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point; B. Greatest velocity per hour reached during the year; C. Number of days in each year
when wind exceeded forty miles an hour.



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 163

"While Chicago is called the windy city," says Professor Henry J. Cox, "it
has no special claim upon this pseudonym. The wind velocity increases with the
elevation above ground, and the weather bureau instruments in Chicago happen to
be located at a much greater height than is available in most cities. It is, in
fact, not in the course of any regular storm track, generally merely being on the
edges of the storms that pass to the north over Lake Superior or to the south over
the Ohio valley. It lays claim, however, to brisk and sometimes strong winds which
are more beneficial than objectionable. The prevailing direction of the wind is
southwest, for the year as a whole. During the spring and early summer the wind
is mostly northeast."

THUNDERSTORMS

Thunder storms are comparatively infrequent, and arising, as they usually do,
in the southwest, upon striking the lake they often lose their force or are dissipated
altogether. Professor Hazen kept a journal covering the period from 1870 to 1891,
which was printed by the government in 1893. In this journal, under date of May
25, 1871, he writes:

"Thunder storms traveling about all day. Cumulus clouds, whether discharging
rain or not, which approach the lake from the land, increase or at least maintain
their proportions, until they reach the margin of the lake. There they dissipate,
and what an hour before was a dense cloud becomes reduced to a few filaments.
Day after day, with the cumulus clouds traveling from the southwest, have I seen
them standing about like giants over all the land and around the shores of the
lake, while over the lake the sky was entirely free." 29

NUMBER OF THUNDERSTORMS

Years





c
i i


V

fa


eg


C
o.


>,

eg




C
3
i


"3

> i


fci

3


c.
u


C




O

Z


o

<u o

Q h


eg

V


1892


. . . . o


O


O


4


3


16


3


3


4


I


o


I


35


1893


. . . . o








5


2


4


6


o


i


I


o


o


19


1894


. . . .





2


4


8


7


2


4


IO


2


o


o


39


1895


. . . . I


o


I


o


4


4


8


6


4


o


o


o


a&


1896


. . . . o


o


2


4


7


7


2


7


5


i








35


1897


. . . . I


I


3


4


5


9


3


4


i


o





o


S


1898


. . . . I


o


3





4


7


S


6


8


2





o


;6


1899


. . . . o





o


i


IS


9


6


4


3


O


I


o


$9


1900


. . . . o


I





i


7


7


7


12


5


2


2


o


44


1901


. . . .





I


o


S


13


9


5


3


I


I


o


3


1902


. . . .


o


I


I


14


10


9


4


2


3


O


o


44


1903


. . . .


o


2


6


6


i


9


9


6


2


I


o


4*


1904


. . . .


I


5


3


4


8


ii


7


7


5


o


o


51


1905


. . . .


o


4


4


8


ii


8


5


S


2


o


o


47


1906


. . . . 2


3


o


4


4


9


6


7


6


O


o


o


41


1907


. . . . 2


o


6


4


7


IO


10


7


6


2


o


o


54


1908


. . . . O


I


9


3


12


10


ii


8


3


O


2


o


59


1909


....3


I


o


9


S


9


4


9


2


O


3


o


45


Total by months. . . .


. . . .IO


8


39


57


120


151


119


107


81


24


10


I




Grand total


























72-



29 Hazen: "Climate of Chicago," pp. 10-113.



164 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

FREQUENCY OF THUNDERSTORMS

A table of thunderstorms, prepared by the United States Weather Bureau
office at Chicago, covering the years from 1892 to 1909, inclusive that is, for eight-
een years shows the total number of such storms occurring in that period, the
number occurring annually, and the number for each month. As this table is of
unusual interest it is inserted herewith.

It will be observed that the average number of thunderstorms for the years
covered by this table is about forty for each year. More thunderstorms occur in
the month of June, on the average, than for any other month of the year, the
months of May and July standing next in the order of frequency. The month in j
which a thunderstorm is least likely to occur is the month of December, in which
month only one such storm occurred during the eighteen years under review.

"Thunderstorms are more frequent in Florida and the Mississippi and lower
Missouri valleys," says General Greely, in his book "American Weather." Over
the lake region the frequency of such storms is considerably less, and in New Eng-
land it is still less. To the westward of the Rocky mountains the average annual
number of thunderstorms is less than ten for the whole region, while in southern
California one or two years may pass without a single storm occurring. Seneca
said that "lightning, which brings fear to everybody, brings peril only to a very
few." Notwithstanding this observation of the ancient philosopher, who said many
wise things, the damage and loss of life caused by thunderstorms should not make
us forget their far greater services to mankind. "Lightning strikes comparatively
but seldom with destructive effect," says Dr. Hartwig in his exhaustive treatise
on thunderstorms, included in the volume entitled, "The Aerial World," "but every
thunderstorm purifies the air and imparts new energies to vegetable and animal
life. All nature seems renovated ; the fields and woods smile with a fresher green,
and exhale perfumes which are never more delightful than after a thunderstorm."

RAIN AND SNOW FALLS

The greatest amount of precipitation usually occurs in July, the least in Jan-
uary. For the ten years from 1900 to 1909, inclusive, the average annual rainfall
was thirty-two and one-half inches. "It is exceptional," says Professor Cox, "that
the city is visited by drought or by protracted rain periods. The autumn weather
is especially pleasant. It is the time of year when rain is least needed and when
but little falls. It is a time of protracted sunshine and delightful weather. The
geographical location of Chicago is such that it is visited by a moderate amount of
snowfall each year. This snow covering tends greatly to the healthfulness of the
community in preventing the circulation of impurities in the atmosphere."

TEMPERATURE

"The highest civilization has never loved the hot zones," Emerson wrote. The
climate of Chicago, generally speaking, "is such as to incite the activities of man,"
says Professor Cox. "There is not sufficient heat at any time to make him slug-
gish in his movements, while on the other hand it is sufficiently varied and rigorous
to make him active and energetic."




WEATHER KIOSK

At the southwest corner of Adams and Dearborn streets.
On the four faces of the kiosk are shown recording instru-
ments in the process of making charts which show daily
changes of temperature and weather conditions, both locally
and throughout the country.



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 165

A table of temperatures for the ten years from 1900 to 1909, inclusive, is pre-
sented herewith; transcribed from the records of the United States Weather Bureau,
at Chicago.

MONTHLY AND ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURES

-G w

Years u ^ u >,-

i 4 a s. s * q s z I





. .20


2O


20


47


c8


64


72


76


66


61


38








26


17




4<r


fA


60


77


72


64






24


4.8






21


3Q


46


CO


64


72


68


61






26






21








60


61




68


64




36




4.8




18










64




68


64












18






46










68








48


1006


. . 33


28


3O




60


68


72


76


7O


Cl


42


33




IQO7


28


26








66




71


6<










1908 . .


. .20


27


41






68






71










IQOO .


. .20


32


36


4S


<6


67


72


7<


64


CI


48


22


so



Means 25.6 23.0 36.6 4.5.7 57.1 65.6 72.6 72.1 65.7 54.3 41.8 27.8 49.1

The average temperature for ten years shows that February is a colder month
than January, verifying the weather adage, "as the days grow longer the cold
grows stronger;" while the months of July and August are nearly equal in tem-
perature.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

In concluding this subject we again quote from Professor Cox, the able authority
on meteorology in charge of the United States Weather Bureau at Chicago :

"The climate of Chicago is quite variable, as is characteristic of places situated
in the temperate zone, especially in the interior of the United States. The extreme
range of temperature during the past thirty-three years has been 126 degrees, from
a maximum of 103 degrees to a minimum of 23 degrees below zero. This variation,
however, is not as great as what usually takes place in other sections of the northern
states. Located as it is at the southern end of Lake Michigan the extreme heat
of summer and the cold of winter are tempered by the waters bordering the city.
In only one year did the temperature equal 100 degrees and that occurred in the
summer of 1901 when the entire country was under the influence of an unprecedented
hot wave for a long period. In fact, a heated period seldom lasts long and it is
unusual that a maximum of 90 degrees or over is reached on three consecutive days.
Generally before the fourth day arrives Lake Michigan turns cool breezes into
the city which are refreshing, and yet not as uncomfortably cool as at places farther
north.

"In winter the influence of the lake on the temperature is also very great
in producing equable conditions. The extremes recorded in the interior are not
approached along its shores."




CHAPTER IX

WINNEBAGO WAR BEGINNINGS OF CHICAGO'S GROWTH

WINNEBAGO INDIANS CAUSES OF THE WAR THE NEWS REACHES CHICAGO MEAS-
URES TAKEN FOR PROTECTION HUBBARD's RIDE TREATY REOCCUPATION OF

FORT DEARBORN JEFFERSON DAVIS* FIRST VISIT TO CHICAGO HIS LATER VISIT

ORDER OF COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS COUNTIES OF INDIANA TERRITORY COUNTIES

OF ILLINOIS TERRITORY COUNTIES OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS EVOLUTION OP

COOK COUNTY EARLY COUNTY RECORDS FURTHER COUNTY CHANGES JURIS-
DICTION OF PEORIA COUNTY COOK COUNTY SKETCH OF DANIEL P. COOK

COMPARISON OF COOK AND POPE CHICAGO IN 1835 NARRATIVE OF PETER VIEAU

SECOND GENERATION OF THE KINZIE FAMILY "WAU-BUN" NELLY KIN/IE

GORDON.

WINNEBAGO WAR

SERY alarming news reached the little community of Chicago in the sum-
mer of 1827, to the effect that an uprising of the Winnebago Indians
was threatened, and that an attack from them might soon be expected.
The troops from the fort had been withdrawn four years previously, and
the place was in a defenseless condition. The fort was occupied as a
residence by Dr. Alexander Wolcott, the Indian agent, who was in charge of the
establishment. Other occupants were Russell E. Heacock and a number of voy-
ageurs and their families. A brief account of the Winnebagoes is given in the
following paragraphs in order to understand more clearly the causes and inci-
dents of this "speck of war," as it has been called.

THE WINNEBAGO INDIANS

The Winnebagoes were a Wisconsin tribe of Indians who, it is thought, came
to Wisconsin from the Lake Winnipeg region. The name Winnebago means in
the language of the Indians fetid, a name they obtained from the sulphur springs
in the neighborhood of which they lived. The appellation given them by the
French was "Les Puans," that is, the Fetids. In "Wau-Bun" we read that they
were so called "from the custom of wearing the fur of a pole-cat on their legs
when equipped for war." The principal village of the Winnebagoes was on Lake
Winnebago. The early missionaries and explorers had found them there nearly
two centuries before the time of which we write.

The Winnebagoes were enemies of the whites in the Tippecanoe campaign
of 1811. The perpetrators of the murders at "Lee's Place," in the spring of 1812
were a party of Winnebagoes ; 1 and many of that tribe were among the hostile

1 Kirkland: "Chicago Massacre," p. 116.

166



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 167

savages who took part in the massacre near Fort Dearborn in August of that year.
Governor Reynolds, in his "Pioneer History of Illinois," says of them that they
were dirty and savage in their habits. "They are a stout, robust people;" he con-
tinued, "their cheek bones are higher, and they are generally a degree more un-
couth and savage than the other tribes near them."

CAUSES OF WAR

But notwithstanding the low character given to the Winnebagoes, the conduct
of the whites with whom they came in contact gave the latter no advantage by
comparison. The treatment that the Indians received from white adventurers
who flocked in great numbers into the country provoked their resentment and caused
them to regard the invaders with suspicion and distrust. A letter of Joseph M.
Street, addressed to Governor Ninian Edwards, dated at Prairie-du-Chien, No-
vember, 1827, describes the situation in great detail. Street was then the Indian
agent at that point.

Many of the whites, he says, "had great contempt for naked Indians, and be-
haved like blackguards among them." The attraction of the lead mines in that
region brought a constantly increasing number of whites, who disregarded the oc-
cupancy of the Indians, and opened mines beyond the limits agreed upon by treaties.
The territory of the Winnebagoes included a large part of the lead mining region,
and they became soured in consequence of the impositions and insults from which
they constantly suffered.

The trouble with the Winnebagoes was further aggravated by a hostile en-
counter between the Dakotas and the Chippewas under the walls of Fort Snelling,
in which a number of the latter were killed. Thus at the start it was an affair
between these two tribes. The Chippewas, who had been wantonly attacked by
their enemies, appealed to the commandant, Colonel Josiah Snelling. Colonel Snell-
ing recognized their right to be protected when within gunshot of the fort, and
ordered the arrest of a number of the attacking party, who, though they were of
the Dakota tribe, were regarded as friends by the Winnebagoes. Two out of the
number were identified by the Chippewas and the Colonel handed them over to the
Chippewas with orders to take them beyond the range of the guns of the fort. The
Chippewas prepared for vengeance "Indian fashion ;" and at some distance from
the fort gave their captives thirty yards start for the run for their lives. They
had not gone far before they were both shot dead by the Chippewas.

When they had reported the tragic ending of this act of vengeance to the Colonel
at the fort, he told them that the bodies of the slain must be removed beyond the
vicinity of the fort, as the execution was "the exclusive business of the Chippewas."
Thereupon they "took the dead Dakotas by their heels, trailed them over the earth
to the bluff, and there threw them over a perpendicular precipice a hundred and
fifty feet high. The bodies splashed and sank, and nothing more was ever seen or
heard of them."

This affair greatly irritated the Winnebagoes, who made common cause with
the Dakotas; and, added to their other grievances, the Winnebagoes soon took oc-
casion to renew their attacks on the Chippewas, disregarding the protection of the
United States military authorities.



168 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

A short time before this, two keel-boats laden with supplies for Fort Snclling
stopped at a camp of the Winnebagoes on the Mississippi not far above Prairie-du-
Chien. The Indians collected about the boats, as was alleged, with hostile inten-
tions and for purposes of plunder. The boat crews, however, placated them by
treating them to liquor, and when they had become intoxicated, they seized six or
seven squaws and carried them off. The Indians soon realized the great injury
they had sustained, and several hundred infuriated warriors assembled to avenge
their wrongs when the aggressors should return from Fort Snelling. They had not
long to wait, and when the boats came in sight they prepared to attack them. One
of the boats passed safely, but the other grounded on a sand bar, and the Indians
attempted its capture. After a severe struggle, however, they were repulsed. Two
of the white men were killed and so many wounded that it was with difficult} 7 that
the officer in charge succeeded in reaching Galena with the remnant of his crew.-

That part of the preceding episode referring to the seizing of the Winnebago
squaws is narrated by Governor Reynolds in his book, "History of My Own Times,"
but is said, in a paper printed in the Wisconsin Historical Collection (Volume V,
page 144), not to have happened, though it was reported in the St. Louis papers
of the time. In a note to the narrative, as printed in the Wisconsin Collections,
Lyman C. Draper considers the story to be "utterly without foundation." The
story has, however, received wide acceptance, having been repeated by Moses in
his "History of Illinois," and by Beckwith in the Fergus Historical Series (Num-
ber 27, page 141). But the fact that Reynolds, who was in the Illinois legislature
at that time, and was familiar with all the news of the day, relates it in circum-
stantial detail, certainly gives it respectable authority.

The report of this affair spread rapidly through the western country, and it
was fully expected that attacks might be looked for at any time upon the frontier
forts and trading posts. Just at this time General Lewis Cass, who was then Gov-
ernor of Michigan Territory, reached Green Bay on a tour of the frontier; and,
hearing of the "massacre" (as it was called) on the Upper Mississippi, he took a
canoe with twelve voyageurs, and rapidly passed up the Fox River and down the
Wisconsin into the Mississippi.

At Prairie-du-Chien the governor found the inhabitants in the greatest state of
alarm, and after organizing the militia, continued his voyage to St. Louis. From
this point he started a force under General Henry Atkinson to the lead-mining region,
while he himself, in a canoe, hastened on his return to Lake Michigan by way of
Chicago. He and his party passed over the "Mud Lake Portage," that is, from the
Desplaines into the Chicago River, without leaving their canoe, the water having
filled the swamps so that there was continuous navigation throughout. The entire
journey, from Green Bay around by way of St. Louis to Chicago, had been accom-
plished in thirteen days.

THE NEWS REACHES CHICAGO

On the approach of Governor Cass and his crew of thirteen voyageurs, the
family of Mr. Kinzie was at breakfast in his house, and with them was Gurdon S.
Hubbard, then in business for himself as an Indian trader. Voices were heard

2 Moses: "Illinois," I, 347.



OF ILLINOIS SHOWING
COUNTY BOUNDARIES IN
1831




From Stevens' "Black Hawk War"



From Stevens' "Black Hawk War"

LIEUTENANT JEFFERSON DAVIS

In 1829 Jefferson Davis, a second lieuten-
ant stationed at Fort Winnebago, visited
Chicago.



LEWIS CASS

Governor of Michigan Territory at the
time of the Winnebago War.







CALUMET OR PEACE PIPE



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 169

in the distance, which on nearer approach proved to be the boat songs of the
voyageurs. Every one left the table for the piazza of the house, and at once Mr.
Kinzie recognized the leading voice as that of "Bob" Forsyth, who was then sec-
retary to Governor Cass. From them they received the first news of the breaking
out of the Winnebago war, and the massacre on the Upper Mississippi. "Governor
Cass remained at Chicago but a few hours," says Hubbard in his autobiography,
"coasting Lake Michigan back to Green Bay."

As soon as the governor left, the inhabitants met for consultation, and it was
decided that Shabonee and Billy Caldwell, also called Sauganash, both of whom
could be depended upon, should be asked to visit the Pottawattomie chief, Big Foot,
at his village on Big Foot Lake, now known as Geneva Lake. The purpose of
this visit was to ascertain the designs of the Winnebagoes, with whom it was known
that Big Foot was on friendly terms. The two chiefs undertook the journey, but
were not well received by Big Foot, and Shabonee and his companion chief made
their way back to Chicago, where they made a report to the effect that the Winne-
bagoes maintained a hostile attitude toward the whites, and that an attack might
soon be expected.

MEASURES TAKEN FOR PROTECTION

The small community, now thrown on its own resources, was greatly excited.
No troops at the fort, no militia organization in effect, and far removed from succor
if the Indians should attack them, there was ample cause for the alarm of the
the few inhabitants of the place. The total population at that time was about one
hundred, 3 the principal men being John B. Beaubien, and his brother Mark, Jonas
Clybourn and his son Archibald, John K. Clark, John Crafts, Jeremy Clermont,
Louis Coutra, James Galloway, Russell E. Heacock, John Kinzie, Claude Lafram-
boise, Joseph Laframboise, David McKee, Peter Piche, Alexander Robinson, Alex-
ander Wolcott, and Antoine Ouilmette. 4 The name of Gurdon S. Hubbard is not
included among these, for, although he was present at Chicago at this time, his
business establishment was on the Wabash. In addition there was also a consid-
erable number of voyageurs and engages of the Fur Company, hunters and woods-
men, composed mostly of Canadian half-breeds, interspersed with a few Americans.

On receiving the report brought by Shabonee and Caldwell, the inhabitants
again assembled for consultation, when a suggestion was made by Gurdon S. Hub-
bard, then a young man of twenty-five, that some one ought to go to the Wabash
to obtain assistance, at the same time tendering his services. "This was at first
objected to," writes Hubbard in his narrative, "on the ground that a majority of
the men at the fort were in my employ, and in case of an attack, no one could
manage them or enforce their aid but myself. It was, however, decided that I
should go, as I knew the route and all the settlers."

HUBBARD'S RIDE

Many famous rides have been celebrated in song and story, like the ride of Paul
Revere, with whom, as the poet says,

3 Wisconsin Historical Collections, V, 216.

4 Andreas, I, 101.



170 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

"The fate of a nation was riding that night;"
or like that of the rider in Browning's poem, who bore

- the news that alone could save Aix from her fate."

Such a ride was that which the gallant young Hubbard had before him, through
a thinly settled region; for not a moment was to be lost, and the day was approach-
ing its close. Hubbard saddled his horse, and, without a companion, was off on
the hundred mile stretch to the Wabash. Here was a situation which might well
kindle the imagination of a poet, or become the subject of a thrilling romantic tale.

Let Hubbard relate it as we find it in his narrative, told in his own simple
and unpretentious words: "I started between four and five o'clock in the after-
noon, reaching my trading house on the Iroquois river by midnight, where I changed
my horse and went on; it was a dark, rainy night. On reaching Sugar creek, I
found the stream swollen out of its banks, and niy horse refusing to cross, I was
obliged to wait till daylight, when I discovered that a large tree had fallen across
the trail, making the ford impassable. I swam the stream and went on, reaching
.my friend Mr. Spencer's house at noon, tired out. Mr. Spencer started immediately
to give the alarm, asking for volunteers to meet at Danville the next evening, with
five days' rations. By the day following at the hour appointed, one hundred men
were organized into a company, and, appointing a Mr. Morgan, 6 an old frontier
fighter, as their captain, we immediately started for Chicago, camping that night
on the north fork of the Vermilion River. It rained continually, the trail was very
muddy, and we were obliged to swim most of the streams and many of the large
sloughs, but we still pushed on, reaching Fort Dearborn the seventh day after my
departure, to the great joy of the waiting people.

"We reorganized, and had a force of about one hundred and fifty men, Morgan
commanding. At the end of thirty days, news came of the defeat of the Winne-
bagoes, and of their treaty. . . . Upon hearing this, Morgan disbanded his
company, who returned to their homes, leaving Fort Dearborn in charge of the



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