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xiv CONTENTS



WAR WAK EXCITEMENT AT CHICAGO COLONEL OWEN S ACTION EXPERIENCES OF

FUGITIVES CHOLERA PESTILENCE GENERAL SCOTT's DIFFICULTIES ABATEMENT

OF THE CHOLERA HISTORIES OF THE SAUK WAR STEVEN'S HISTORY BLACK HAWK

AT WASHINGTON . 185



CHAPTER XI

INDIAN REMOVAL ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL

CHARACTER OF SAVAGES EARLY TREATIES TREATY OF CHICAGO THE ENCAMPMENT

SIGNING OF THE TREATY PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY REMOVAL OF THE IN-
DIANS WHARFING PRIVILEGES ILLINOIS AXD MICHIGAN CANAL FEASIBILITY OF

A CANAL CANAL IDEA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY EASTERN OPINION REGARD-
ING THE CANAL STATE LEGISLATION- FINANCING THE WORK CHICAGO JOY-
FULLY ANTICIPATES THE CANAL MEETINGS OF CITIZENS AT CHICAGO WORK IS-

BEGUN PROGRESS OF THE WORK MAGNITUDE OF THE UNDERTAKING DIFFI-
CULTIES SURMOUNTED WORK RESUMED UNDER A TRUSTEESHIP FINANCIAL CON-
DITION OF THE CANAL IN 1843 COMPLETION OF THE CANAL THE ERIE CANAL

OF NEW YORK M'cOWAN's NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE CANAL 201



CHAPTER XII

GROWTH OF CHICAGO DURING THE THIRTIES

CHICAGO INCORPORATED AS A TOWN LIMITS OF THE TOWN EXTENDED FUNCTIONS OF

COUNTY AND TOWN GOVERNMENT LAST YEAR OF TOWN GOVERNMENT CHICAGO

INCORPORATED AS A CITY PROVISIONS OF THE CHARTER FIRST CITY ELECTION

AND CENSUS CHART OF EVENTS THE TWO INCORPORATIONS PURPOSES OF A CITY

CHARTER EARLY SYSTEM OF SURVEYS TOWNSHIP SYSTEM OF SURVEYS TOWNSHIPS

AND SECTIONS FIRST PLAT OF CHICAGO INTERESTING FEATURES OF THE PLAT

SALES OF LOTS IN THE NEW SUBDIVISION CONDITIONS AT TIME OF SALE CHART OF

LOTS VALUES OF PROPERTY EARLY STREET NAMES CONTEMPORARY EVENTS

CANAL COMMISSIONERS AND CANAL TRUSTEES WINTER OF THE DEEP SNOW SUF-
FERINGS IN THE WINTER SEASON TRAGEDIES OF THE COLD WINTER ADVENTURES

HOFFMAN'S VISIT TO CHICAGO WINTER SPORTS IN CHICAGO A WOLF HUNT A

WOLF DRIVE INCREASED COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES IN THE THIRTIES BEGINNING

OF THE SPECULATIVE MANIA CAUSES OF ADVANCE IN VALUES CONDITIONS IN 1836

SPECULATION FEVER GROWTH OF THE CITY CHECKED WILD CAT CURRENCY

VARIOUS SCHEMES OF INFLATION CAUSES OF THE PANIC THE PANIC IN CHICAGO

EXTERNAL ASPECT OF THE CITY LAKE HOUSE AND TREMONT HOUSE FIRES

STAGE ROADS TO THE EAST TAVERNS ON THE ROAD STAGE ROADS TO THE NORTH

STAGE ROADS TO THE WEST SOCIETY OF THE EARLY DAYS 221



CONTENTS xv

CHAPTER XIII

ERA OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS

RAILROAD BUILDING RAPID INCREASE IN POPULATION PEOPLE ENTHUSIASTIC OVER

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS LEGISLATURE OF 1836 THE PERSONNEL OF THE

LEGISLATURE LEGISLATIVE TACTICS THE "LONG NINE" AN IMMENSE DEBT

INCURRED THE PANIC OF 1837 THE CHICAGO HARBOR' LIGHTHOUSE AT CHI-
CAGO THE FORERUNNER OF THE CHICAGO & NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY THE

GALENA & CHICAGO UNION RAILROAD STRAP RAILS USED THE "PIONEER"

DEPOT ON THE WEST SIDE IMPROVEMENTS AND EXTENSIONS DEPOT ON THE

NORTH SIDE EXTENSIONS TO THE MISSOURI RIVER THROUGH TRAINS TO MIL-
WAUKEE SUBURBAN SERVICE THE GREAT CONSOLIDATION END OF THE GALENA

& CHICAGO UNION NAME OF CHICAGO & NORTH-WESTERN ADOPTED PRIVILEGES

OF COMMON AND PREFERRED STOCK VARIOUS EXTENSIONS CHANGES IN THE

PRESIDENCY PROGRESS DURING TEN YEARS FURTHER IMPORTANT EVENTS

LATER IMPROVEMENTS REVIEW OF, FORTY YEARS OF GROWTH THE NEW

TERMINAL -ADMINISTRATION OF THE ROAD . 252



CHAPTER XIV

EDUCATION IN CHICAGO

PROVISIONS OF THE ORDINANCE OF 1787 GOVERNMENT'S DUTY TO PROVIDE EDUCATION

SCHOOL SECTION IN EVERY TOWNSHIP SOURCES OF INCOME FOR SCHOOLS FIRST

SCHOOLS IN CHICAGO JOHN WATKINS AS TEACHER SCHOOL OPENED NEAR FORT

DEARBORN PRIMITIVE ACCOMMODATIONS ELISA CHAPPEL FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL

TEACHER SPHOAT'S SCHOOL FOR BOYS SALE OF SCHOOL LANDS SCHOOL DISTRICTS

FORMED BOARD OF INSPECTORS ELECTED IMPROVEMENTS IN SCHOOL MANAGE-
MENT SUGGESTED ORDER AND SYSTEM INTRODUCED RULES ADOPTED SCHOOL TAX

LEVIED INSTRUCTION IN VOCAL MUSIC FRANK LUMBARD FIRST TEACHER OF VO-
CAL MUSIC FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL BUILDING "MILTIMORE's FOLLY" ADDITIONAL

BUILDINGS NEEDED THE SCAMMON SCHOOL THE JONES SCHOOL PROGRESS MADE

IN TEN YEARS MISS CATHARINE BEECHER's WORK WOMEN TEACHERS BROUGHT

FROM THE EAST HARDSHIPS OF TEACHERS IN COUNTRY DISTRICTS MISS BURNS* EX-
PERIENCE MOVEMENT TO ESTABLISH HIGH SCHOOLS OFFICE OF SCHOOL SUPERIN-
TENDENT CREATED JOHN C. DORE FIRST SUPERINTENDENT WILLIAM H. WELLS

SECOND SUPERINTENDENT HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING ERECTED OVERCROWDED CON-
DITION OF SCHOOLS GEORGE HOWLAND BECOMES SUPERINTENDENT 276



CHAPTER XV

EDUCATION IN CHICAGO (CONTINUED)

OVERCROWDED CONDITION OF THE SCHOOLS GRADED INSTRUCTION INTRODUCED

PROGRESSIVE POLICY OF SUPERINTENDENT WELLS SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR COL-
ORED CHILDREN JOSIAH L. PICKARD BECOMES SUPERINTENDENT IN 1865 STUDY



xvi CONTENTS



OF GERMAN DECIDED UPON EVENING SCHOOLS CORPORAL PUNISHMENT ABOL-
ISHED SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF EFFECTS OF THE GREAT FIRE CHANGES IN

MANNER OF APPOINTMENT OF MEMBERS OF THE BOARD DUANE DOTY BECOMES

SUPERINTENDENT MANUAL TRAINING AND DOMESTIC SCIENCE GROWTH OF HIGH

SCHOOLS COMMERCIAL COURSES IN HIGH SCHOOLS PRESIDENT JAMES* VIEWS

HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETICS KINDERGARTENS BENEFITS FROM KINDERGARTEN

CLASSES NATIONAL HOLIDAYS RECOGNIZED BY SCHOOL BOARD FIRST WOMAN MEM-
BER OF BOARD OF EDUCATION ALBERT G. LANE BECOMES SUPERINTENDENT IN

1890 MORE SCHOOL BUILDINGS REQUIRED NORMAL SCHOOL COLONEL FRANCIS

W. PARKER NORMAL COURSE LENGTHENED BUILDING FOR NORMAL SCHOOL

LAWSUIT TO PREVENT ERECTION OF BUILDING MRS. ELLA FLAGG YOUNG BECOMES

PRINCIPAL OF NORMAL SCHOOL NORMAL EXTENSION WORK WAR ON "FADs"-

INSTRUCTION FOR THE BLIND SUBNORMAL PUPILS . .295



CHAPTER XVI

MEN OF THE THIRTIES JOHN WENTWORTH, AND OTHERS

SOME OLD DIRECTORIES DIRECTORY OF 1839 INTERESTING NAMES GLIMPSES OP

PIONEER RESIDENTS DIRECTORY OF 1843 JOHN WENTWORTH ARRIVAL IN CHI-
CAGO WENTWORTH'S civic CAREER BECOMES PROPRIETOR op THE "DEMOCRAT"

ELECTED MEMBER OF CONGRESS MAYOR OF CHICAGO ENTERTAINS PRINCE OF

WALES IN 1860 WENTWORTH INVESTS IN LAND AT SUMMIT HUMOROUS EPISODES

IN HIS CAREER RINGING WAR TIME PROCLAMATION REPLY TO VALLANDIGHAM

WENTWORTH A GREAT FIGURE IN THE HISTORY OF CHICAGO CONTEMPORARY ESTI-
MATES WILLIAM B. OGDEN ELECTED FIRST MAYOR OF CHICAGO BECOMES A

RAILWAY MAGNATE DIARY OF WALTER BROWN IN 1844 IMPRESSIONS OF A TRAV-
ELER FROM MAINE CONDITIONS IN CHICAGO LUTHER NICHOLS . 314



CHAPTER XVII

PROPHECIES AND REALITY NEWBERRY LIBRARY, ETC.

PROPHECIES OF THE COMMERCIAL GREATNESS OF THE WEST BALESTIER's PROPHECY

JEREMIAH PORTER'S ADDRESS A BOSTON PROPHECY OF CHICAGO'S POPULATION

MADE IN 1868 POPULATION GIVEN BY DECADES SINCE 1860 JUDGE SMITH'S

PROPHECY OF POPULATION THE NEWBERRY8 OLIVER NEWBERRY NEWBERRY &

DOLE WALTER L. NEWBERRY A PATRON OF ART AND A LIBERAL CONTRIBUTOR

TO BOOK COLLECTIONS HIS DEATH AT SEA HIS SPLENDID PROVISION FOR A

"PUBLIC" LIBRARY THE NEWBERRY LIBRARY LAKE STREET IN THE FIFTIES AND

SIXTIES OLD TIME BUSINESS FIRMS THE PRINCE OF WALES* VISIT CHOLERA

VISITATIONS MORTALITY AMONG THE TROOPS OF GENERAL SCOTT's ARMY VISITA-
TION OF 1849 THE "GREAT CHOLERA YEAR" OF 1854 LAST APPEARANCE IN 1866



CONTENTS xvii

SKETCHES OF ( CHARLES B. FARWELL AND JOHN V. FARWELL THE TEXAS CAPITOL

BUILT BY THE FARWELLS THE TEXAS PANHANDLE LANDS SKETCH OF MARSHALL

FIELD- -HIS GREAT SUCCESS AS A MERCHANT A LETTER WRITTEN BY FIELD HIS

IMMENSE ESTATE THE PROVISION FOR THE MUSEUM LANGUAGE OF THE

BEQUEST , . . 333



CHAPTER XVIII

RIVER AND HARBOR CONVENTION NEWSPAPERS, ETC.

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN 1847 NEEDS OF THE CHICAGO HARBOR NATIONAL CON-
DITIONS- ENGINEERING DIFFICULTIES COMMERCE OF CHICAGO IN THE FORTIES-
FIRST STEPS IN PROMOTING THE CONVENTION ENTHUSIASTIC SUPPORT GAINED

PRESIDENT FOLK'S ACTION CONDEMNED EDITORIAL VIEWS CONVENTION DETAILS

PLANNED THE ADDRESS TO THE PUBLIC ASSEMBLING OF THE CONVENTION

HORACE GREELEY'S SPIRITED ACCOUNT CONVENTION IN SESSION THREE DAYS

DEMANDS FORMULATED DANIEL WEBSTER'S LETTER MR. LINCOLN'S FIRST VISIT

TO CHICAGO GREELEY'S REFERENCE TO LINCOLN RESULTS OF THE CONVENTION

FLOOD OF 1849 ICE AND WRECKAGE IN THE RIVER SCENES OF DESTRUCTION

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS ALL BRIDGES SWEPT AWAY BEGINNING OF THE

CHICAGO TRIBUNE THE DEMOCRATIC PRESS THE PRESS AND TRIBUNE AN OLDER

PAPER OF THAT NAME LATER HISTORY OF THE TRIB"UNE STORY OF DAVID KEN-

NISON LOSSING'S ACCOUNT MEMBER OF THE BOSTON "TEA PARTY" FOUGHT AT

BUNKER HILL COMES TO CHICAGO IN 1842, THEN OVER A HUNDRED YEARS OLD

A HERO OF THE FIRST AND SECOND WARS OF INDEPENDENCE 353



CHAPTER XIX

RELIGIOUS HISTORY

RELIGIOUS LIFE IN THE EARLY DAYS FIRST SERMON PREACHED IN CHICAGO THE

CATHOLIC CHURCH IN CHICAGO ST. MARY's CHURCH ORGANIZED DEDICATION OF

FIRST ST. MARY'S THE EARLY MISSIONARIES ST. MARY'S JUBILEE CATHOLIC

ACTIVITIES MEMORIES OF OLD ST. MARY's THE PAULIST FATHERS THE LAETARE

MEDAL- FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH DEDICATION ADDRESS GOING TO CHURCH

IN 1834 PROGRESS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH

THE METHODIST CHURCH EARLY EDIFICES METHODIST CHURCH BLOCK PASTORS

OF THE FIRST METHODIST CHURCH DIAMOND JUBILEE OF THE FIRST CHURCH

THE NORTHWESTERN CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE- EDITORS OF THE ADVOCATE ST.

JAMES EPISCOPAL CHURCH BISHOP PHILANDER CHASE REFORMED EPISCOPAL

CHURCH FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM JEWISH

CONGREGATIONS A. D. FIELD'S RECOLLECTIONS PIONEER PREACHING 375



xviii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XX

SLAVERY ISSUES IN CHICAGO

SLAVERY IN ILLINOIS FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW ITS BANEFUL EFFECTS MRS. STOWE's

REMARKABLE BOOK BLACK CODE OF ILLINOIS SALE OF A NEGRO IN CHICAGO SET

AT LIBERTY AFTER SALE ANTI-SLAVERY SENTIMENT IN CHICAGO THE UNDER-
GROUND RAILROAD GREAT NUMBERS OF RUNAWAY SLAVES MEETINGS TO DE-
NOUNCE THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW SENATOR DOUGLAS APPEARS ON THE SCENE

CAUSES A TEMPORARY REVERSAL OF SENTIMENT REVIEWS THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW

ANSWERS AWKWARD QUESTIONS DOUGLAS OFFERS RESOLUTIONS TO SUPPORT THE

OBNOXIOUS LAW SUCCEEDS IN GETTING THEM ADOPTED SHOWS WONDERFUL

POWER IN SWAYING AUDIENCES- OPPOSITION MEETINGS HELD PUBLIC MEETINGS SIX

NIGHTS IN SUCCESSION REVIEW OF THE EXCITING EVENTS OF THE WEEK. . . .406




By permission of Chicago Historical Society

LOUIS JOIJET



Chicago: Its History
and Its Builders



CHAPTER I

PERIOD OF DISCOVERY

EARLIEST RECORD OF CHICAGO CHICAGO HISTORY BEGINS WITH JOLIET AND MAR-

QUETTE'S VOYAGE OF 1673 EARLIER VOYAGE TOWARD MISSISSIPPI APPOINTMENT

OF JOLIET AND MARQUETTE TO JOURNEY DOWN THE RIVER THEIR PREPARATIONS

THEIR TRIP ENTERING THE MISSISSIPPI EXPERIENCES ALONG THE WAY MEET-
ING WITH INDIANS THE ILLINOIS PROVE FRIENDLY THE JOURNEY RESUMED IN-
DIANS WARN EXPLORERS AGAINST APPROACHING MOUTH OF THE RIVER DECISION

TO RETURN UP THE RIVER LANDMARKS PASSED LEAVE THE MISSISSIPPI TO GO UP

ILLINOIS RIVER SITE OF CHICAGO VISITED GREEN BAY REACHED AND VOYAGE

ENDED JOLIET THE LEADER.

HE discovery of the Upper Mississippi river, as well as that of the Chi-
cago river, was made on the celebrated voyage of Joliet and Marquette
in 1673. The beginning of the recorded history of Chicago dates from
this year and this voyage, and its importance requires some account of
the events which marked one of the most brilliant and daring enterprises
in the annals of western adventure and exploration.

EARLY EXPLORERS OF THE MISSISSIPPI

The Mississippi had been discovered by a Spaniard, Hernando De Soto in
1541, at a point near the present city of Memphis; but this discovery had been well-
nigh forgotten at the period of time here considered. That a great river existed,
far to the north of the region where De Soto found and crossed the Mississippi,
was well known to the French from the reports made to them by the Indians, vague
and indefinite though they were; and these reports excited the imagination and
stimulated the ambition of many of the adventurous spirits of the time. Nicollet,
while descending the Wisconsin river in 1638, reached a point within three days'
journey of its mouth before turning back, and thus narrowly missed making the




2 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

discovery of the great river which was reserved for others to make more than a
generation later. He supposed, however, that he was within that distance "froin
the sea," having misunderstood the information given him by tin- Indians. Father
Allouez, while engaged in missionary labors on the shores of Lake Superior, heard
of the Sioux and their great river, the "Messippi." l In the Algonquin language,
the name Mississippi, spelled in a variety of ways by the early chroniclers, meant.
"Great River."

It does not appear to have been suspected by any of the early French explor-
ers that the Great River of which the Indians told them, was one and the same
with that discovered by the Spanish explorer, more than a century before. Many*
conjectures were made as to where it reached the sea, on which point the Indians
could give no reliable information. Some thought that it emptied into the "Sea
of Virginia," 2 others contended that it flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, while Fronte-
nac, the governor of New France, was convinced that it discharged its waters into
the Vermilion Sea, that is the Gulf of California; and that by way of it, a passage
might be found to China. 3

Reports having reached France, regarding the "Great River of the West," as
it was often spoken of, the French minister, Colbert, wrote to Talon, the Intendant
at Quebec, in 1672, that efforts should be made "to reach the sea;" meaning to
explore the great unknown river and solve the mystery of its outlet. This was
followed by appropriate instructions. Father Dablon, in the "Jesuit Relations,"
says: "The Count Frontenac, our Governor, and Monsieur Talon, then our In-
tendant, recognizing the importance of this discovery [to be made], . . . ap-
pointed for this undertaking Sieur Joliet, whom they considered very fit for so
great an enterprise; and they were well pleased that Father Marquette should be
of the party."

JOLIET AND MARQUETTE TO EXPLORE MISSISSIPPI

They were not mistaken in the choice- that they made of Louis Joliet. He was
a native of Quebec, had been educated by the Jesuits, and had taken the minor
orders of that priesthood at the age of seventeen. These he renounced in a few
years and became a fur trader. At the time he was chosen to command the expedi-
tion, he was a young man twenty-eight years old, possessing all the qualifications
that could be desired for such an undertaking; he had had experience among the
Indians, and knew their language ; he had tact, prudence and courage, and, as the
event proved, he fulfilled all the expectations which were entertained of him by
his superiors. Father James Marquette was a Jesuit missionary, thirty-six years
old, who for six years had been stationed at missions in the North. He was born
in France, one of an honorable old family, and had entered the priesthood, im-
pelled by his natural piety and religious enthusiasm. In 1666 he was sent to the
Jesuit missions of Canada, and during the next few years learned to speak six In-
dian languages. In addition to his zeal for the conversion of the Indians, he was
filled with a burning desire to behold the "Great River" of which he had heard so
much. He was stationed at this time at St. Ignace, and here Joliet joined him

Tarkman: "La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West" (Ed. 1879), pp XXIII-XXIV.

-' Parkman, pp. 30-64.

3 "Jesuit Relations," Vol. 59, pp. 87-163.




From a painting at St. M?rv's College. Montreal

MARQUETTE



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 3

late in the year 1672, and brought him the intelligence of his appointment to go
with him in the conduct of the expedition. "I was all the more delighted at this
good news," writes Marquette in his journal, "since I saw that my plans were about
to be accomplished ; and since I found myself in the blessed necessity of exposing
my life for the salvation of all these peoples, and especially of the Illinois, who had
very urgently entreated me, when I was at the point of St. Esprit, to carry the
word of God to their country. " Here at St. Ignace they passed the winter.

As the spring advanced, they made the necessary preparations for their jour-
ney, the duration of which they could not foresee. In two bark canoes, manned by
five Frenchmen, besides the two intrepid leaders, the party embarked, "fully re-
solved to do and suffer everything for so glorious an enterprise;" and on the 17th
of May, 1673, the voyage began at the mission of St. Ignace. Father Marquette
writes in his journal: "The joy that we felt at being selected for this expedition
animated our courage, and rendered the labor of paddling from morning to night
agreeable to us. And because we were going to seek unknown countries, we took
every precaution in our power, so that if our undertaking were hazardous, it should
not be foolhardy." The journal of Father Marquette is the principal source of
our information, and is full of detail and written in a simple style. Joliet also
kept a record and made a map, but, most unfortunately, all his papers were lost,
by the upsetting of his canoe in the St. Lawrence, while he was returning to Que-
bec the following year to make a report of his discoveries. Thus it happens that
Marquette's name is more frequently and prominently mentioned in all the accounts
than that of Joliet.

The adventurous voyagers proceeded along the northern shore of Lake Michi-
gan, the only portion of the lake which had at that time been explored and entered
Green Bay. They arrived at the mission establishd by Father Allouez two years
before, 4 and from here they began the difficult ascent of the Fox river. 5 On its
upper waters they stopped at a village of the Mascoutins, from whom they pro-
cured guides ; and by these friendly savages they were conducted across the portage
into the upper waters of the Wisconsin river, whence the travelers made their way
alone. As the Indians turned back, they "marveled at the courage of seven white
men, venturing alone in two canoes on a journey into unknown lands."

They were now embarked on the Wisconsin river and soon passed the utmost
limits of Nicollet's voyage on this river 7 made thirty-five years before. "It is
very wide," writes Marquette, "and has a sandy bottom rendering the navigation
difficult. It is full of islands covered with vines, and on the banks one sees fertile
land, diversified with woods, prairies and hills." Their route lay to the southwest,
and, after a voyage of seven days on this river, on the 17th day of June, just one
month from the day they started from St. Ignace, they reached its mouth and steered
their canoes forth upon the broad bosom of the Mississippi, "with a joy that I
cannot express (avec une joye que je ne peux pas expliquer)," wrote Marquette.

4 Wisconsin Historical Collections, XVI, 104.

5 Hennepin : "A New Discovery," p. 639.

6 Mason : "Chapters from Illinois History," p. 20 et seq.
'Albach: "Annals of the West," p. 52.



4 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

MISSISSIPPI RIVER IS REACHED



"Here then, we are," continues the good Father in his journal, "on this so
renowned river." Westward, coining down to the water's edge, were lofty wooded
hills intersected by deep gorges, fringed with foliage. Eastward were beautiful
prairie lands; while great quantities of game-deer, buffalo and wild turkey-were
seen everywhere. In the river were islands covered with trees and in the water
they saw "monstrous fish," some of which they caught in their nets. Following
the flow of the river, they note the changes in the scenery, while passing between
shores of unsurpassed natural beauty, along which a chain of flourishing cities v
afterwards to be built.

But it is still a far cry before the adventurers reach the portage and the river
which in time came to bear the name of Chicago, and which is the chief concern of
this narrative. They are now fairly on the way, a round-about way indeed, but
none the less surely will they accomplish the journey and float their canoes on the
still waters of its river and repose themselves on its grassy banks. The broad plain
and woodland where the present city of Chicago stands with its throngs of human-
ity and its "unexampled prosperity," still remain in a state of primeval wildness,
as yet unvisited by civilized men, and only await the arrival of our devoted band of
explorers to make their remarkable natural features and situation known to the
world and to future times. Many strange adventures by flood and field are before
them, and we will continue to follow their advance into the unknown.

Steadily they followed the course of the river towards the south, and on the
eighth day they saw, for the first time since entering the river, tracks of men near
the water's edge, and they stopped to examine them. This point was near the
mouth of the Des Moines river, and thus they were the first white men to place!
foot on the soil of Iowa. Leaving their men to guard the canoes the two courageous
leaders followed a path two leagues to the westward, when they came in sight of
an Indian village. As they approached, they gave notice of their arrival by a loud
call, upon which the savages quickly came forth from their huts and regarded the
strangers attentively. Some of their number who had evidently visited the mission
stations recognized them as Frenchmen, and they responded to Marquette's greet-
ing in a friendly manner and offered the calumet, or peace pipe, which greatly
reassured the visitors. Four of the elders advanced and elevated their pipes towards
the sun as a token of friendship; and, on Marquette's inquiring who they were,
they replied, "we are Illinois;" at the same time inviting the strangers to walk to
their habitations. An old man then made them a speech in which he said, "All our
people wait for thee, and thou shalt enter our cabin in peace."



HOSPITALITY OF ILLINOIS INDIANS



The Illinois Indians lived at this time beyond the Mississippi, whither they had
been driven by the fierce Iroquois from their former abode, near Lake Michigan. A
few years later most of them returned to the east side and made their abode along
the Illinois river. Indeed, as we shall see, Joliet and Marquette found a large
village of them on the upper waters of the Illinois, while ascending that river a
few weeks later. It may be remarked here, however, that the Illinois Indians
never fully recovered from the disastrous defeats they suffered from the Iroquois,







From Blanchard's Discovery and Conquests of the Northwest. Edition of 1881

MAP ILLUSTRATING THE DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST




J



Portion of Franquelin's Map of 1684,
redrawn by John F. Steward and so
printed in his "Lost Maramech."



FRANQUELIN'S MAP OF 1684



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 5

and held only a precarious possession of their lands along the Illinois river after
that time ; until a century later, the last broken remnant of them was exterminated
at Starved Rock by the Pottawattomies 8 and Ottawas.

While still at the village of these Illinois Indians, a grand feast was pre-
pared for the travelers, and they remained until the next day, when they made
preparations for their departure. The chief presented them with "belts, garters,
and other articles made of hair of bears and cattle [Buffalo], dyed red, yellow and
gray." It will grieve those of our readers who have the collecting mania, to learn
from the good father that "as they were of no great value, we did not burden our-
selves with them."

But the chief made them two more gifts which were a valuable addition to their
equipment namely, an Indian lad, the chief's own son, for a slave, and "an alto-
gether mysterious calumet (un Calumet tout mysterieux), upon which the Indians
place more value than upon a slave." The possession of this "mysterious calumet,"
was the means of placating several bands of hostile Indians, whom they met later
in their journey. The chief, on learning their intention to proceed down the river
"as far as the sea," attempted to dissuade them on account of the great dangers to
which they would expose themselves. "I replied," says Marquette, "that I feared
not death, and that I regarded no happiness as greater than that of losing my life
for the glory of Him, who has made us all. This is what these poor people can-
not understand." These were no idle words of Marquette's, for before the lapse
of two years from that date, he died of privation and exposure, a martyr to the
cause he had so much at heart.

The sequel to the story of the little Indian boy mentioned above was a sad one.
He accompanied the voyagers to the end of their journey. In the following year,
when Joliet was on his way to Quebec to make the report of his discoveries, his
canoe was overturned in the rapids of the St. Lawrence near Montreal, as previously



Online LibraryJ. Seymour (Josiah Seymour) CurreyChicago: its history and its builders, a century of marvelous growth (Volume v.1) → online text (page 2 of 59)