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but such an adventure could have had no appreciable effect on the fortunes of
war, and the consequences would have fallen in the end most heavily on the heads
of those who had promoted the offense.

"That there were not wanting opportunities for hatching a conspiracy between
those within the camp and any sympathizing and adventurous friends outside, is
not open to doubt. There was a goodly number of Kentuckians among the pris-
oners, and there was also a considerable Kentucky element in the city's popula-
tion, with quite a sprinkling of relatives within the enclosure ;" and on account of
the well known laxity of surveillance it was not difficult to establish communica-
tions with the prisoners.



CHAPTER XXIX

LATER EVENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR PERIOD

THE DRAFT OF 1861 THE LAST CALL FOR TROOPS LARGE BOUNTIES PAID FOR RECRUITS

NUMBER OF TROOPS FURNISHED BY ILLINOIS NUMBER FURNISHED BY COOK

COUNTY WAR TIME TRANSPORTATION CONDITIONS IN THE NORTH CONTRASTED

WITH THOSE IN THE SOUTH THE DEATH OF LINCOLN THE FUNERAL JOURNEY

ARRIVAL OF THE REMAINS AT CHICAGO LYING IN STATE IN THE COURTHOUSE

ROTUNDA JOURNEY TO SPRINGFIELD GREELEY's TRIBUTE TO LINCOLN- WORK

OF THE SANITARY COMMISSION FIRST SANITARY FAIR THE ORIGINAL COPY OF

THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION "OLD ABE," THE WAR EAGLE THE SECOND

SANITARY FAIR SAMUEL BOWLES' VISIT JOHN L. SCRIPPS WRITES THE FIRST

AUTHORIZED BIOGRAPHY OF LINCOLN BECOMES POSTMASTER AT CHICAGO ANNI-
VERSARIES CELEBRATED IN 1911.

THE DRAFT OF 1 864

N July -1th, 186-1, President Lincoln issued a call for five hundred thou-
sand men. The quota of Illinois under this call was fixed at 16,182 men,
of which Cook county was to furnish 1,818. A "Citizens' Enrollment
Committee" was organized which cooperated with the military authori-
ties in the work of raising this number of men. A bounty of three hun-
dred dollars to each recruit was offered by the county, but as in the progress of
enlistments even with that inducement the quota had not yet been filled, a draft
was inaugurated September 26th. The drawings were spasmodically conducted,
the voluntary enlistments being so numerous that it often seemed unnecessary to
continue its operation. However, fifty nine conscripts were drawn for service, but
before they were sent to the field they were relieved by volunteers ; so that there
were no drafted men sent to the army from this state up to that time, nor, indeed,
at any time during the war, as we shall presently see.

Reviewing a book on the Civil War a writer in the Nation recently said: "In
the first flush of war excitement and patriotic fervor, volunteering can be depended
upon to supply the raw material for armies, but the wearing quality of that sys-
tem is poor. The bounty plan proves to be most unsatisfactory, and a rigid draft
does great harm to the industries which must supply the means to wage the w;ir.
The question how best to maintain an army in a democracy remains for the present
unanswered."

THE LAST CALL FOR TROOPS

In the proclamation issued by Governor Richard J. Oglesby, on the 17th
day of January, 1865, (the very day of his inauguration) he announced to tin;

146




CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 147

people of Illinois, that a call had been made by the President of the United States
for three hundred thousand more men to serve in the armies of the Union. He
appealed to the people to fill up the proposed new regiments by voluntary enlist-
ments, and thus manifest once more their patriotism and devotion to their country.
He promised to make known the quota of troops to be raised in this state as soon
as it could be ascertained.

"In appealing to you," said the Governor, "I believe that neither the state nor
the general government will ask in vain. At no time during the existence of this
wicked rebellion has Illinois been behind her sister states in manifestations of loy-
alty and patriotism; and during the darkest hours of this contest, her sons, with
matchless heroism and devotion, have ever responded to the requirements of our
National Executive. I feel that you will do so again;" and that thousands will
come forward and leave their avocations "whilst their country needs their services
and calls for their assistance."

The President's proclamation had referred to the Act of Congress of the pre-
vious July, which provided that, at the President's discretion, he might order a
draft to complete the quotas assigned to any district or city, if he found it nec-
essary to do so, under any call that should hereafter be made. Thus the President
said that "in case the quota or any part thereof . . . shall not be filled before
the 15th day of February, 1865, then a draft shall be made to fill such quota."
The Governor in his proclamation to the people of Illinois refers to this subject
in these words: "Let it not be said when our brave Illinoisans, under the gallant
Sherman, have penetrated the heart of the rebellion, and our heroic and indom-
itable Grant is breaking down the very gates of its citadel, and the end of the re-
bellion, so far as we can see, is not distant, that at this hour Illinois has dimmed
and tarnished her proud record by tardiness and inaction; but let her respond
with men as true and brave as those who have shed such imperishable fame upon
her arms."

THE RESPONSE TO THE PRESIDENT'S CALL

The ardor and patriotism of the people were aroused, and everywhere the most
enthusiastic spirit prevailed. Camp Fry, in Chicago, was the rendezvous appointed
for the northern portion of the state, while Camp Wood, at Quincy, was designated
for the southern. At these camps the rapidly forming "one hundred companies,"
named in the Adjutant-General's orders, were assembled, and soon formed into
ten regiments, the 147th and the 156th, inclusive, each containing ten companies.
The recruiting for these went forward with so much success that it soon became
apparent that there would be more volunteers than sufficient for the ten regiments.
The draft, which had been fixed for February 15th, was therefore temporarily
postponed, until it could be definitely ascertained how many men would be re-
quired to fill the quota of the state.

The organization of the ten regiments having been completed, making a total
of approximately ten thousand men, it was determined to continue the recruiting,
sending the excess forward to fill up regiments already in the service, whose ranks
had been depleted by the casualties of war and otherwise. Nearly five thousand
more men were in this way supplied for the armies in the field, and assigned to
old regiments. "The wisdom as well as the justice of these assignments of new



148 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

men to old regiments," said Adjutant-General Haynie, in his report made to the
Governor on January 1st, 1866, (which we quote with some slight verbal altera-
tions), "has been abundantly vindicated by subsequent experience, for not only
has the new recruit been enabled to become more rapidly veteranized, and has been
more speedily made acquainted with the duties expected and required of him, but
he has been allowed to share the laurels already won, and indulge in the proud
consciousness that thenceforth the fame and just credit of the army in the field
belonged to him also."

The quota for Illinois under the President's call was, after considerable delay,
determined to be 32,892 men, of which the City of Chicago was expected to fur-
nish 5,202. Chicago had already fully met the demands upon her under the pre-
vious^calls, and although enlistments under the last call had been numerous, up to
the time that her proportion was ascertained, it was found to the surprise of
every one, that there would be a deficiency in the number to fill the quota. "We
are required," said the Governor in his proclamation of March 6th, 1865, making
the announcement of the state's quota, "to furnish fourteen thousand more [troops].
Citizens of Illinois, let this be done, if possible, without a draft." It
became plain, however, that the draft would have to be resorted to, and preparations
were accordingly made to comply with the President's order for a draft to complete
the assigned quota.

MEASURES TO ENFORCE THE DRAFT

Naturally, the prospect of enforcing the draft created a feeling of apprehen-
sion among the large class of "stay-at-homes," and extraordinary efforts were made
to complete the quota before the time came to put the order into effect. Commit- ,
tees of citizens raised funds with which to stimulate enlistments by offering boun- j
ties in addition to those already offered by the government, so that many new re- j
cruits received in bounties, and for their services as "substitutes" as much as
eight hundred dollars each, and in some cases even more. The regular bounties,
which it had become customary to pay to new recruits from an early period of
the war, was increased by 1863, to three hundred dollars each to new recruits,
and four hundred dollars eacli to "veteran volunteers," as they were called, that j
is, those who had already served their time in the army, and had been discharged.
Many cities and counties also offered extra bounties for new recruits, according
to their ability to provide for them. The whole amount paid by Cook county and
the City of Chicago together for bounties was $2,801,239. The total amount paid
by the cities, towns and counties of the entire State of Illinois was $13,711,389.

The large bounties paid gave rise to a class of swindlers who were called
"bounty jumpers," men who would take the first opportunity to desert after en-
listment. Some of these rascals, after escaping from the branch of the service in
which they had enlisted, would re-enlist in some other part of the country where
they were not likely to be known, and thus secure another bounty. In fact many
such were apprehended and were made to suffer the consequences of their in-
famous conduct.

In the spring of 1865, it was plain to all observers of the course of events
that the war was rapidly approaching its termination, and when the time came
to enforce the draft, there was actually no draft made whatever. "It can be said,"



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 149

says the author of "Bygone Days," "that no drafted man went into the field from
Illinois."

THE CLOSE OF THE CIVIL WAR

The Civil War ended with the surrender of General Lee at Appomatox Court
House, on the ninth of April, 1865. The armies of the Union were at that time
never so formidable, never so invincible, and, until recruiting ceased by order of
Secretary Stanton, were daily adding to their strength. The reduction of the
army began almost immediately. Two places in Illinois were designated as the
rendezvous for the returning troops, Camp Butler at Springfield, and Camp Doug-
las at Chicago. Early in June the railroads of the state extending toward the
south and east from the two places named as rendezvous, were taxed to their utmost
capacity to furnish transportation for the returning soldiers, impatient to receive
their discharge.

This work went on during the summer, until by the end of the season only a
few regiments were left in the south where they were needed at certain points for
garrison duty. These, however, were relieved as soon as possible by the United
States regular troops, and, in the course of the following year, the last remaining
organizations of volunteer troops from Illinois had been mustered out, and the
men had returned to their homes.

The total number of troops furnished by Illinois to the armies of the Union
was 255,057. The total losses among the Illinois troops by the casualties of war
and by disease were 34,834, of which 9,894 were killed in battle or died of wounds,
the remaining 24,940 having died of disease. The proportion of those who died
in the service to the whole number of enlistments was therefore about thirteen and
two-thirds per cent. The total number of troops furnished by Cook county was
22,532, and according to the proportion above given, the losses by death among the
Cook county volunteers were somewhat more than three thousand men.

"In all the great events of this wonderful period of our history," says Adjutant-
General Haynie in his report, "the sons of Illinois have borne their full share,
and now that the record is closed, ready to be written out and delivered to pos-
terity, no citizen of the state can have cause to feel other than a just pride in re-
viewing the achievements of our soldiery."

THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR

Writing of the Civil War in the United States, Spenser Wilkinson, an eminent
English military critic, says: "I believe that all serious wars in or between civ-
ilized communities are struggles between right and wrong, and that on the whole
and as a rule, it is the cause of right which prevails. The American Civil War
. appears to me to be a striking illustration of this belief. The cancer from which
the body politic of the United States was suffering during the first half of the
nineteenth century was the institution of negro slavery. The Civil War was the
operation which provided the needed relief."

Judge Carter's views as to the real cause of the Civil War differ from those
of the writer previously quoted from. "Few appreciate the greatest result of that
war," says Carter. "It is usually argued that it was brought on by slavery, and
it is generally accepted that the freeing of four million bondsmen was the greatest



150 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

result of that terrible struggle. The freeing of the slave was indeed a priceless
gain, but all thoughtful students of history now agree that that was a mere inci-
dent of the war; that as one of our great historians has said, 'far more subtly in-
terwoven with the innermost fibers of our national well being, far heavier laden
with weighty consequences for the future of mankind, was the question whether this
great pacific federal principle joined with local independence should be overthrown
by the first great social struggle in this country.'

"The federal principle contains within itself the working basis of permanent
peace. . . . The working out of this federal idea, as John Fiske has said,
'was the finest specimen of constructive statesmanship the world has ever seen.'
It was a long step toward reaching a proper solution of the settlement of social
and governmental problems T>y methods of peace and law. 'This greatest safeguard
of universal peace,' this pacific principle in government was imperiled by the re-
volt of the South. Had it been successful the progress of civilization might have '
been delayed for centuries."

Lincoln's own words may well be quoted as a contribution to the question of
what was the great issue of the Civil War. In his famous reply to Greeley he
wrote: "If there be those who would not save the Union unless they could at the
same time save slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be those who would
not save the Union unless they could at the same time destroy slavery, I do not ,
agree with them. My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and
is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing
any slave I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would
do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would
also do that. What I do about slavery and the colored race, I do because I be-
lieve it helps to save the Union, and what I forbear I forbear because I do not
believe it would help to save the Union."

These words are engraved on the base of the Lincoln statue in Lincoln Park,
and in placing them there the sculptor, says Judge Carter, showed "a clear in-
sight as to Lincoln's place in history. The words of that inscription show the
thoughts that inspired Lincoln in his leadership of his people, words which dem-
onstrate his thorough grasp of the great problems that were facing him, written
when he had already made up his mind that he would at the proper time issue the
Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves."

WAR TIME TRANSPORTATION

The demands upon the transportation lines caused by the Civil War called at- .
tention to the inadequacy of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, as a means of hand-
ling the vast volume of products coming to the Chicago market. It could be used
only half the year at best, and, although its carrying rates were low, it could not
keep pace with the rapidly extending railroad lines in quickness of movement, all-
the-year-round service, or in widening its tributary area by means of branch lines.
The Canal however was of great public utility in keeping the railroad rates low
in all the territory it penetrated.

When the canal was projected it was the intention to provide a channel six
feet in depth, but during the progress of the work the difficulty of procuring funds






CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 151

made it necessary to change the plan in this respect. It was therefore completed
on the so-called "shallow cut" plan, that is with a depth of four feet, which could
be done at much less cost. Of course the capacity of the canal boats was much
less with the shallower channel, and it became necessary when increased efficiency
was desired to deepen the channel.

During the first year of the war there arose a demand for a ship canal to con-
nect the lakes with the Mississippi river, which resulted in the calling of the River
and Harbor Convention of 1863, as we have related elsewhere. This enlargement,
however, was not completed until 1871. But while water transportation lagged
railroad transportation increased enormously. "The story of Civil War trans-
portation," says Professor Emerson D. Fite, in a work recently published entitled
"Social and Industrial Conditions in the North During the Civil War," "is one of
remarkable growth and prosperity, of extraordinarily heavy traffic, great profits,
and many improvements in equipment; of hard wear on every part of the roads,
but of little actual construction of new lines. It was an era of decided public in-
terest in transportation questions, of keen competition between rival cities to se-
cure additional facilities. Far from checking their development, the war worked
to the advantage of the canals and railroads." J

ADVANTAGES POSSESSED BY CHICAGO

Chicago's geographical situation, as well as the great advantage there was in
the level country surrounding it, rendering it easy of approach, were the determin-
ing factors in attracting the railroad builders of that day. "In the West," says
Professor Fite, "the most fortunately situated city was Chicago, which as the con-
verging point of a magnificent network of railroads covering the whole West,
whence three trunk lines and the lakes led eastward, constituted the collecting and
distributing point of a vast area. This post Milwaukee sought to wrest from her,
while the honor of being the gateway between the East and the West was con-
tended for by four cities, Buffalo, Oswego, Cleveland, and Erie. St. Louis and
Cincinnati each possessed favorable transportation facilities, although like Balti-
more in the East, they were too near the seat of war to obtain much share in the
growing trade; all three border cities had difficulty in holding their own. Most of
the new business went to Chicago in the West and to New York in the East, and
the Chicago-New York route was the most important highway of commerce." 2

WAR TIME CONDITIONS IN THE NORTH

"In the North, the country, the towns and the cities presented about the same
appearance they do in time of peace. The furnace was in blast, the shops were
filled with workmen, the fields were cultivated, not only to supply the population
of the North and the troops invading the South, but to ship abroad to pay a part
of the expense of the war. In the North the press was free up to the point of
open treason," while in the South there was no "fire in the rear" of this descrip-
tion. "The press of the South," said General Grant, "like the people who re-

1 Fite, p. 77.

2 Fite, p. 48.



152 CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS

mained at home, was loyal to the Southern cause. . . . The colored people,
four million in number, were submissive and worked in the field and took care of
the families while the able-bodied white men were at the front fighting for a cause
destined to defeat. The cause was popular, and was enthusiastically supported
by the young men." 3

THE DEATH OF LINCOLN

The death of Abraham Lincoln occurred on the 15th of April, 1865. The peo-
ple of the North were in the midst of rejoicings over the fall of Richmond and
the surrender of Lee's army, when like a thunder bolt the news was flashed over
the country that Lincoln was shot by an assassin. The particulars of this foul
deed are so well known that it is not necessary here to enter into a description of
it. The joy and gladness of the people were thus suddenly turned into grief and
mourning and the loss was, if possible, more keenly felt in Illinois than elsewhere.
"In Illinois," says Dr. Eddy, "the grief was the deeper because Illinois best knew
and loved the slain chieftain. He had grown with her growth, he was identified
with her history, he had fought the battle of freedom on her prairies, she had given
him to the nation, and had sent him with loving benedictions and earnest prayers
to the post of responsibility, peril, death." 4 But even so it would be invidious to
claim for the Illinois people any greater affection and admiration for the great
War President than was felt for him everywhere, throughout the loyal states of
the Union.

The President had been warned that a plot existed against his life, but ho
paid little heed to it. In his desk was a place in which to keep letters threatening
his life, and to which he had attached a label, "assassination letters." On the
morning of the fatal day he had "talked with his wife," says Dr. Eddy, "of the
four stormy years he had passed, and of the dawn of peaceful times and the com-
ing of better days." In the afternoon he saw a number of gentlemen from Illi-
nois, and in the early evening conversed at some length with Speaker Schuyler
Colfax and George Ashmun of Massachusetts, and invited them to accompany him
to Ford's theatre that evening, an invitation that they were unable to accept. It
will be remembered that Mr. Ashmun was the chairman of the Chicago convention
where Lincoln was nominated in 1860, and was at the head of the committee which
visited Springfield immediately afterwards to make the official notification.

Throughout the land all was mourning and lamentation. Buildings were draped
with mourning emblems everywhere. In many of the principal towns of Canada
the demonstrations were as general and impressive as in the states. A committee
of one from each loyal state and territory was chosen to accompany the remains
to their last resting place, at his former home in Springfield. From the White
House a vast procession accompanied the remains to the Capitol, which was "clad
from basement to the summit of its lordly dome with garments of woe." Here the
body laid in state, attended by a guard of honor, one of whom was Lieutenant
Henry A. Pearsons of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, who had enlisted from Evanston,
and is at this time a resident of that place. "Illinois demanded that he whom she

3 U. S. Grant: "Personal Memoirs," Vol. II, p. 502.

* Thomas M. Eddy: "Patriotism of Illinois," Vol. II, p. 25.




From "Ttie Ifamiltonian"

THE BODY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN AT THE COOK

COUNTY COURTHOUSE ON THE TRIP FROM

WASHINGTON TO SPRINGFIELD




From Tarbell's "Life of Lincoln"

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

From photograph taken by
Brady in 1800




From Tarbell's "Life of Lincoln"



THE FUNERAL CAR IN WHICH LINCOLN'S
BODY WAS TRANSPORTED



CHICAGO: ITS HISTORY AND ITS BUILDERS 153

sent forth with her benediction and invocation to be the nation's leader," says
Dr. Eddy, "should be brought home to sleep in her own bosom, far from the scenes
of the war which gave him so much anguish. It was meet that his last resting-
place should be on the broad prairies where he made his home ; and that, not at
Washington, neither in Chicago, where sleeps the dust of Douglas, his great rival,
and at the last his trusted friend, but at Springfield, his former home, from which
he spoke his good-bye to Illinois, and asked the prayers of fellow-citizens, should
his grave be made."

THE FUNERAL JOURNEY

Accordingly, the War Department made arrangements for a funeral train to
bear the remains to Illinois. The official program directed that it should not "ex-
ceed nine cars, including baggage and hearse car." The funeral car was draped



Online LibraryJ. Seymour (Josiah Seymour) CurreyChicago: its history and its builders, a century of marvelous growth (Volume v.2) → online text (page 21 of 55)