J. Smyth Carter.

The story of Dundas, being a history of the County of Dundas from 1784 to 1904 online

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In the same year, 1834, a Mr. Finch taught in a frame school house that
stood on the river bank on or near the farm of the late Jacob Brouse, about
two miles west of the present village of Iroquois. He was followed by three
of his daughters successively. The construction of the canal necessitated the
removal of the school house, and a stone one was built on the north bank of
the canal, in which Miss Brouse, a daughter of the late Nicholas Brouse,
taught. A few years later a school house was built east of Iroquois, near
where stood the store of John Laing. A Mr. Mclntosh was one of the early
teachers in that school house.

About 1836 or 7 Miss Mary McLellan taught in No. 8, Matilda (Irena). She
afterwards taught at Mclntosh's Corners (Dundela). She married the late
Samuel Smith, and with him resided for many years on their farm near
Chesterville. They later retired from active life and moved to Mariatown.
When teaching at Mclntosh's Corners, Miss McLellan boarded with the late
William Steed. His son, Joseph Steed, of Morrisburg, relates the following
incident. Many years afterwards he and his mother visited Mrs. Smith at
Chesterville, and the latter said: "Aunt Jane, do you remember my old
hollow log bed? Well, I never have slept more comfortably since." The bed-
stead was the half section of a six foot hollow bass wood log, and was charac-


teristic of the rude furniture, and ready adaptation of means to an end in
those early years.

Thomas Johnston taught at No. 8 the following year, and later at Dixon's
Corners, and in the Wallace neighborhood. He was a large man and was
familiarly called, "Big Tom." He flogged severely sometimes, but was not
a good disciplinarian; was a good reader and writer, and justly proud of his
skill in arithmetic. One of his pupils, whose proficiency did credit to his
mathematical training, years afterwards in his hilarious moments used to
say, "Bob, who taught you arithmetic?" "Why, Big Tom, of course."

Jacob Weegar, or "Little Jake," as he was called, was the next teacher.
He was a native of Williamsburg, though his family lived in the 2nd con. of
Matilda. He was a good singer, and during the fall and winter taught a
singing school. Doubtless the Weegars living in the county are relatives.
A brother by the name of Jack was living some years at the Osnabruck

About 1846 Miss Hannah Ker was teacher. She was a daughter of J. Irwin
Ker, already referred to, and is a relict of the late Robert H. Rose. Miss Ker
also taught some time in No. 8, Winchester. Either just before or just after
Miss Ker's incumbency the school was taught for a short time by Thomas
Smyth, father of the late Oliver Smyth, a well known resident of the town-
ship of Matilda. Thomas was a native of Ireland, was a man of good attain*
merits, and possessed a classical education.

From this time on young teachers from across the line began to come in.
Sophia Scarborough, her brother, William Scarborough, and Dudley Carleton
Spencer, all of Fort Covington, N. Y., taught in succession; Spencer later
became a doctor and practiced in New York. Miss Scarborough afterwards
taught at No. 8, Winchester, and her sister married the late William Munro,
upon whose farm the school house stood. Still later for three or four years a
teacher by name of William Patterson taught in No. 8. He is still living in
the township.

About 1847 a school house was standing just west of the farm of Levi
Casselman, in the 6th con. of Matilda. The teacher at that time was Thomas
Flanagan, already referred to. The other teachers in succession, as nearly as
can be ascertained, were Thomas Welch, Hugh Montgomery, W. J. Ridley,
J. J. McLaughlin, James Lindley, Alex. McDonald, George Deeks and a Mr.
Vander Loo. At the residence of John Strader may yet be seen the teacher's
desk (sold along with the school house when a new one was built) made for
this school house more than sixty years ago by the late William Hill, of Elma.
Like all the furniture of those years it was "built for keeps," is in a good
state of perservation, and fit to last sixty years longer.

There is a record of a log school house that stood on the farm of the late


William Munro, south of Chesterville, in which Samuel Hart taught about
1842 or '43. He was succeeded about 1845 by a Mr. Ambrose.

The first school in the vicinity of Cass' Bridge, was a private one kept in the
chamber of Mr. Hogaboam's log house, taught by Miss Lois Hogaboam, about
1842-5. There were ten or twelve pupils, some of them grown up, and they
paid a fee of 2 shillings and sixpence each. In 1846, at the request of Messrs.
Mark Redmond, Mr. Patterson, Joseph Cass, Mr. Summers and others, Wm.
Bow, then a resident of Bates' Corners, appeared before William Millar,
Superintendent of the Eastern District, and after examination obtained a
certificate and began teaching a government school, in the little house on the
hill formerly occupied by George Pox, later by James Holmes. The school
increasing and greater accommodation being needed, a school house was built
at the corner of the adjoining farms of Mark Redmond and Samuel Beckford,
near the present home of Moses Strader. Mr. Bow was an energetic, wide-
awake teacher, an uncommonly good mathematician, delighting in solving
difficult problems. The school flourished, Mr. Bow remained for five years,
and was succeeded by Patrick Jordan .

The first school house at Bates' Corners (Winchester village) as we learn
from George Annable, who helped build it, was a log one, that stood not
far from the present site of the Bowen House, and was put up in 1848 or '49 .
The first teacher was Miss Hogaboam (a sister of Miss Lois Hogaboam), now
Mrs. McMaster, of Metcalfe, who was succeeded in 1851 or 2 by John Suffel.
In 1853 the school was taught by Miss Sarah Hughes, now Mrs. George
Annable, of Leonard, Ont. The other teachers in order as nearly as can be
ascertained were Mr. Watkins, Wm. Bow, Andrew Allison, Arthur Brown,
James Irvine, Wm. Black.

Wm. Bow, in some of these particulars, relates an incident that may well
be mentioned. Some time in the forties a teachers' examination was held at
Broeffle's Hotel, Morrisburg, and he and other teachers were up for examina-
tion. Emerson Ross was likely presiding examiner. An old country teacher
by the name of Emmons was present, and was expressing his opinion of his
fellows by saying: "The ould country teachers could show ye something
loike an examination. Share, the Board had stuck all the teachers barrin'
one (himself of course)." None of them could get the answer to the question
in arithmetic. On being pressed to state the question, he replied: "Och,
none of ye, barrin' Mr. Ross or Mr, Tuttle, needthry." This is it:

"If 20 groats and fifty pince

Buy 30 pints of wine,
What is the price of 90 quarts,

In British sterling kine (coin)?"

The records of the several local Boards of Public Instruction fora number


of years are not to be found, but beginning with 1862 we are able to give a
continuous record.


At North Williamsburg, July 18, 1862 Second-class A Ellen Smith, Geo.
M. Froats. Second-class B Isabella McNeil, Anne Weagant, Mary Marsellis,
Elizabeth Dawson, Amelia Hanes, Melissa Watson. Second class C Rachel
Wylie, Rhoda Waller, Samantha Parkinson, Eveline Vancarnp, Clara Tuttle,
Jane Laing, Lucy McMartin, Helen McLean, Catharine Plantz, Henrietta
Tyrrell, Mary Catharine Sipes, Mary Cameron, Anna Hartle, John Stevenson,
Albert Vancamp, Anne Watson.

At Chesterville, Dec. 29, 1862 First class Andrew Allison. Second class
A Margaret Redmond, Helen Laing, Jane Laing, Jas. Boyd, Margaret Duvall,
Andrew Quinton, John K. Roe, Margaret Chambers. Second class B Jane
Christie, Eliza Christie, Andrew Hunter, Jas. Irvine, Arthur Walker, Samuel
Myers, Sarah I. Smith, Hugh Haggerty, Simon Hanes, Jacob Barragar, Helen
Rae, Margaret Ulman, Martha Beckstead, Harriet Cryderman, Sarah Weaver,
Wm. Tyndall, Jacob E. Summers. Second class C Dorcas Weager, Maria
Baker. Third class Ellen Barry, Cornelius Barry, Wm. Moffat, Robt. Mc-
Ewen, Samuel Dupras, Elizabeth Fetterly, Margaret Hunter.

At Inkerman, July 6, 1863 First class John K. Roe, Joseph Merkley, Zoph-
er Locke, John Shaver, Robt. Suffel, Geo. Bigelow, Owen McNulty, Henry
Caldwell, Second class A Sabrina Harkness, Thos. Forward, Henry M.
Monk, Jas. C. Clark, Wm. Black, Mary Ault, Wm. Tait, C. Anna Hartle,
Elizabeth Sipes, Catharine Plantz, Ellen McMartin, Jeremiah Gibbons, Hen-
rietta Tyrrell, Thos. McNulty, Robt. H. Wilson. Second class B Charlotte
Ellison, Elias Bush, Miss Mulloy, Ellen Barry, Lucy McMartin, Mary Ann
Barry, C. Rhoda Waller, Eliza Blaine, Margaret Mac Arthur, Elizabeth Cook,
Eliza Hamilton, Louisa Bouck, Mary M. Shaver, Anne C. Melvin, Elizabeth
Dawson, Amelia McMoyle, John Lynch. Second class C Henry C. Brouse,
Mary Weir, Margaret Collins, Amelia Jane Clothier, Susan Gray, Simon
Studely. Third class Jonathan Montgomery, Henry Toye, Anne Hyndman,
Anne Wilson.

At Dixon's Corners, Jan. 4, 1864 First class Patrick Jordan, Wm. Styles,
John Jordan, Arthur Brown. Second class A T. A. Wait, Dorcas Weegar,
Catharine Frymire, Mary Marsellis, Margaret Chambers, Margaret Redmond,
Eveline Vancamp, Jane Soules, Mary Soules, Stirling Wood, Andrew Quin-
ton, Helen Laing, A. D. Hunter, Wm. Tindall, Samuel Dupras, Jas. Irvine.

Second class B Arthur Walker, Jane Laing, Margaret Ulman, Melissa
Watson, Mary Flanagan, Emma Reddick, Henry Toye, Henry Coons, Robert
Bouck, Robt. King, Jacob E. Summers, Alex. Wholehan, Albert Drappo,


Catharine Wholehan, Nathaniel Knowland, Jas. Flanagan, Nelson E. Bush,
Win. S. Hughes, Emily Clarke, Amelia Hanes, Martha Chambers, Jacob Bar-
ragar, Helen Rae, Elizabeth Christie, Nancy Jane Christie, Olive Keeler, Clara
Tuttle, Chesley Hare. Third class Sarah Rae, Elizabeth Fetterly, Elizabeth
Kearney, Isaiah Hickey.

At North Williamsburg, July 4, 1864 First class Helen Smith . Second
class A Margaret Mulloy, Peter Bogart, John Cryan, Henry Brouse, Henri-
etta Tyrrell, Albert Vancamp, Henry Monck, Robert Wilson, Warner Bush.
Second class B Robert Bouck, Catharine Logan, Eliza Blaine, Christina R.
Waller. Edwin Pillar, Jeremiah Fitzgibbons, Agnes Scott, Sarah Weaver,
Catharine Plantz, Amelia Jane Clothier, Margaret Hyndman, Elias Bush,
Anne Hyndman, Robt. McEwen, Oliver Sproule, John Brouse. Second class
C Margaret Collins, Helen Thorn, Mary Ann Barry, Helen Barry.

As has been already mentioned, by the Act of 1850 the old District Boards
were abolished, and County Councils were authorized to appoint a Loca^
Superintendent for each township, and afterwards for each incorporated
village, and these officers were entrusted with the inspection of the schools in
their jurisdiction quarterly, (soon changed to half-yearly), and the Local
Superintendents for a county were the board for the examination of teachers
These boards were afterwards named Councils of Public Instruction. Below
will be found the personnel of these boards in Dundas as nearly as can be
learned from somewhat defective records:

In 1842 George Laing was appointed School Superintendent for Winchester,
and his first business was to double the townships into School Sections.

1850 Matilda, no record; Mountain, Rev. J. McDowell; Williamsburg,
Emerson Ross; Winchester, George Laing.

1851 Matilda, Rev. E.H.Plees; Mountain, Rev. Wm. McDonell; Williams-
burg, Emerson Ross; Winchester, John J. Ker.

1852 and 1853 Matilda, Wm. John Ridley; Mountain, Rev. James Harris;
Williamsburg, Rev. G. Jukes Boswell; Winchester, John Irwin Ker.

1853 Matilda, Wm. J. Ridley; Mountain, Rev. James Harris; Williams-
burg, Rev. Wm. Shorts; Winchester, J. Irwin Ker.

In 1854 Daniel Rose became Local Superintendent for each of the four

1855 and 1856 Matilda, Dr. A Worthington; Mountain, Rev. James Harris;
Williamsburg, John J. McLaughlin; Winchester, J . Irwin Ker.

1857 Matilda, Wm, Johnston; Mountain, Rev. James Harris; Williams-
burg, John J. McLaughlin; Winchester, J. Irwin Ker; Iroquois, Dr. A.


1858 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. D. E. McDowell; Williams-
burg, J. J. McLaughlin; Winchester, Rev. Wm. Pattyson; Iroquois, Dr. A.

1859 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. D. E. McDowell; Williams-
burg, J. J. McLaughlin; Winchester, Rev. W. Pattyson.

1860 and 1861 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. Charles Brown;
Williamsburg, J. J. McLaughlin; Winchester, John Halliday; Iroquois, Dr.
A. Worthington.

1862 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. Charles Brown; Williams-
burg, J, J. McLaughlin; Winchester, John Halliday; Iroquois, Dr. J. D. R.
Williams; Morrisburg, Mr. Millar.

1863 Williamsburg* J J- McLaughlin; Winchester, John' Halliday; Iro-
quois, Dr. J. D. R. Williams.

1864 Matilda, Wm. Johnston, Dr. J. Harkness; Mountain, Dr. Jas. Fulton;
Williamsburg, J. J. McLaughlin, chairman; Winchester, John Halliday;
Iroquois, Dr. J. D. R. Williams, secretary; Morrisburg, Mr. Millar, Dr. T. F.

1865 Matilda, Dr. John Harkness; Mountain, Dr. James Fulton; Williams-
burg, J. J. McLaughlin, chairman; Winchester, John Halliday; Iroquois, Dr.
J. D. R. Williams, secretary.

1866 Matilda, Dr. John Harkness; Mountain, Rev. Christopher R. Bell;
Williamsburg, J. J. McLaughlin, chairman; Winchester, Rev. Wm. Ferguson,
M. A.; Iroquois, Dr. Williams, Dr. James Stephenson; Morrisburg, Thomas
McDonald, secretary, Dr. J. Cowan, Edward Parlow, B. A.

Two circuits were formed in that year, No. 4 including Matilda, Mountain,
and Iroquois; No. 5 Williamsburg, Winchester and Morrisburg.

1867 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. C. R. Bell, Andrew Broder;
Williamsburg, J. J. McLaughlin; Winchester, Rev. Wm. Ferguson, M.A.;
Morrisburg, Thomas McDonald, secretary.

1868 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Andrew Broder; WiUiamsburg,
Rev. J. Davidson; Winchester, Rev. Wm. Ferguson, M. A.; Morrisburg,
Thomas McDonald, secretary, Robert Toye^ Edward Parlow, B. A.

1869 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. J. H. McKenzie; Wilh'am*-
burg, Rev. J. Davidson; Winchester, Rev. Wm. Ferguson, M. A.; Iroquois,
Dr. James Stephenson; Morrisburg, Thomas McDonald, secretary, E. Parlow,
B. A., Robert Toye.

1870 Matilda, Wm. Johnston; Mountain, Rev. J. H. McKenzie; Williams-
burg, Rev. J. Davidson; Winchescer, Dr. C. E. flickey; Iroquois, Dr. James
Stephenson, chairman: Morrisburg, Thomas McDonald, secretary, Robert
Toye, Thomas Bailey, E. Parlow, B. A.


January 1871 Matilda, Edward Parlow, B.A.; Mountain, Rev. W. Cleland;
Williamsburg, J. J. McLaughlin; Winchester, Andrew Broder.

The School Act of 1871 abolished Local Superintendents, and provided
county officials to be called Public School Inspectors, each having under his
supervision a county or a riding. The P. S. I. with county examiners, con-
stituted the County Board of Examiners. At the June session of Counties'
Council Rev. Wm. Ferguson, M. A., was appointed Public School Inspector
for the county of Dundas, and Dr. Miles Brown, Chesterville, and P. C. Mc-
Gregor, B. A., principal of the Morrisburg High school, were made county

At first teachers' examinations were held half -yearly, and the answer papers
of the second and third class candidates were read by the Local Board, and
the papers of the first class sent to Toronto to be read by the Central Com-
mittee, but afterwards, the examinations were held yearly, and the second
and first class papers sent to Toronto. Still later, all the non-professional
answer papers were read in Toronto, and only the professional examinations
at the close of the Model school confided to the County Boards, and the third
class certificates awarded were made provincial in vadidity.

At the January session of the Counties' Council, in 1872, W. A. Whitney,
M. A., principal of the Iroquois High school, was added to the Board of
Examiners, and at the June session there was the further addition of Rev.
Wm. Cleland. In 1873 the Board consisted of W. A. Whitney, M. A., Wm.
Elliott, B. A., principal of the Morrisburg High school, Dr. C. E. Hickey and
Rev. Wm. Cleland.

In 1874 the members were W. A. Whitney, M. A., Dr. C. E. Hickey and
Wm. Elliott, B. A.

In 1875 and 1876 the Board was composed of W. A. Whitney and Arthur
Brown. At the June session, 1876, Edwin B. Parlow and H. H. Ross, B. A.,
were added, and the constitution of the Board was the same for 1877.

In 1878 Arthur Brown was appointed County Inspector, and Edwin B.
Parlow, H. H. Ross, B. A., and James A. Carman, B. A., County Examiners.
The same examiners were appointed at the January session in 1879, but in
consequence of a decision by Hon. Adam Crooks, Minister of Education, that
as by the statutes county meant union of counties, there could be but one
County Board for united counties, the Counties Council decided that Inspect-
ors should constitute the Board, and since that time until 1900, Inspector
McNaughton, of Stormont; Inspector Dr. McDiarmid, of Glengarry; Inspector
Arthur Brown, of Dundas; Inspector R. B. Carman, M. A., of Cornwall, (now
Judge Carman) made up the Board. In 1900 Judge Carman was transferred
to Lincoln county, and from that time to the present the three County


Inspectors have discharged the duties of County Examiners. During the
time of Judge Carman's membership he was the valued and very efficient
Secretary of the Board.

The condition of the county as to teachers, pupils and school houses in 1847
has been shown by a table at the beginning of this chapter. It only remains
to give some account of the present conditions. The last log school house dis-
appeared in 1890, and the school houses of the county with very few excep-
tions are now comfortable, roomy, well lighted, heated and ventilated,
attractively painted, surrounded by adequate grounds, neatly fenced, and in
most cases planted with shade trees. The advancement made in furniture
and equipment has kept pace with the years. Modern desks, slate black-
boards, globes, late maps, etc., are the rule. The school buildings and grounds
at Winchester, Chesterville and Morewood would do credit to any city, and
ranking in cost up to $14,000 at the first named place.

The value of the school buildings and sites in the county of Dundas is now
nearly $110,000, and the furniture, etc., over $14,000. The amount expended
for teachers' salaries in 1903 was over $33,000, and for all purposes nearly
$54,000. There were 109 teachers, 43 males and 66 females ; 4 held first-class
certificates, and 37 second class. Of the remaining 69, 60 held junior leaving
standing (or higher), the literary qualifications for second-class certificates.
In only one respect can it be said that the county is behind, and that is in re-
gard to salaries paid teachers. The average salary of male teachers in 1903
was $366, and of female teachers $270. No doubt one cause of low salaries is
due to the county containing both a High school and Collegiate Institute,
doing excellent work, which with the continuation classes at Winchester,
Chesterville and Morewood, also preparing candidates for teachers' junior
leaving examination, the supply has been considerably in excess of local de-
mand. But since the abolition of the primary certificate and the extension of
the Normal school term to a year, the supply of teachers has been more limited,
and there is an indication that salaries will improve and reach a point more
in accordance with the importance of the office.

Delightful task, to rear the tender thought,
To teach the young ide.a how to shoot
To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind,
To breathe the enlivening spirit, and to fix
The generous purpose in the glowing breast !



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The clouds may drop down titles and estates,
Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought.


IN addition to our excellent and efficient Public schools, Dundas can boast
of a High school and Collegiate Institute which compare very favorably with
the best similar institutions in the province.


To start from the root fibres of this school we must go back to the old stone
school house, the first of its kind in the county, situated where now stands
the shoe store of Z. Seely. One of the early teachers was John B. Kerr,
through whose efforts in the community the desire for education was
stimulated. On January 5, 1843, a letter bearing the signatures of Philip
Carman, Geo. Brouse and Charles C. Rose was addressed to Rev. J. Murray,
Superintendent of Education, Canada West, relative to the establishment of
a Grammar school in Matilda. This effort, so worthily conceived, proved for
the time being unsuccessful, but it left its imprint on the public mind, and it
remained for John A. Carman to bring it to an issue.

Mr. Carman, born in 1810, was the youngest of eight sons of Michael Car-
man. He early engaged in business during consecutive intervals at Prescott,
Brockville and Cornwall ; but failing health made it necessary for him to
seek a milder climate. During his enforced retirement he travelled over a
considerable portion of the United States, and about 1844 he returned to
Matilda to take up his permanent residence. The canals were then in course
of construction, local activity and signs of future progress were rife, and Mr .
Carman foresaw the need of providing more liberal education for the youth
of the vicinity . To meet this need he determined to erect a suitable school
building if a proper site could be procured. This latter condition was soon
met by James and Matthew Coons who donated an acre of land, lying about
three hundred feet north of the front road, and during the summer of 1845 the


building was erected. Under date of Nov. 29th of that year Mr. Carman ad-
dressed a letter to Dr. Bond, of New York, asking the latter's assistance in
securing a teacher for the new school. A portion of this letter furnishes the
following description of the building : It is situated on the bank of the St.
Lawrence, fourteen miles east of Ogdensburg, within fifty rods of the mail
steamers landing in Canada. Building is 57x32 feet, two stories, stone,
divided into twelve rooms : one dining, one kitchen, one sitting and two bed-
rooms for family department ; one large school room, twenty-nine feet square,
seated and ventilated after the plans in a book, entitled 'Schools and School-
masters ;' one room twenty-two feet square, and one large teachers' or reci-
tation room. The remaining four rooms are for boarders."

Mr. Carman's efforts to secure a suitable teacher were unsuccessful, and
finally he handed the building over to a board of managers, and appointed
seven persons, including himself, as trustees of what was then called the
"Matilda County Grammar School." The first board of trustees were : John
A. Carman, Philip Carman, George Brouse, Jacob Brouse, John P. Crysler, J.
W. Rose, Rev. William Shorts. The first teacher in the new school was W.
N. Gates, B. A., and on June 10, 1846, the school was opened. Mr. Gates was
assisted by Sarah A. Bailey and John L. Truax ; the latter, although blind,
taught music.

Even as early as 1847 the school enjoyed a considerable measure of local
fame and popularity, the attendance during the winter term of that year
being thirty-eight male and twenty-five female students.. Among these were;
James Ault, Cyrus Brouse, Albert Carman, Philip Carman, N.Knapp, Ormond
Skinner, Mary Brouse, A. Gates, Elizabeth Wylie, L. Millar, J. Cook, Bufus
Carman, B. Hickey, D. S. Hickey, Wm. Keeler, J. Mills, Nancy Brouse, M.
Brouse, Uretta Coons, Emily Coons, A. Lever, M. Mcllmoyle, A. Mills, Char-
lotte Parlow, Annie Wylie, Philip Keeler, John Suffel, H. J. Cook, J. S. Bat-
tray, Colin Rose, M. Steacy, S. Ault, E. Gates, Guy C. Ault, Guy Brouse.
Alonzo Bowen, B. Coons, G. Cook, N. Coons, William and Robert Elliott, W.
H. Fraser, H. Hanes, E. Keeter, 8. Robertson, J. G. Skinner, Joseph Skinner,
E. Selleck, L. O. Soules, James Wylie, James Wood, A. Dixon, John Parlow,
Charlotte Ault, J. Ault, J. Bowen, Mary Carman, F. Carman, Maria Carman,
Emma Carman, M. Carman, M. A. Coons, C. M. Ross, H. Steacy, A. Steacy.

Rev. A. Dick, a Baptist minister, became principal in 1848, with Mrs. Dick

Online LibraryJ. Smyth CarterThe story of Dundas, being a history of the County of Dundas from 1784 to 1904 → online text (page 12 of 40)