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J. T. (John Thomas) Blight.

Ancient crosses and other antiquities in the west of Cornwall online

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Online LibraryJ. T. (John Thomas) BlightAncient crosses and other antiquities in the west of Cornwall → online text (page 1 of 2)
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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES





roHHrE



AND OTHER



ANTIQUITIES

1?\ THE WEST OF CORNWALl.

BY

J. T. BLIGHT.

SECOND EDITION.




LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. DUBLIN : HODGES AND SMITH.
PENZANCE : F, T. VIBERT.



1858.



cc



Cnnttnte,



Introduction.

Greek Crosses : —

Market-place, Penzance p. 3

Crowz-an-wra, St. Burian .... 4

Trengwainton Cairn, Madron . . o

Vicarage Garden, Zennor .... 6

Cross-street, Helston 6

Trembath, Madron .... 7

Clowance, Crowan . . 8

St. Burian Church-town .... 9

St. Levan Churchyard 10

Near Boskenna, St. Burian .... 11

Gwinear Churchyard .. 12

Iloseniorran, Gulval .... 13
On the roadside from Lelant Church

to St. Ives 1 1

Trevan, St. Erth 15

St. Erth Church-town .. 16

St. Levan Churchyard wall .... 17

Sancreed Churchyard 18

St. Burian Churchyard .... 19

St. Paul Churchyard . . 20

Sancreed Churchyard wall .... 21

Phillack Churchyard 22

Trevu, Camborne .... 23

Madron Church-town .. 23

St. Erth Churchyard .... 24

Illogan Churchyard 2 ')

Lelant Churchyard .... 26

Gate-way on Connor down, Gwinear , . 27

Helston: Garden of G. Grylls, Esq. . 28

Transition Crosses : —

St. Michael's Mount 30

Boswhorton, Madron .... 31

Outside the Churchyard wall, Lelant.. 32

Noon Creeg (Ndn Careg), St. Burian . 33

Hea, Madron . . 34

Anjardcn, Sancreed .... 3 3

Cury Churchyard 36

Opposite Boskenna gate, St. Burian .. 37

Vellansajer, St. Burian .... 38

Latin Crosses : —

Garden at Trereife, Madron .. 40
Chiin, or Chyowne, near the Sanctuary

St Burian 40

Sennen Green 41

Higher Drift, Sancreed .... 42

Boscathnoe, Madron . . 43



Latin Crosses (contiriued) . —

St. Paul down .... 44

Tremethick, Madron 4.5

Ludgvan Churchyard .... 46

Trevilley, Sennen . . 47

Brane, Sancreed .... 48

Pradanack, MuUion 49



Gothic Crosses : —

Gulval Churchyard .... ol

Head of a Cross in the Court-yard of

the Castle, St. Michael's Mount . . 52
East side of the head of the Cross in

St. Ives Churchyard .... 53

St. Ives Churchyard 54

Penzance: Chapel-yard, St. Mary's .. 55

Helston : Mrs. G. Grylls's Garden . . 56
List of Crosses which remain in the West
of Cornwall not illustrated in this work,
many of them being very similar to

those given 57

Madron Well Chapel 59

Holy-well Helston .. 60

Farc-an-chapel, St. Just .... 61

The Sanctuary, St. Burian 62

Antique Seal .... 63

Celtic, Druidical, and Roman Remains : —
Bleu Bridge, Gulval.

Cromlechs, &c.. Remarks on .. 65

Lanyon Cromlech .... 67

Caerwynen Cromlech 67

Zennor Cromlech .... 68

Mulfra Cromlech, Madron .. 68

Chun Cromlech, Morvah .... 69

Fallen Cromlech, St. Columb Major .. 69
The Men Amber, north-west view .... 70
Druidical Circle, at Boscawen-Hn, St.

Burian 70

Sepulchral Monumental Pillar at Tres-
vannack, in the parish of St. Paul,
and a List of similar Monumental
Pillars in the West of Cornwall .... 71
Mcn-an-tol (holed stone), at Anguidal
down, Madron 72

Inscribed Stones: —

The Men Scryfa, Madron .... 72

At Blue Bridge. Gulval .. 72

At St. Hilary Churchyard .... 73



^ntroiiiirtioiL

''^^^^%''!'./^^^^^'''7^^^^'^ destruction of many monuments of remote antiquity

^^^X\)^^W^. 'ffc whicli formerly existed in the West of Cornwall, and the

?(>' '.-iL-*X^ '^. '-'\'^ mutilation which several others have sustained by mis-

^ Z^'^n^i- X chievous and ignorant persons, have induced the author to

f^t^'.^^^^ti attemjit the present work, in order to preserve the forms of



>: .-. .;^ ^ ■ '^1''^^ *^^°s^ remains which are so valuable to the Antiquary and

^^"r- ,'>,>'''' the Historian. In a work aiming more especially at the

'^^^^h^€^::,. pictorial representation of these interesting objects, it will not be

^b^S^'^7\ txpected that an elaborate history of them should be given, vet it

^Wv'''^'dM^/^ ^ seems necessary to make a few prefatory remarks.
r Om^]\i^ ^^ ^^^^ monuments attrilnited to the Celts or Britons, little need

''■{Hi^S^.'S^ be added to what has been often repeated ; but of the ancient

«, (Any. vir(See page 61.)

Chapel and Well at Castle Treryn, Zennor.

Clahar Garden, Mullion : — remains of chapel.

Porth Chapel and Well, St. Levan.

Chapel Anjou, Lelant.

Ancient chapel on the sands at Gwithian.

* In the preface to a Poem,—" The Petition of an old uninhabited House in Penzance to its
Master in Town," published in 1823, is the following note:—

" Perhaps it may not be known, but I find it related in an old Manuscript that what appears a scat
on the side of Maddern Well was called St. Maddcrn's Bed. on which the I^!j|"^"V fTr'poor'
cured, reclined. Those, who were benefitted, left a donation at Maddern Church for the Poor
This may account for the preservation of the Well. Donations were left so late as the middle of
the seventeenth century."

t A cross was found near this chapel, and placed by the late Rev. J. Puller in the chancel of
St. Just church.— See Report of Royal Institution of Cornwall, 184-;.



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MARKET PLACE, PENZANCE.

Height, 5 feet; breadth, 2 feet 3 inches.
Removed in the year 1829 from the centre of the market-place.— Near the base, on the reverse
side, the following inscription veas then found:—" Hie procumbwit corpora piorunt."




CROWZ-AN-WRA, ST. BURYAN.

Height, 5 feet 3 inches ; breadth, at the head, 2 feet 5 inches.
(The reverse side is similar to the engraving at page 32.)




TRENGWAINTON CAIRN, MADRON.

Height, without hase, 2 feet 2 inches; breadth, 2 feet.




CROSS STREET, HELSTON.

Height, 1 foot 4 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 7 inches.






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VICARAGE GARDEN, ZENNOR.

Height, 1 foot 9 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 9 inches.

iilar to the Cross at Helston, represented above.)



(Reverse,— sum




-31 .,r.







TREMHATII, MADRON.

Height, without base, i feet; breadth, 1 foot 8 inches.



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CLOWAXCE, CROWAN.

Height, 2 feet 3 inches; breadth, 1 foot 11 inches.
(Reverse, — similar to the Cross at Helston, page 6.)




CHURCH-TOWN, ST. BURYAN.

Height, without base, 2 feet 8 inches.

(The reverse side is similar.)

This Cross stood originally within the limits of the churchyard.




ST. LEVAN CHURCHYARD.

Height, 6 feet 9 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 9 inches.
(Reverse,— similar to that at page 17.)



10




NEAK nOSKENNA, ST. liUllYAN.

Height, 2 feet 8 inches; breadth, 1 foot 9 inches.



11




CJWINEAR CHURCUYARD.

Height, 5 i'oet t inches ; brcadtli, 1 foot 7 inches.
(Reverse, — a plain Cross.)



12




' HOSEMOKUAN, GULVAL.

Height, 3 feet ; breadth, 1 foot G inches.
(Ilevcise,— similar to that at page 31.)



13




ON THE ROADSIDE FROM LELANT CHURCH TO ST. IVES.

Height, 6 feet 8 inches ; breadth, 2 feet 2 inches.



U














TUEVAN, ST. EUTH.

Height, 4 feet 4 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 9 inches.



15




ST. EKTH CHURCH-TOWN.

Height, 7 feet 2 inches; breadth, 1 foot 6 inches.
(Reverse, — a Greek Cross.)



16




ST. LEVAN CHURCHYARD "WALL.

Height, 2 feet 6 inches; breadth, 1 foot 11 inches.
(A Cross of the same form is carved on the reverse side.)



17




SANCREED CHURCHYARD.

Height, 7 feet 7 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 6 inches.
The reverse has a plain boss in the centre of the Cross, and a shield-like figure below a crossed
panel, shnilar to that on the upper part of the shaft as engraved above.



18







ST. BURYAN CUURCHYAKD.

Height, 2 feet 10 inches.
(Reverse, — similar to that at page 24.)



19



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ST. PAUL CUURCUYARD.

Height, 2 feet 3 inches ; breadth, 2 feet.
(The reverse side is similar to that at page 24.)



20



















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SANCilEED CHURCHYAKD "WALL.

Height, 2 feet ; breadth, 1 foot 8 inches.



21
















Cl: I,- " m^^^^ ^ #*S




PHILLACK CHUllCHYARD.



When the above sketch was made this Cross was deeply buried ; during the recent restoration of
the Church, it was dug up and placed on a pedestal near the south doorway : it is 5 feet 9 ins,
high, and 1 foot 9 inches in breadth ; the broadest sides of the shaft are ornamented with a
zig-zag tracery.



22




TREVU, CAMBORNE.

Height, 2 feet 7 inches; breadth, 1 foot 7 inches.

(On the reverse side is a plain Latin Cross.)

This Cross formerly stood near the present Railway Station, Camborne.




MADKON CUURCH-TOWN.

This Cross is now built into the hedge near the eastern entrance to the churchyard.
Height, 4 feet ; breadth, 2 feet.



23



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ST. ERTH CHURCHYARD.

Height, 2 feet 2 inches ; breadth, 2 feet 3 inches.
(Reverse, — a figure of Christ, similar to that at page 19.)






24




ILLOGAN CHURCHTABD.

Height, 6 feet; breadth, 1 foot 10 inches.
(St. Johti's or the Maltese Cross.)



2.5




^^^^



LELANT CUURCUYAIID.



Height, 5 feet 6 inches; breadth. 1 foot 7 inches.
(Cross of St. Andrew.)




GATEWAY ON CONNOR DOWN, GWINEAU.

Height, 6 feet; breadth, 1 foot.
(St. Andrew's Cross.)



27




HEL8T0N.

In the Garden of Glynn Grylls, Esq.-Removed from Gwcal Mayow, near Ilelston.
Height, 4 feet 9 inches; breadth, 1 foot 6 inches.



28




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ST. Michael's mount.

Height, C feet; breadth, 2 feet.

(Reverse, — a plain Latin Cross.)



30







BOSWHAUTON, MADUON.

Height, 3 feet; breadth, 1 foot 10 inches.



31




OUTSIDE THE CHURCUYAUD WALL, LELANT.

Height, 3 feet 6 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 4 inches.
(Reverse, — a figure of Christ.)



32




NOON ciiEEO (Niln Careg) st. huryan.
Height, 5 feet; breadth, 2 feet.



33






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HEA, M.VDROX.

Heic-bt, 2 feet 1 inch; breadth. I foot 9 inches.



34







ANJAHUEN, SANCREBU.

Height, 2 feet 6 inches; breadth, 1 foot 11 inches.



35




CURT CHURCHYARD.

Height, 9 feet; breadth, 1 foot 6 inches.



36



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OPPOSITE BOSKENNA GATE, ST. BUllYAN.

Height, 4 feet 3 inches ; breadth, 2 feet.




VKLLANSAJKK, ST. lUIRIAN.

Ilciglit, 3 feel 7 inches; bicailth, 1 fool H inches.
An uiirient Cliapel once stood ueui- tlie site of this Cross.



38




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THE GARDEN AT TUEUEiFE : — rciiiovcd thcrc for preservation.
Height, 1 foot 5 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 1 inch.




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At Chfui, or Chyownc, near the Sanctuary, St. Biirian.
Hcio-ht, 2 feet 3 inches; breailtli, 2 feet 7 inches.



40




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SENNEN GREEN.

Height, 3 feet 4 inches ; breadth, 1 foot C inches.



41




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UIGHER DRIFT, SANCUEEn,

Height, 4 feet ; breadth, at base, 2 feet 2 inches.
(The reverse side bears a Cross of the same form.)



42



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BOSCATHNOE, MADRON.

Height, 4 feet.
At Landithy, immediately adjoining, the Knights of St. John had a Provincial K»tablishment.



43




ST. PAUL DOWN.

Height, 6 feet ; breadth, 1 foot 10 inchcR.



44




TREMETHICK, MADRON.

Height, o feet 7 inclies; breadth, 1 foot 11 inches.

This Cross stands on an artificial mound by the wayside from I'cnzance to St. Just.

It was removed from llose-an- Beagle, in tlie parisli of St. Paul.



46




THE CUUllCHYARD, LUDGVAN.

Height, 3 feet ; breadth, 1 foot 6 inches.



46




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TREVILLEY, SENNEN.

Height, 6 feet 5 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 5 inches.



47



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BRANE, 8ANCREED.

Height, 5 feet 3 inches ; breadth, 1 foot 10 inches.



48




PRADANACK, MULLION.

Height, 5 feet 3 inches ; breadth, 2 feet 1 inch.

A plain Latin Cross is carved in relief on the reverse side.

This Cross stands near the site of an ancient Chapel.



49












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CHURCIIYAKD, GULVAL.

Cross: — Height, 1 foot 4 inches; breadth, 13^ inches.
Base : — Height, 2 feet 8 inches ; breadth, 2 feet 2 inches.



-51




HEAD OF A CROSS IN THE COURT-YARD OF THE CASTLE, ST. MICHAEL S MOUNT.

Reverse, — the Virgin and Child. There is also a figure on each of its narrowest sides;— one has
a crown, and holds what may be a sword — the other holds a cross.



52




EAST SIDE OF THE HEAD OF THE CROSS IN ST. IVES CHURCHYARD (p. 54).



53




ST. IVES CUUUCUYAlll).

Height, 10 feet 6 inches.

This Cross was discovered buried in the churchyard in 1832: in the year 1852, Robert Hichcns,
Esq., of London, caused it to be placed on a new base and erected in its present position.



54




CHAPEL YAKD, ST. MAUY S, PENZANCE.

Height, 3 feet 10 inches; breadth, 1 foot 11 inclics.

This Cross, recently found near the Quay, Penzance, is supposed to have been connected with
the ancient Chapel of St. Anthony, now destroyed.



55




IIKLSTON.

Height, 2 feet 9 inches; breadth, 1 foot 3 inches.

This Cross was found at Trewane, in the parish of St. Kcw, and placed in the Vicarage Garden,

Luxulyan (as represented in the engraving). — It now stands in Mrs. G. Grylls's garden, Helston.



56



■^sSl^ LIST OF CROSSES which remain in the West of Cornwall,
' "^'^ ^^''^M "°^ engraved in this Work, many of them being very similar
to those jjiven.

GREEK.




White Cross, Ludgvan. — A plain cross ; similar to the one at Helston, p. G.

Gwythian Churchyard.

Rosepletha, St. Levan.

Garden-wall, Rolling Mill, St. Erth. — Figure of Christ.

Trevorgance, St. Buryan. — Figure of Christ.

Rosejaru, Lelant. — Similar to the Cross at Zennor, p. 6.

Trenuggo hill, Sancreed. — Defaced.

Parc-an-Growze. Madron. — Defaced.

Penbeagle, St. Ives. — Defaced.

Lelant Church-town.

Camborne Churchyard. — Similar to Cross at Helston, p. G.

Trewhela, St. Hilary.

Treeve, Sennen.

Gwinear Churchyard.

At Pendeen, St Just. — Mutilated.

Between Carnel Green and Clowance. — Mutilated.

Trecoven hill, Lelant. — Mutilated.

A Cross formerly stood near the Half-way House between Helston and I'enryn : the shaft
was marked in a similar manner to that at page 28. A notice and representation of this
Cross, by Richard Thomas, Esq., C.E., will be found in the Report of the Royal Institution of
Cornwall for 1849.



67



Sancreed Vicarage-grounds. -
Chygwidden, St. Levan.
Brunian Cairn, Lelaut,
Maen, Senneu.
Vicarage-grounds, St Just.



TRANSITION.



-Removed from Sellan.



LATIN.



Tregurnow Down, St Buryan. — Similar to that at p, 42,

Paul Down. — Similar to that at p. 44.

Escalls, Sennen.

Merther Uny, near Helston.

Breage road.

Landewednack.

Churchyard, Ludgvan. — Similar to that at p. 48.

In the garden of Glynn Grylls, Esq., Helston, a Cross removed from Tresprisson,

near Helston, where it served as a stepping-stile. — Similar to the Cross at p. 48.


1

Online LibraryJ. T. (John Thomas) BlightAncient crosses and other antiquities in the west of Cornwall → online text (page 1 of 2)