J. Smyth Carter.

The story of Dundas, being a history of the County of Dundas from 1784 to 1904 online

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ship. In 1899, 1901 and 1903 he was elected to the Counties' Council as one of the
representatives of the Matilda division. His interest in politics was early
evinced and he soon became one of the leading Liberals in Matilda. At the
provin cial elections of 1902 he unsuccessfully contested the county in the
Liberal interest, his opponent being J. P. Whitney, leader of the Opposition.
In February, 1900, Mr. Smyth was married to Zipporah Barclay, daughter of
James Barclay, of Irena, the union being blessed with two children, a daugh-
ter and a son, the latter deceased. He is a member of the Methodist church
at Rowena, a prominent Sabbath school worker in both a local and wider



104 THE STORY OF DTJNDA8

sphere ; was secretary of the Matilda and Iroquois S. S. Association, and also of
the county association, and was the county's delegate to the Provincial Sab-
bath school convention at Hamilton in 1897.

H. A. Cameron was born in Charlottenburg township, not far from Williams-
town. His municipal career includes four years in the council of his native
township and four years in the Counties' Conncil as representative of Charlot-
tenburg division. Mr. Cameron is enthusiastic in military matters, being at
present senior captain of No. 6 Company, ' 59th regiment.

Ewen Dingwall, colleague of Mr. Cameron in the representation of Charlot-
tenburg division, has served twelve years at the Counties' Council board. He
is a son of the late John Dingwall, a U. E. Loyalist, and was born in the year
1848. In addition to his agricultural interests, he carries on a successful
milling business at Williamstown.

John A. McDougal, born on lot 34, con. 4, in the township of Lancaster,
which division he now represents, is a descendant of a U. E. Loyalist family.
He has been connected with the township and Counties' Council for a period of
fourteen years, and during that time has always been returned by acclama-
tion. In 1868 he entered the military service as a private, and was advanced
from time to time until promoted lieutenant and later captain of a
militia company, his connection therewith covering a period of ISyears. Dur-
ing the Fenian troubles of '66 and '70 Captain McDougal saw active service
for which he holds a medal, also a certificate for a grant of land. The organ-
ization of the Glengarry Fire Insurance Company was brought about partly
through the efforts of Mr. McDougal, who had the honor of being elected
president of the Company at the first meeting of the executive. In this capac-
ity he had the additional repute of signing the first policy issued by the '
Company. Mr. McDougal is also a J. P.

John B. Snider, the present warden of the united counties of Stormont,
Dundas and Glengarry, is a descendant of German and Highland Scotch U.
E . Loyalist families, who left the American Republic at the close of the
revolutionary war to settle under the Union Jack in the Canadian backwoods.
His father, the late Benjamin Snider, was one of the old settlers of Lancaster
township^ where the subject of this sketch was born 69 years ago. Mr.
Snider has had considerable experience in municipal politics. He served a
number of years in the Council of his native township, and during the greater
share of that time occupied the position of reeve. For over twenty years he
has been a faithful member of the Counties' Council . His recent election by
acclamation to the warden's chair is a fitting recognition of his worth as a
public servant, who is now bearing the three score and ten mark.

Donald A. Me Arthur is of Scotch parentage, and was born in Charlotten-
burg township. In 1885 he was elected reeve of Alexandria; in 1886 was
warden of the united counties, and has since then, with the exception of four




GLENGARRY MEMBERS OF COUNTIES COUNCIL, 1903-4.
A. D. McRae. J. B. Snider. D. A. McArthur.

J. R. McQuaig. J. A. McDougal.

M. McRae. il. A. C;:meron. E. Dingwall.



MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 107

or five years, been a member of the Counties' Council. At present he is a
representative of Lochiel division. Over forty years ago Mr. McArthur came
to Alexandria, and has since been interested in mercantile pursuits. He was
a director of the Canadian Atlantic Railway, was a member of a sub-com-
mittee consisting of lour of the directors who assisted in making a contract
with D. C. Lindsay for the construction and equipment of the road. At the
Provincial elections of 1882 he contested the county in the Conservative
interests, but was defeated by a narrow majority by James Bayside, who
represented Glengarry for several years.

John B. McQuaig, who is serving his first term as one of the representatives
of Lochiel, was born at Dalkeith, on the farm where he resides. For years
he has been closely identified with advanced farming, and has taken an
interest in rearing thoroughbred cattle. Mr. McQuaig has frequently been
mentioned in connection with Legislative honors; is prominently identified
with several fraternal societies, being a member of the I. O. F., A. F. and A.
M., and head of the Orange order in Prescott and Glengarry for a number of
years.

A. D. McBae was born in the township of Kenyon on the farm where he
resides, part of which lies within the limits of the incorporated village of
Maxville. In 1882-3 he was a member of the Kenyon township council, and
in 1892, when Maxville was incorporated, he had the honor of being elected
reeve. Ever since the inception of the Act of 1896 Mr. McBae has represented
the Kenyon division. In 1901 he was elected warden by acclamation.

Murdock McBae, colleague of A. D. in the representation of the fourth
division of Glengarry, was born in Kenyon township, on lot 30, concession 7.
About twenty years ago he came to Greenfield, bought grain and produce
for a time, and since then has been successfully engaged in the general mer-
cantile and lumbering business. Mr.McBae was one year councillor and three
years reeve of Kenyon, and is now serving his fourth year as County
Councillor.

Annexed is a list of wardens, clerks and treasurers of our counties from
1842 to the present, together with the length of time each has served:

Wardens 1842-1850,Hon. Alexander Fraser; 1850, D. E. Mclntyre; 1851,
William Mattice; 1852, Samuel Ault; 1853, Jacob Brouse; 1854, Alex. M-
Donell; 1855, William Colquhoun; 1856, D. A. McDonald; 1857, Alex. McDou-
gall; 1858, William Elliott; 1859, James McDonell; 1860, George McDonell; 1861,
Alexander G. McDonell; 1862, James Craig; 1863, Alex. Mclntosh; 1864, Philip
Carman; 1865, James Fraser; 1866, A. James Cockburn; 1867, Asaph B. Sher-
man; 1868, Archibald McNab; 1889, Angus Bethune; 1870, David Bae; 1871,
Peter Kennedy; 1872, John G. Snetsinger; 1873, M. F. Beach; 1874, A. E. Mc-
Bae; 1875, John Brown; 1876, Adam Harkness; 1877, James Clark; 1878, Will-



108 THE STORY OF DUNDAS

iam Mack; 1879, T. F. Chamberlain, M. A; 1880, D. A. McDonald; 1881, I. R.
Ault; 1882, James Dickey; 1883, A. J. Grant; 1884, F. D. McNaughton; 1885'
William McKenzie; 1886, D. A. Me Arthur; 1887, Frank Anderson; 1888, J. F.
Gibbons; 1889, P. A. Stewart; 1890, George Kerr; 1891, Thomas McDonald;
1892, Alex. A. Stewart; 1893, John Bennett; 1894, Thomas Hamilton; 1895,
Donald N. McNaughton; 1896, Donald McDonald; 1897, John H. Meikle; 1898,
Duncan C. McRae; 1899, James T. Kirkpatrick; 1900, Thomas S.Edwards; 1901,
Alex. D. McRae; 1902, Hugh McMillan; 19J3, Michael J. Casselman; 1904, John
B. Snider.

Clerks- 1842-51, James Pringle; 1852-56, Peter J. McDonald;1857, D. Heenan;
1858-66, J.F. Pringle; 1867-8, G.S. Jarvis; W69-70, W.Bethune; 1871-74, J.Bergin;
1875-6, H. S. McDonald; 1877-84, Charles Poole; 1885, A.Macdonald.C.J.Mattice;
1886-7, C. J. Mattice; 1888-9, Henry Carpenter; 1890-1904, Adrian I. Macdonell.

Treasurers -1842-9, Alex- McLean, Roderick McDonald ; 1850-1884, Roderick
McDonald ; 1885-7, tineas McDonald ; 18S8-1902, C. J. Mattice ; 1903-4, Geo.
Steacy, M. D.

A. I. Macdonell, the present clerk of the united counties of Stormont, Dun-
das and Glengarry, was born of Canadian parents at Chicago, 111., in 1868, and
has been a resident of Cornwall since 1872. He attended the Separate and
High schools at Cornwall, matriculating for Queen's University in 1883, and
the following year entered the law office of the late H. S. Macdonald, after
whose death, in 1886, he entered the office of Maclennan, Liddell & Cline. In
November, 1839, he was admitted to the bar. In June, 1890 he was appointed
clerk of the united counties, the duties of which office he has ably discharged
ever since. Mr. Macdonell married in December, 1891, Miss Christina Crevier,
their family consisting of two children.

George Steacy, M. D., son of the late Joseph Steacy, was born in the town-
ship of Elizabeth town, ten miles from Brockville. He was educated at the
common school and Grammar school at Brockville, and obtained a first-class
teacher's certificate at the age of 14. He taught school for some years ; stud-
ied medicine at Trinity Medical School, Toronto, graduating from that insti-
tution in 1872 with first-class honors, and opened an office at South Mountain
where he enjoyed a lucrative practice for thirty years. For some years was
Reeve of Mountain, which township he also represented for some time in the
Counties' Council, resigning in 1903 to accept the treasurership of the united
counties, which position he holds at present. The Doctor is a member of the
Church of England, and in politics is a staunch Conservative.

The Council for the united counties of Stormont, Dundas and
Glengarry convenes regularly at Cornwall, the counties' seat, where suitable
buildings have been erected. But few times in the history of the Council has



MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 109

the migratory plan been followed. In June, 1850, the Council met at Broeffl e's
hotel, Williamsburg ; in October of the same year at Ronald McDonelTs
hotel, at Williamstown ; and lastly at Morrisburg, in October, 1892. The
originator of this movement was C. D. Casselman, then reeve of Williams-
burg. At the Morrisburg meeting, at which a large number of visitors were
present, Mr. Casselman presented an address of welcome in behalf of the
townspeople, in which he welcomed the Councillors to Morrisburg; referred to
the days of forty years before when the people of Stormont and Glengarry
came to Morrisburg on foot or by stage ; spoke of the growth and possibilities
of the village ; eulogized the spirit of unity prevailing in the three sister coun-
ties, and heartily recommended that the Government be memorialized to
erect a monument at Crysler's Farm battlefield, a worthy project accomplish-
ed a few years later, A pleasant and profitable week was spent by the Coun-
cillors, closing with a grand banquet at St. Lawrence Hall.

For nearly a century these united counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glen-
garry have constituted a municipal unit, and there is no apparent desire for
separation. The student of municipal economy will readily discern that in
any union of counties there are advantages and disadvantages. One of the
advantages of union is the financial saving as a result of the business being
done at one centre by one set of officials, instead of each county maintaining
a separate establishment. Again, if any needed work of a public character
makes it desirable to memorialize either the Ontario Legislature or Federal Gov-
ernment, the voice of three counties might be expected to exert greater in-
fluence than one. On the other hand, it is sometimes difficult for the members
of one county requiring local legislation to enlist the support of the other two.

A few years ago the question of counter separation was up for discussion
and received some notice through the press, ably led by the Morrisburg
Herald. The contention was that Dundas would be the gainer by having a
county seat and keep within itself the money expended in connection
with the county government. The many years during which the counties
have been united and worked together more or less harmoniously may be ac-
cepted, however, as indication of the satisfaction the present system is giving.



CHAPTER IX



PUBLIC SCHOOLS

THE details of school matters in this county prior to the year 1850 are
meagre. An Act was passed in 1807 by the Legislature of Upper Canada to
"establish Public schools in each and every district" and to appoint trustees.
The "Public schools" so established were the infant Grammar schools. The
Eastern District comprised the counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry,
and the Eastern District Public school was located in Cornwall. The trustees
were Samuel Sherwood, Neil McLean, Samuel Anderson, Joseph Anderson,
John Crysler and Alexander McMillan.

The Public School System seems to have originated in 1816 when an Act
was passed for the organization and support of Common schools^ throughout
the province. By it "the inhabitants of any place were to meet and appoint
three fit and discreet persons as trustees, and these trustees were to collect
subscriptions, to build school houses, to examine into the moral character and
capacity of any person willing to become a teacher of such schools." The
trustees were to report to the District Board of Education, which at that time
for the Eastern District Was composed of Donald McDonald and Archibald
McLean, M. P. The Act provided for a grant to the respective districts, that
to the Eastern District being 800, and the Act was to continue in force for
four years.

In the returns of the Common schools for 1827, we -find that in the Eastern
District there were 46 schools and 1,169 pupils, and that Joseph Anderson, D
McDonell and A. McLean were members of the district board. In 1828 there
were reported in this district 53 schools and 1,395 pupils, and the average
annual salary of teachers was 41, 10s. 5d.

In 1844 Rev. Edgerton Ryerson was appointed Assistant Superintendent of
Schools, and published his first report in 1847 on the "Normal, Model and
Common Schools of Upper Canada." In the preface to this report he says \
"Four-fifths of the statistics contained in this report are entirely new in this
Province." From those statistics we get the earliest definite ones for the
different municipalities of this county:



PUBLIC SCHOOLS



111



8

S 3



auo^g



02






5

o



jo joi.iajaj

sjooqog

jo Sa;ippij\[



TO CD



puooag



O5 U3 ID O?



.10 poo) jo



Suunp



I ool lS



CO 00 CO



Suianp



CO .-1 C6 CO



R
^



PQ
^
H



CO ^ O



CO CO t



r^O O O O



-



a8



fc

1



t- t-



g

6C O

3



C- i-( CO CD



ut spoqog jo



00 CO CO rH



|ooqog loj






f

5

*"
01

1









112 THE STORY OF DUNDAJ3

The Toronto Normal school was established in 1847. The annual report for
1348 is out of print, and although that for 1849 is available, unfortunately the
statistics are given only for districts and so serve no purpose for local com-
parisons. We note, however, that it contains selections from the Report of
Rev. Wm. Fraser, Superintendent of Common schools for the Eastern
District.

The Common Schools' Act of 1850, the embodiment of the views of Rev. Dr.
Ryerson, Chief Superintendent of Education, gained by experience and travel,
introduced practical organization and system, and from that time we may
properly speak of the Common School System. This Act defined the duties
and powers of County Councils, township councils, of County Boards of
Public Instruction, of trustees, and of teachers, and specified what constitut-
ed qualified teachers. The schools might be supported either by subscription ,
by rate-bills, or by assessment, or by two or more of these methods. Trustees
might either appoint their own collector, or require the township council to
collect. County Councils were to appoint a local superintendent for each
township or combination of townships, and the local superintendent was to
visit the schools in his district every quarter. The local superintendents
and the trustees of the Grammar schools were to constitute the County Board
of Public Instruction, and were to meet quarterly to examine teachers and
grant certificates. All clergymen, judges, members of the Legislature, magis-
trates, members of County Councils and aldermen were school visitors in their
respective localities.

The report for 1850 contains 576 pages of most interesting matter, and the
statistics are this time again given by municipalities though not so fully as
before. The more interesting of these will be found in Table "B."



PUBLIC SCHOOLS



113



School
Houses


MOT


pa^aodeg ^N


araui^


^ao^s


Schools


SfOOtpS 38.I^J JO '0[




S&VIQ p-ig ao joiaajai jo -osj


"* O O5


2


ssw[Q pug ao Suyipptur -o^j


o eq o cq


a


SST?JO 3 s l J POO) jo *N


o co o o


CO


Certificates


SJt?3 A -waijoji
Sui-inQ pa^iipu.i) -o^j


S N m S


s


JTJejt oqi
iiaijnQ paqinip-ear) -oj^


H OS O5 O





jTeachers


soiTiuia^


00 O 00 IO


s


SOJ-BJ^


CO CO i* CO


s


i i


pono.mf[
sndnj jo -o>j


<O HO t Q

5 S S i


I


.1

fc^

sSQO

ii

<JC

a
<l


-i

Female Teach-
ers Without
Board


TJO O O O

w > o o o
1-(

5I S S


X



1i
fcCM

?1

<ll

a

<l


Male Teachers
Without Board


^0 o o o

on O O O O

s9 S 8 IS




43

a

i> 01

s >

1 ! 3 1

^j O DO S

ft S 'Sc O
v

S ^

<J


^

fSOO C- -! rt(

00 1^ O5 !M CO
i-t i^ i i r^

=rtg

rH t I


uoi^B.iado I s[ooqog jo 'o^j


t~ (N O5 r-l

I I i 1 r- 1 i 1


i


suoi^09g jooqog jo 'o^[


O5 W5 1-H
i-H <N rt


i


1


TOWNSHIP


6C :
b

: S fe
.5 | i

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1



PQ

i:

w
-

PQ
<5
H



114 THE STORY OF DUNDAS

Among other matter is the programme for the examination of teachers ; a
perusal of that prescribed for third-class teachers will show that it was very
considerably lower than is now required from High school entrance candi-
dates.

Among the selections in the report from remarks of local superintendents
appear those of Rev. J. McDowell, of Mountain ; Emerson Boss, of Williams-
burg, and George Laing, of Winchester.

Among the amendments made in 1852 were some providing for Separate
schools, sharing in the Legislative grant, and improving their administration;
making local superintendents' term of office expire April 1st, and reducing
the number of visits annually to two, and providing a superannuation fund
for teachers.

Under the head of "Inspection" will be found lists of many of the local
superintendents of the county, and under the heading of "County Boards" the
names of examiners.

The School Act of 1871 may be said almost to have revolutionized the
school system of the province. Free schools which had become increasingly
popular were now made compulsory. As far as Dundas was concerned the
schools were already practically free, the amount collected by rate-bill during
1870 having been only $34.55. The office of the local superintendent was
abolished and a system of inspection by permanent Public School Inspectors
introduced. Local superintendents appointed annually by County Councils
had been subject to such frequent changes of personnel, to say nothing of the
character sometimes of the appointment, that the efficiency of their adminis-
tration and supervision was far from being in many cases as vigorous and
beneficial as was desirable, though probably Dundas suffered as little in this
respect from the system as most counties, as may be judged from the number
of years that some of those respected and useful officers held their positions.

The Public School Inspectors were still to be appointed by the County Coun-
cils, but from among those holding certificates of qualification from the Edu-
cation Department . County Boards of Examiners replaced the Councils of
Public Instruction, the Public School Inspector being ex-officio chairman, and
the members appointed by the County Council from those who held first-class
teacher's certificates. The standard for the examination of teachers was con-
siderably advanced, and the examination papers were prepared in Toronto by
a Central Committee appointed by the Education Department. The papers
for second and third-class candidates were read by the County Board, while
those of first-class candidates were sent to Toronto and read by the Central
Committee. (Later the papers of second, and still later those of third-class
candidates were read in Toronto also, and the County Board valued only those
of the professional examination at the close of the Model school term.)




Winchester (Village).
North Wiliamsburg.

Irena.
Dixon's Corners.



SCHOOL HOUSES.
Morrisburg (Model).
Chesterville (Public).
Grantley.

South Mountain.



Morewood.
Chesterville (R.C.).

Mountain.
East Williamsburg.



PUBLIC SCHOOLS



117



Until 1871 pupils had been admitted to the Grammar schools (now called
High schools) by the head masters, but now the Public School Inspectors
were associated with the head masters for the admission of pupils, and the
examination papers for that purpose tire prepared in Toronto, and reports of
results forwarded to the Department for confirmation. This plan not only
secured uniformity in the standard for admission, but gave increased efficiency
to the teaching in the Public schools, as they were now named, instead of
Common schools. Hon. Geo. W. Ross, in his "School System of Ontario,"
remarks in this connection : "Perhaps the most satisfactory test of the effic-
iency of the Public school system is the annual departmental examination
required for entrance to High schools * * * usually taken at the end of
the fourth form. In 1877 3,836 pupils, as compared with 10,049 pupils in 1895,
were successful at this examination." The accompanying table shows the
number of successful entrance candidates in the county from 1883 down to the
present time :

Entrance Examinations for county of Dundas from 1882 to 1903:

Chesterville S. Mountain Totals

45
77
85
136
163
147
98
128
163
181
97
105
147
146
141
142
138
149
135
178
215
183



Morrisburg Iroquois Winch


1882


36


9




1883


56


21




1884


42


32


11


1885


62


51


23


1886


62


43


58


1887


59


33


55


1888


30


30


38


1889


46


37


45


1890


58


38


67


1891


62


49


70


1892


33


27


37


1893


24


28


53


1894


50


40


67


1895


62


37


47


1896


49


36


56


1897


50


37


55


1898


37


27


74


1899


52


39


58


1900


54


18


50


1901


53


40


62


1902


64


35


69


1903


38


45


67



34
16



11
23
13
17



1079 752 1052 50 66 2999

In 1888 the falling off corresponds with a similar decrease for the Province.
Commencing with 1891, there has been but one Entrance examination in the
year.

But the outcome of this was that parents and children came to think that
when the latter had passed the entrance examination they had done with
Public school work, and they dropped out of school before gaining such a
knowledge of language, composition, and commercial arithmetic as would be



118 THE STORY OF DUNDAS

of practical use to them afterwards. This resulted in practically closing up
the fifth form in the Province. In 1890 the pupils enrolled in the 5th form in
the Province (omitting the cities and towns) were 8,765 out of a total enroll-
ment of 335,814, or about 2} iper cent. To correct this tendency to leave
school upon passing entrance the Public school Leaving Examination was in-
stituted, the standard covering the 5th form work. A grant of $5.00, to be
duplicated by an equal amount from the County Council, was given to the
schools for each successful candidate. This had the desired effect and more; the
number of the 5th form pupils had increased in 1899 to five per cent, of the
total enrollment, and there was a strong temptation for teachers, often tacitly
encouraged by trustees, to turn their best efforts to the training of pupils for
this examination, to the neglect of the rest of their pupils. The number who
passed this examination for the succeeding years will be found in the follow-
ing table :

PUBLIC SCHOOL LEAVING CANDIDATES.

No. who Wrote No. who Passed

1892 11 4

1893 26 12

1894 61 27

1895 85 49

1896 67 31

1897 73 36

1898 84 24

1899 78 50

1900 69 44

1901 21

1902 15

A remedy had to be devised, and thus "payment by results" on a small scale
discontinued. Continuation classes were established, at first only in Public
schools that had been preparing their pupils for teachers' examinations, but



Online LibraryJ. Smyth CarterThe story of Dundas, being a history of the County of Dundas from 1784 to 1904 → online text (page 10 of 40)