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THE

IGNOBLE
WARRIOR



THE IGNOBLE WARRIOR




'"WE HAVE BETTER LUCK WITH PASSENGER STEAMERS THAN
WITH WARSHIPS. THEY CANNOT SHOOT "

The torpedoing of the liner " Falaba " was one of the worst cases of drowning men,
women and children of an unarmed vessel.




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A Collection of Facts for the Study of the
Origin and Conduct of the War

BY

J. W. ROBERTSON SCOTT

Author of "Japan, Great Britain and the World,"

" The Land Problem," "A Free Farmer

in a Free State," etc.

IN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE



WITH

38 CARTOONS

BY

LOUIS RAEMAKERS

AND

26 ORIGINAL ILLUSTRATIONS, REPRODUCTIONS AND
LETTERS IN FACSIMILE



MARUZEN & COMPANY, LTD.
TOKYO, OSAKA, KYOTO, FUKUOKA & SENDAI



TO THE DEAD AND THE LIVING



To the Glorious Memory

of the Young Men
who, Profoundly hating War,

gladly gave their lives
in the Cause of Civilisation



II

To my Japanese Friends

who, from their knowledge of

English History, Literature and Character,

understand the motives
which have actuated the British People



CONTENTS




THE STORY

I BEFORE THE INVASION OF BELGIUM

1. How GERMANY PROMISED IN FOUR TREATIES TO

RESPECT THE NEUTRALITY OF BELGIUM
The Treaties from 1831 to 1907 1

2. How GERMAN MINISTERS PROMISED THE SAME

THING FOUR TIMES
The Undertaking of Two Chancellors 3

IL DURING THE INVASION

3. BELGIUM INVADED

A Story of Baseness and Nobility 5

4. GERMAN EXCUSES BEGIN

" The French would have forestalled us " 8

5. GREAT BRITAIN'S DECISION TO FIGHT

Why the British People went to War 11

6. THE MURDERER ASSAILS HIS VICTIM'S CHARACTER

German Allegations against Belgium and her Neigh-
bours 16

7. MILITARY ACHIEVEMENT OF BELGIUM IN THE WAR

The Sacrifices of Belgian Life 25

8. WHAT HAPPENED IN BELGIUM

Appalling Outrages Aggravated by Slander 29

9. THE HORRORS OF THE Six TOWNS

1. The " Scientific and Deliberate Destruction of

Louvain -.'. .. . . 4J



nil



2. The 650 Victims at Tamines 44

3. The 800 Murdered at Dinant 44

4. Execution by Axe at Andenne 48

5. The Exhumations at Aerschot 50

6. The Massacre of 2,000 in Namur 51

10. THE TERRIBLE FINDINGS OF THE BRITISH COMMIS-
SION OF INQUIRY

Seven Violations of the Rules of War of which there
are " Absolutely Authentic Proofs " 52

11. SOME OF THE EVIDENCE ON WHICH THE FINDINGS
WERE BASED

1. " Deliberately and Systematically Organised "

Massacre, Murder and Outrage 55

2. Outrages on Women 59

3. Human Shields for Soldiers 63

4. The Killing of Wounded and Prisoners 64

5. Looting and Wanton Destruction 67

6. Systematic Incendiarism 69

12. SOME FACTS AND A GERMAN COMMENTARY

Germany Self Convicted 71

III DURING THE OCCUPATION

13. THE ILL USAGE OF THE BELGIANS CONTINUED DUR-
ING THE OCCUPATION

1. How they have been robbed by Thefts, Fines and

Taxes 78

2. How they have been Starved 82

3. How Civil Justice has been denied 87

4. A Typical Instance : The Murder of Miss Cavell 88

IV. THE FACTS OF HISTORY

14. THE LIE AS TO THE MOTIVE FOR THE INVASION

OF BELGIUM
Germany's Real Aim Disclosed 93



15. GREAT BRITAIN'S EFFORTS TO LIVE ON GOOD
TERMS WITH GERMANY AND HOW THEY WERE
STEADILY THWARTED

The Strange Story of the Naval Negotiations 98

16. How GREAT BRITAIN TWICE PREVENTED WAR

Germany Makes her Purpose Plain 101

17. GERMANY'S GREATER AIMS

Plans for World Dominion '. 108

18. How GERMANY FORCED THE PRESENT WAR

What Happened in 1913 Ill

19. THE DIPLOMATIC HISTORY OF THE WAR YEAR

Sir Edward Grey's Struggle to Avoid War 114

20. WHAT THE ALLIES ARE FIGHTING FOR

A Precise Statement by the British Foreign Minister 121

21. WERE OTHER POWERS BLAMEWORTHY?

A Candid Examination of the Facts 128

22. DID THE BRITISH HATE THE GERMANS?

Why 5,000,000 Civilians Became Soldiers 133

23. THE CONCLUSION OF THE WHOLE MATTER

What Hinders Peace 138

APPENDIX

THE BRITISH CHARACTER IN WORLD HISTORY

A Swiss Writer's Collection of Facts from a Hundred Years 143

THE BRITISH CHARACTER IN THE PRESENT WAR

1. " Tokyo Nichi Nichi " '. . 146

2." Herald of Asia " 147

BRITAIN'S BUSHIDO

A French Writer on the British and Japanese Spirit .... 149*

TRANSLATION OF THE PROCLAMATIONS 155



ILLUSTRATIONS



l.RAEMAKERS CARTOONS

facing page

" We have Better Luck with Passenger Steamers than with

Warships. They Cannot Shoot " ii

The Children of the " Lusitania " iii

The Children of Belgium xii

" Why Couldn't She Submit ? She would have been Well

Paid " xiii

German Emperor as a Savage Breaking into Belgium xvi

Belgians used as a Shield for German Troops 1

A Familiar Scene 4

The Retreat from Antwerp 5

" It's All Right. If I had not Done it Someone Else Would " 8

The Friend of Belgium 9

The Views of the Devil 12

Kultur has Passed this Way 13

The Dream 16

" The Way to Calais ". . . / 17

The Massacre of the Innocents 18

Kultur from the Sky 19

The Mothers of Belgium 24

The Widows of Belgium 25

A Wounded Belgian Soldier Burying his Child 32

Exhumation of the Martyrs of Aerschot 33

Shooting of Innocent Hostages in Belgium 40

Executions in Belgium in the Presence of Wives and Children 41

A Belgian Home 48

* Kultur 49

Able-Bodied Belgians Deported to Germany 56

The Friend of Belgium Again 57

Hungry Belgians Outside the American Relief Committee's

Office : 64

The Homeless in Winter 65

The Mysteries of German War Finance 72

Serbia, Autumn, 1915 . . 73



XI

facing page

Germany and Death 80

Cannon Food 81

The Triumph of the Zeppelin 88

The Execution of Miss Cavell 89

Civilisation in the Grip of Militarism 96

Germany's Peace Proposals 97

2 FACSIMILES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FROM ORIGI-
NAL PHOTOGRAPHS

Sisyphus 104

" Before the Leaves Fall You Will Have Peace " 105

A German Soldier's Gleeful Account of Killing the Wounded 112

Hanging of Three Women Admitted 113

Extract from a German Soldier's Letter about Mutilating the

Wounded 113

A Confession of Murder 120

Incendiarism and Piety 120

Confession of Disgraceful Conduct 121

German Soldiers' Incendiary Tablets 128

A Case of Bestiality 128

The King of the Belgians Encouraging his Soldiers 129

Where the King of the Belgians lives during the War .... 136

The Belgian Crown Prince 136

King George and King Albert 137

3. ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

page

1. The Bravery of Belgium 7

2. Patriotic Proclamation of the Belgian General at Liege

on the German Invasion 25

3. Japanese Sword Presented to King Albert 27

4. Proclamation of Civil and Military Governors Warning
people against taking up Arms 31

5. Proclamation of a Burgomaster directing those who may
possess guns to surrender them 33

6. Invitations to attend a Mass near Liege for the Souls of

61 massacred persons, four of whom were women .... 37

7. A List Published at Tamines of the Names of 336
persons killed (including 2 priests and 9 women) and of

59 persons wounded 43



Xll



facing page

8. German Proclamation ordering the Surrender of Lists

of the Dead 46

9. Invitation to a Mass in Rome for the Souls of 48
Priests Shot in Belgium 56

10. Advertisement in " Cologne Gazette " of Furniture
Remover offering to take goods from Belgium to
Germany '. 79

11. Order in German Government Gazette imposing the
War contribution of 40,000,000 francs 81

12. Different Points of View. . 141



NOTE

Since this book was written much additional evidence has come
to light as to the way in which Germany deliberately planned War.
As for example :

May, 1914. German Reservists called up from the Far East.

Early June. Arms for German cruisers sent out to Buenos Ayres.

June 15th. Contracts in America for coaling German cruisers at sea at specified
places and dates in August and September.

June, Late. German Reservists called up from Natal.

Last instalment due of the great German War Loan.

July. Bills on London far in excess of trade requirements drawn by Germans, such
bills falling due after August 1st.

July 31st. The German " Kronprinzessin Cecilie " in mid- Atlantic receives message
in special cipher, "War has broken out. Return to New York." Now War had not
broken out. The English ultimatum was not sent till August 4th. Germany was still
" negotiating."



ERRATA

Page 9, line 21 ; page 11, line 7 ; page 12, lines 32 and 35 : for
" Minister " read " Ambassador."

Page 19, line 7, for " Character " , read " Chapter "

Page 64, line 17, for "Third" read "Fourth." Page 67, line 4,
for "Fourth" read "Fifth." Page 69, line 27, for "Fifth" read
" Sixth."

Page 80, line 5, for "140,000 francs," read "65,000,000 francs"




n



THF, CHILDREN OF BELGIUM




" WHY COULDN'T SHE SUBMIT? SHE WOULD HAVE BEEN WELL PAID "
An allusion to the suggestion in a manifesto by German professors that it would have
paid Belgium better to submit to Germany than to resist her !



INTRODUCTION

THE ARTIST RAEMAKERS
AND THE STORY HE TELLS

" It makes all the difference whether we put Truth in the first place or the second
place." Whateley

THE GREATEST ARTIST THE WAR HAS PRODUCED. The object
of this book is twofold. First, to introduce to Japan an artist of
exceptional distinction. Second, to record quite simply the remarkable
series of events on which he has concentrated his genius.

Raemakers is by far the greatest artist the War has produced. He
has devoted his talents to throwing a light. on the treatment of Belgium
by Germany. He is not, however, a Belgian. He was born of a Dutch
father in Holland, the people of which country have been in the past
by no means on cordial terms with the Belgians, and his mother was
a German.

The drawings, of which those collected in this book form a small
part, first began to appear in a Dutch paper. The aim of Raemakers
was not only humane but patriotic. In size and in geographical relation-
ship with Germany, Holland closely resembles Belgium. Believing that
Holland might ultimately be exposed to the same dangers as Belgium,
Raemakers desired to make plain to his Dutch fellow countrymen the
real policy and mentality of the German invaders of Belgium.

The fame of Raemakers' War drawings quickly grew. A great ex-
hibition of them was held in Paris. They began to be published in
a London weekly, " Land and Water." Soon Raemakers was acclaimed
in Europe and America as the greatest artist the War has brought into
notice.

THE QUALITY OF His WORK. Raemakers is remarkable not only
because of a great technical skill. He is a great artist because of his
deep sincerity and a real insight into character. With these gifts and a
burning scorn of wrong, Raemakers has been able to picture with
relentless truth the baseness of the Ignoble Warrior. As a great French



xiv INTRODUCTION

critic has written, he seems to have clearly discerned the actual character
of the average German conscript:

" He is shown to be fierce, but the artist also distinctly indicates that at the very
moment when the brute is unchained in this warrior by battle, by pillage, by sensual
indulgence and by the orders of his officers, dictated by a barbarous conception of War,
he is after all, only an inflamed ironmonger of some petty town in Pomerania. The
artist indeed retains the attitude of a philosopher who ascertains, explains, gives one a
realising idea of the situation."

It is evidence of the degree to which the Germans have felt the
scorn of Raemakers that 6,000 yen are reported to have been offered
for his capture. He is now living in London.

THE ARTIST'S SUBJECT. In order to understand the feeling which
inspires these drawings by Raemakers it is necessary to understand
exactly what has happened in Belgium. In the following pages I have
been at great pains to set down the simple facts, without passion or
prejudice, so carefully and precisely that no one can dare to question
their truth. All I have written is based on official publications or other
works of an absolutely trustworthy character.

The Raemakers cartoons had unfortunately to be imported in large
sheets, to which English and Japanese lettering had to be added. This
accounts for a somewhat less artistic presentation of them than would
have been obtainable with the cartoons themselves or with blocks.



I tried hard to keep the book from getting so long. But it has been
necessary to cover a great deal of ground in order to furnish a suffici-
ently complete view of a large subject. Many readers will no doubt
be familiar with the facts set forth in some of the Chapters. I am
hopeful, however, that there may be other Chapters which contain a
narrative of events which may be by no means so well known to them.

I need not say that no one can be more conscious than I am that
the book might have been much better. It has been written with not
a few disadvantages. I have had to do without some books by consulta-
tion with which I could have made my pages more forceful. Some
of the works which I have been able to consult arrived very late. One
merit, however, may be claimed for the book. Its author has most
sincerely endeavoured to write, in the words of the oath administered
to witnesses in English courts of justice, " the truth, the whole truth and
nothing but the truth." He dares to hope that the agonising story of
outrage, of ignoble militarism, and of baseness in high places which he
has felt it to be his duty to set forth at this critical period in the moral



THE GERMAN VIRTUES xv

development of the nations of the world will be read by a kindly
and chivalrous people with feelings of horror and with sentiments of
sympathy.

ATTITUDE TOWADS GERMANY. The author would deeply regret
if this book had the effect of obscuring from any reader the high
degree of German attainment in many fields before the War. He
would be equally sorry if anyone should so 'misunderstand his aim as
to imagine that he did not recognise to the full the conspicuous bravery
of many German soldiers and sailors, and the sacrifices which are
being made and the unity which is being displayed by so considerable
a proportion of the German people. The German virtues are not
hidden from those who have at heart the progress of mankind and the
development of Civilisation. That these virtues should have been so
ignobly prostituted, that a mean conception of the ends of life and of
International relations should have imposed itself on the mind and con-
science of a great nation, is one of the saddest things in the history of
Europe. The peoples at War with the Germanic Powers are appalled
and bewildered as might be the members of a peaceful family by the
discovery of a murderer in their midst. In the anguish and sorrow
which the populations of the Allied countries have been called upon to
bear, feelings of revenge for their sufferings are not uppermost in their
thoughts. But a stern duty is indubitably laid upon them. That duty
is, as an International Police Force, effectually to restrain and to punish
the criminal, and to make sure that such a crime as has been committed
shall never again darken the records of mankind.

THE BASIS OF PEACE. We are far away in Japan from the scenes
of horror. But we are able to realise something of the woe which has
come upon Europe. It is a natural human instinct, then, to desire
Peace. But in seeking for Peace, at a time when a bloodied world
seems to have taken leave of sanity, it is above all things imperative to
use commonsense, And it is the most obvious commonsense that there
can be no hope of finding a sound basis for Peace without first establish-
ing, in the eyes of the world and of the German people, the causes of
the infraction of Peace.

Before the War, every nation had been for years pouring out
money on armaments, War was the calling of many millions of men.
The possibilities of War were taken as a matter of course. The world
had become a powder magazine. No nation was willing to spend the
price of a single Dreadnought on promoting good relations with its



xvi INTRODUCTION

neighbours on the sure foundation of an understanding of their aims
and needs. It is idle, therefore, to try to cast on a single people entire
responsibility for War. But it is the solemn claim of this book that, as
far is it is possible to determine national responsibility for War, Ger-
many alone was the cause of the present carnage. This is a terrible
indictment. It may not be brought against Germany without abundant
evidence. The author of these pages invites the reader carefully to
examine the facts which he has brought together, not only as to the
Causes but as to the Conduct of the War, and to form his own judg-
ment.

The case for the Allies was thus summarised by Viscount Grey on
October 24, 1916 :

People say it is useless to return and go over the same old gvound, but you cannot
return to the ground too often, for it affects the future peace conditions.

Nobody in July, 1914, thought of attacking Germany. It was simply the story of
1870 over again. Everything was prepared in Berlin, and when the chosen moment
came the manoeuvre was made to provoke another country into a defensive attitude, a
step which was then resented by an ultimatum.

It was the same thing with the invasion of Belgium. The strategic railways and
plan of campaign were all prepared.

All efforts to avoid War in 1914 failed because Germany had willed that the War
should be.

I should like nothing better than to see all these statements investigated before an
independent and impartial tribunal.

It is for the reader of the following pages to say whether the case
for the Allies is made out.



J. W. ROBERTSON SCOTT
Koeiji Temple, Tatsuzawa, Naganoken. Autumn, 1916.




GERMAN EMPEROR AS A SAVAGE BREAKING INTO BELGIUM
Belgium is represented as being sacrificed on an altar inscribed " Germany over all."
See pages 1 to 4 for German promises to preserve Belgian neutrality.



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BELGIANS USED AS A SHIELD FOR GERMAN TROOPS

" The rules and usages of War were frequently broken by placing civilians, including
women and children, as a shield for troops exposed to fire." Report of British Commis-
sion of Inquiry. See page 63.



CHAPTER I

HOW GERMANY PROMISED IN FOUR TREATIES

TO RESPECT THE NEUTRALITY

OF BELGIUM

THE TREATIES FROM 1831 TO 1907

"Truth must be constantly re-stated for falsehood never ceases to whisper in our
ears." Goethe

MARQUIS OKUMA EXPLAINS. "The existence of Belgium as a
Buffer State," the Marquis Okuma has very clearly explained, " is
indispensable to the peace of the world." As the ex-Premier points out,
because of the geographical position and flatness of Belgium, " nearly
all the important battles of Western Europe " have been fought there.
" It is because of this," he says, " that the European Powers had
placed Belgium in a state of perpetual neutrality." Yet, as he goes on
to say, " this Buffer State is to-day occupied by the Germans." The
facts could not be more faithfully summarised. In the present Chapter
the story is told in greater detail.

How BELGIUM CAME INTO EXISTENCE. In the year 1831 Belgium,
disliking her connexion with Holland, was detached from Holland and
made into a separate kingdom. In that year a Treaty was signed by
Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria and Prussia* which enacted that
" Belgium shall form a Perpetually neutral State." The five Powers
guaranteed to it also the integrity and inviolability of its territory.

In 1839 Holland, which had naturally resented the secession of
Belgium, finally recognised the new Belgian State. In a Treaty with
Belgium, Holland recognised that " Belgium shall form an independent
and perpetually neutral State." Thereupon in the Treaty of London
signed in the same year, that is 1839, the Sovereigns of the five Great
Powers, including Prussia and Austria, declared that the Dutch-Belgian
Treaty was "placed under the guarantee of their Majesties."

* The German Empire was not founded until 1871.



2 WHAT GERMANY PROMISED IN FOUR TREATIES

How BELGIAN NEUTRALITY WAS RESPECTED IN THE FRANCO-
PRUSSIAN WAR. In 1870 came the War between France and Prussia.
In order that there should be no doubt as to the neutrality of
Belgium, the belligerents, at the instance of Great Britain, entered into
a fresh Treaty with her (August 9) " without invalidating or impair-
ing the conditions of the Quintuple Treaty above mentioned," that is
the Treaty of 1839. This new Treaty between Great Britain, Prussia
and France specified that Prussia " notwithstanding the hostilities with
which the North German Confederation* is engaged with France, has the
fixed determination to respect the neutrality of Belgium" France, on her
part, made the same engagement, and Great 'Britain in order to leave
no possible room for doubt as to her own attitude, undertook to attack
either Prussia or France if either should break her undertaking and
invade Belgium. Two instances may be given of the respect which
during this War of 1870 was paid to the neutrality of Belgium. First,
Napoleon and his army had the opportunity of escaping from Sedan
into Belgium and thus avoiding the humiliation of surrender at that
place, but did not avail themselves of it. Second, after the surrender
of Sedan, Prussia asked for permission to transport her wounded across
Belgium to Germany, but this permission was refused.

WHAT THE HAGUE CONVENTION PROVIDED. The only other
Treaty having relation to the case of Belgium is the Hague Convention
of 1907, signed by forty-four countries including Germany and Austria.
It specifies that " the territory of neutral powers " such as Belgium " is
inviolable."

" Belligerents," it says, " are forbidden to move across the territory
of a neutral power troops and convoys either of munitions of war or
of supplies."

" The fact of a neutral power repelling even, by force, attacks on
its neutrality," it goes on to state, " cannot be considered a hostile act."



* The style under which Prussia and the other German States engaged in War
with France.



CHAPTER II

HOW GERMAN MINISTERS PERSONALLY

PROMISED THE SAME THING

FOUR TIMES

THE UNDERTAKINGS OF TWO CHANCELLORS

A GERMAN LEGAL VIEW. So much for the way in which the
neutrality of Belgium was protected by Treaties which may be called
part of the Public Law of the World.

But Germany went farther than giving the guarantee of her signature
to these Treaties. She gave the authority not only of the leading Ger-
man text-book of International Law, but of two of her Chancellors
and of two of her Ministers. First, as to what the " Handbuch des
Volkerrechts " says. In Volume III, part 16, pages 93,108,109, it lays
down the absolute inviolability of Belgium in all circumstances and
without exception. It declares that such Treaties as the Treaties guaran-
teeing the neutrality of Belgium are the great " landmarks of progress,"
and that the guarantors must step in, whether invited or uninvited, to
vindicate them. " Nothing" it is declared, " could make the situation of
Europe more insecure than an egotistical repudiation by the great States of
these duties of international fellowship"

WHAT BISMARCK SAID AND WROTE. Now as to the declarations
of German statesmen. When, in 1870, France declared war on Prussia,
the Belgian Minister in Berlin feared that, notwithstanding the Treaties,
Germany might, if hard pressed, not scruple to violate the neutrality of
Belgium. But Bismarck, the German Chancellor, reassured him.

" In confirmation of my oral assurances," (he wrote, July 22) " I give you in
writing the declaration, superfluous in view of the Treaties in force, that the North
German Confederation and its Allies will respect the neutrality of Belgium."

And, as we have seen in the last Chapter, the undertaking was
respected.

THE UNDERTAKINGS OF BETHMAN HOLLWEG AND VON JAGOW.
In 1905 the German Minister at Brussels declared at a public banquet



4 WHAT GERMAN MINISTERS PROMISED FOUR TIMES

that, " respect for Belgian neutrality is a political axiom in Germany"

Six years later, in 1911, Belgium thought it well to make repres-
entations to Germany in regard to certain newspaper articles. There-
upon the Imperial Chancellor (Herr von' Bethmann Hollweg) declared
that " Germany has no intention of violating Belgian neutrality."

In 1913, a year before the present War, the German Secretary for
Foreign Affairs (Herr von Jagow), in the course of a debate in the
Budget Committee of the Reichstag, (April 29), gave the following
assurance to a deputy who had suspicions that the German Army



Online LibraryJ. W. (John William) Robertson ScottThe ignoble warrior : a collection of facts for the study of the origin and conduct of the war → online text (page 1 of 24)