidable barrier to the j^enetration of Central Africa
from the north. Ami Kgyj)t, especially in the height of her great-
ness, was. on the whole, mrnrc concerned with i\sia than with her
own Continent.

The 1 T.oiiicians and Carthaginians did far more to extend the
knowledge of Africa thrni did the Egyptians; and it may have been
fnmi thcin iliat 1 Ioiikt .and licsiod derived their knowledge of the
Mediterranean coa^t. The I'.^yptians themselves, as has been



NORTH AFRICA 5

1100-610 B. C.

Stated, were not great navigators; indeed, they seem not to have
possessed a fleet of any importance till the time of the Ptolemies.
But long before this the Phoenicians had appeared in the Mediter-
ranean, and soon achieved a position as traders, navigators, and
colonizers unequaled by any people of ancient times except perhaps
the Arabians ; for a long period the PhcEnicians had almost a monop-
oly of the carrying trade of the Mediterranean world, and their
sailors were in demand for the ships of other nations. About their
connection with Africa there is no doubt. They were probably not
the first of the Semitic family to settle in North Africa ; Hamites,
at least, there were in plenty. Possibly the Egyptians themselves
were largely of this type, as was the population along the Mediter-
ranean coast of Africa. Utica, perhaps the earliest Phoenician
colony in Africa, was founded about iioo b. c, 280 years before
Carthage, a few miles distant on the same coast. Before Car-
thage w^as founded Utica had established stations or trading facto-
ries along the Mediterranean coast of Africa and down the Atlantic
coast. Syrian colonies were thickly planted as far as the mouth of the
river now known as the Draa, to the south of Morocco, and thence,
it is believed, there were caravan routes to the country of the Blacks.
Carthage also, like Utica, as it grew in power, established its sta-
tions west and south along the African coast. ]\'Iany of these set-
tlements were more than mere trading stations; cultivation of
various kinds was carried on, and from tlie African coast of the
Mediterranean corn was exported in large quantities.

We have fairly definite information as to the knowledge which
the Carthaginians had of the African west coast, but considerable
doubt exists as to how far the Phamicians were in the habit of voy-
aging down the east coast of the continent. The story of the
circumnavigation of the continent by Phoenicians in the time of
King Necho, about 610 b. c.^ has often been told. So far as the
data go, that a Phoenician expedition starting from the Red Sea
sailed down the east coast, round the south coast, and north by the
west coast to the Pillars of Hercules and on to Egypt, there is no
difficulty in crediting the story. yVt that period the ships of the
Phoenicians must have been quite as capable of coasting along Africa
as they were of navigating the Atlantic, crossing the Bay of Biscay
to the shores of Britain. They knew the west coast of the con-
tinent for a considerable distance south, and they probably knew
the east coast at least to a point beyond the Red Sea. The passage



r A I' K I (' A

1000-500 B. C.

is well known in which it is stated that Solomon (about ickk) ii. c.)
eqiiipi>cd a tleet at I\ziiMi Gobir (mi the Arabian coast of the Red
Sea, and how, with the help (^f Hiram. Kinp of Tyre, it was sent to
Ophir and brcniirht back 4J0 talents (^f .c:old. In another passage
it is related hew the imited fleets of Solomon and Hiram went
every three years and br(iui;ht back not only j^old. but siKer,
ivi^ry. monkeys, and peacocks, besides sandalwood and precious
stones.

Let it be remembered that the Arabians themselves were great
traders and navigators; that the IMurnicians were in constant ccmu-
nunn'catio!! witli them: that tlicy must have known the east coast
of Africa, wiiich was (juitc within hail of their country; that there
is every reason to believe they had settlements there from a remote
period, and in all probability were familiar with the I'^.ast African
ciKist far to the south. Indeed, the Arabians seem to have jealously
gu.'.rded t!:e east coast of Africa, the Pluenicians acting as iiUer-
mediaries between them and Kgvpt and the other countries on the
Mediterranean. Tha.t some ]~)eople. long before the Portuguese,
worked tlie mines in tiie country which we now call Mashonaland is
evidenced by tlie great ruins scattered all over the country; whether
t;icy were Arabians, Persians, Indians, or Ph(enicians. remains to
be discovered, but it is certain that these ruins arc older than the
^b)hamme(l;'.n period. Directly or indirectly, then, it is i^robable the
c.'i-t coast of Africa was known to the .Arabians as far south as about
-Mozamb!(iue. If the Phoenicians knew of this they kept their knowl-
edge to thcmscbes, or it least did not communicate it to tlie Greeks,
fr^m wlu'Ui our knowledge of what the PlKvnicians did and knew
is largely derived. Motives of trade-monopoly were doubtless at
t!;e I'liitiim of tin's secrccv.

We have much fuller and more precise evidence of the
extent of Pi.o-nic'an. or rather Carthaginian, knowledge and enter-
])risc on t!:c ux^t than on tlie east coast of Africa. .According to
one >tatcmcnt l':e I'lirrnician settlements on the west coast liad
been attackcl <"mQ fne himdred years before Christ bv the natives
of the inter;, .r and <omc ';f them destroyed. However this luay have
been, th.ere is little dotibt tliat about that date Hanno. a Cartliagin-
ian adniir.'d. was sent r^it witit a large fleet of vessels containing
Some y).(>(>() natixcs of ilic di-^trict round Carthage, some of them
i'lire Cartl.ag!ni;ni>. ni. -t ,if tliem probablv natives subject to the
Mate, who li.id been ;m a ccriain extent civilized. Hanno settled



NORTHAFRICA 7

1000-500 B. C.

contingents of these colonists at various places along the west coast,
and succeeded with his fleet in getting as far south as about Sierra
Leone; some critics would even take him to the Bight of Benin.

The Phoenicians may thus fairly be regarded as the first to
begin the development of Africa some 3000 years ago ; though it
is possible, as we have seen, that the Arabs had stations on the east
coast at quite as remote a date. The Phoenicians may also be con-
sidered as the earliest of explorers, though their explorations were
always with a view to trade. Much of the knowledge of Africa
possessed by the Greeks, who have transmitted it to us, was obtained
from the Phoenicians and their colonists on the Mediterranean
coast.

It is probable enough that trading relations may have been
established with these native tribes, and so from stage to stage
a connection may have been formed with the Sudan region beyond
the Sahara.

Before the date of the possible circumnavigation under Necho,
over a century before the voyage of Hanno, we hear of the first
establishment of a European power on the coast of Africa. There
is evidence that long before this period Greeks had found their
way to Egypt, and to the Phoenician settlements, and that there was
a busy intercourse between the two shores of the Mediterranean;
but it was only in 631 b. c. that the Greeks planted a settlement of
their own on the continent. They chose one of the most delightful
and fertile spots in all Africa that part of Tripoli known as Barca.
Here the city of Gyrene was founded and the district was known as
Cyrenaica. In time other cities were founded, and a flourishing
Greek settlement grew up, which carried on agriculture and trade
relations with the tribes of the interior. Greeks flocked to this
African settlement, many as colonists, some few out of curiosity as
visitors. The intercourse between Greece and Africa became more
and more constant, and before Herodotus arrived in Egypt, about
the middle of the fifth century b. c, he had been preceded by others,
though by no one so eager for information nor so skilled in record-
ing it. But we do not in those early times hear of any enterprises
corresponding to our modern exploring expeditions, the main object
of which is the increase of knowledge. We find men like Herodo-
tus, and others after him, going about the world of the period, but
it was rather in the capacity of tourists than explorers. All this
going to and fro for commerce, for conr|ucst, for curiosity, could



8 AFRICA

500-448 B. C.

not. however, fail to add to tlic knowledge of the world possessed
l>v the Greeks, who. so far as we are concerned, were tlie center of
tlie knowletli;:e (^f llie time. One of the earliest Greek geographers,
it not the earliest, to make a map of the world was lleca-
txus of Miletus. A map of Herodotus, which may be dated fifty
years later, docs not dilTer greatly from that of llecata2us. We
have a little nii^rc detail and a little more precision in parts. But




1^ I AFRICA.

"T '*CCC3f<0iNG "fOHeFOOOTVJS
I 45G B.C.



fortunately the text of Herodotus is preserved intact; and it is to
h.im we are indebted for our knowledge of what the Greeks knew
of the continent in the fifth century b. c. He visited Egypt and
Cyrene about 448 n. c, and lliere set himself diligently to collect
information concerning the interior of Africa. He gives a very
fair picture rif tlie social and political condition of the peoples of
the Xile Valley at the date of his visit. For the first time we hear
of Meroe. the capital city of the Ethiopians. Herodotus knew of
the desert tliat extends to the westward of Egypt, and of some of
its oases, and of ilie mountains that divide that desert from tlie
Meditcrr.-Micin < n tlie wc.<t. Tlic Xile. lie tells us, w.as known to
t'lc I-'.gvTKian^ pv far as t!ie cumtrv of t!:c .\iitoin<ila\ four niontlis'
journey licy^ nd 'uic C' 'nfincs oi l\gyi)t at Syene. Evidently he knew



NORTH AFRICA 9

448 B. C.-60 A. D.

nothing of the great tributaries of the Nile, and of its sources the
Egyptians were entirely ignorant.

About one hundred years after Herodotus came the conquest
of Egypt by Alexander; ultimately it became a Greek province.
Under the Ptolemies it rose to a great height of power and pros-
perity; commerce and navigation were encouraged; the Red Sea
coast was studded with commercial centers, and Egypt itself was
explored far to the south. The Highlands of Abyssinia were known
and the Abyssinian tributaries of the Nile, and probably also the
White Nile, which, it was said, flowed from some lakes in the
south; the great bend of the river between Syene and Meroe was
correctly laid down ; the coast was known as far as Cape Guardafui,
Thus the knowledge of the Nile region had grown considerably
during the time of the Ptolemies.

But we need not trace in detail the extension of the map of
Africa from one geographer to another. Ptolemy, the famous Alex-
andrian astronomer, who flourished about one hundred and forty
years after Christ, may be regarded as summing up all the knowl-
edge of the continent that had accumulated since Egypt began her
career, four thousand years at least before his time. About one
hundred and seventy years before Ptolemy's time (35 b. c.) Egypt
had become a Roman province, Carthage having succumbed to the
same all-conquering power over one hundred years before. The
Greeks, and after them the Romans, were therefore the first Euro-
pean powers to obtain an extensive footing in Africa; but, after
all, it was only along its northern borders. The whole of North
Africa became a part of the Roman Empire, while the Phoenician
and Carthaginian settlements on the west coast appear rapidly to
have decayed or lapsed into barbarism. The Punic Wars and the
travels of Polybius in the early part of the second century b. c.
extended the knowledge of Africa to the south of the Mediterra-
nean. Before Ptolemy's time traders and navigators had pushed
round Cape Guardafui, and there were many towns and trading
centers at least as far south as the latitude of Zanzibar. It is evi-
dent that early in the Christian era traders from Egypt, starting
from Red Sea ports, sailed around by Cape Guardafui, and calling
at many ports on the way, went far down the east coast, possibly
as far as the mouth of the Zambezi.

Let us recall the fact that in the meantime Egyptian, Cartha-



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