J. W. O'Neill Samuel Gardner Drake.

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him. There were four interpreters employed upon the occasion, namely,
Sergeant CtdUcul and his Indian man, Cutchamakin and Josias.**

From this time to the next meeting of the commissioners, the country
seems not to have been much disturbed. In the mean time, however, Uncast
without any regard to the promise and obligations the English had Laid them-
selves under for him, undertook to chastise a Narragauset sachem for some
alleged offence. On opening their congress, at New Haven, letters from Mr.
MorUm and Mr. Pdera^ at Pequot, were read by the commissioners, giving
accounts of Uneas's perfidy. The complainants were sent to, and informed
that Uncos was shortly to he there, and that they should bring their proof in
order to a trial.

Meanwhile Uncoi came, who, after waiting a few days, and his accusen*
not appearing, was examined and dismissed. It appears that the English at
Nameoke, since Saybrook, were the suffering pamr, as their neighborhood
was the scene of Unccu^s depredations. Of some of the charges he acknowl-
edged himself guilty, especially of fighting ^eckwash [Wequash] Cooke so
near to the plantation at Pequot ; although ne allepd that some of the Eng-
lish there had encouraged Wequash to hunt upon his lands. He was informed

* Outcmfqnin, f Perhaps ShoslumiM, or Sholan,

t See jMge 61, anU $ }Ve^^tash Cook. H WepiUamock.

V Atcoiegtan, *^ Son of Chikataubut, probably.



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160 / (JNCAS.— NUMEROUS CHARGES AGAINST HIM. [Book n

that hm brother had also been guilty of aorne ofieoce, but neither the aoeoaei
nor the accused were present, and, therefore, it could not be acted upon. So,
after a kind of reprimand^ Uncoi was dismissed, as we have just mentioned.
But before he bad left the town, Mr. fFwu Motion arrived at court, with three
Indians, to maintain the action against him ; he was, therefore, called in, and a
hearing was had, <* but the commissioners founde noe cause to alter the ibrmpr
writinge giuen him." This was as regarded the affiiir with ffeauask. Mr.
Morton then produced a Pequot powwow, named tFampu$he^ who, be said,
had charged Uncas with having hired him to do violence to another Indian, or
to procure it to be done, which accordingly was ejected, the Indian bein^
wounded with a hatchet This crime was at first laid to the charge of h'e-
quashy as Uncas had intended. ^But after Twards,] the Pequat's powwow*,
troubled in conscience, could have no rest till he had disooured Fncus to b*
the author." He first related his ffuilt to Robin,* an Indian servant of Mr.
fftnikrop ; but, to the surprise of me whole court, fFampushel^ the only wit-
ness, on being questioned through Mr. Stantonj the interpreter, told a story
diametrically me reverse of what he had before staled. ** He cleared Vncys^
and cast the plot and guilt vpon JVedbaatA Cooke and Robm;^ **aDd though
the other two Pequats, whereof the one was Robin^t brother, seemed mudi
offended," and said Uncas had hired him to alter his charge, ^yet he persistod,
and said J^eckwask Cooke and Robm had giuen him a payre of breeches, and
promised him 25 fadome of wampum, to cast the plot u|M)n Vncus, and that the
English plantacon and Pequats knew it The commwoners abhorring this
diuilish mlshoode, and advisinge Fhctit, if he expected any fiivoure and respect
from the English, to haue no band in any such designee or vniust wayea."

Hence it appeara that the court did not doubt much of the villany of Uncas,
but, for reasons not required here to be named, he was treated as a ibnd
parent often treats a disobedient child ; reminded of the end to which such
crimes lead ; and seem to threaten chastisement in their words, while their
deportment holds out quite difierent language.

At the congress of the United Colonies, at Boston, 'm July, 1647, Mr. John
ffinOirop ofConnecticut presented a petition, <*in tlie name of many Pequatts,"
in the preamble of whicn Casmamon and Obechiquod are named, requesting
that they might have liberty to dwell somewhere under the protection of the
English, which they might appoint They acknowledged that their sachems
and people had done very ill against the English formerly, for which they had
justly suffered and been rightftilly conquered by the English ; but that they had
had no hand, bv consent or otherwise, in shedding the blood of the English,
and that it was by the advice of JVecauash f that they fled fit>m their country,
being promised by him that the English would not hurt them, if they did not
join against them. The names o€ 62 craving pardon and protection were at
the same time communicated.

In answer the commissioners say, that while Wegiuisk lived he had made no
mention of "such innocent Pequats, or fiftwn any other person since ;" and on
*^ enquiry from Thomas SUmion, fix>m Fhxon, one of Uncus his men, and at last
by confession of the Pequats present, fotmd that some of the petitioners were
iu Mistick fort in fight against the EngHsh, and fled away in the smoke,** and
that others were at other times in arms against the English and Mohegans,
and, therefore, the ground of their petition was fidse and deceitfuL

It appears that they had taken refuge under UneaSy who had promised them
good usage, which was probably on condition that they should pay him a
tribute. They resided at this time at Namyok.

At the same court, Obechiquod complained that Uncas had forcibly taken
away his wife, and criminally obliged her to live with him. ** Ihxon being
present, as Uncases deputy, was questioned about this base and unsuflerable
outrage ; he denied that Uncas either took or kept avnqr €hechiquod*s wifis by
force, and afiirmed that [on] ObeckiqwHPs withdrawing, with other Pequota,

' * Hit Indiui name was Catwumom, pertmpi the same as C<u$tm mm mmm, or CMonmemimf
Sec,

t Wequathf the traitor. He became a aoled prayiai[ Indian, after the Pequot war, and
was supposed to have died by poijon. Freqnent manuen will be found of him elsewhere in
our woo.



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Chap. V.] UNCAS ACCUSED OF PERFIDY. 161

firom Uncoi^ his wife refused to go with him ; and thit, among the Indians, it it
usual when a wife so deserts her husband, another may take ner. Obechiqwid
affirmed that Uncas had dealt criminally before, and still kept her against
her will"

Though not satisfied in point of proof, the commissioners said, " Yet ab-
horing mat histfijl adulterous carriage of UncaSj as it is acknowledged and
mitti^ted by FffZOUf^ and ordered that he should restore the wife, and that
ObeMquod have liberty to settle under the protection of the English, where
they should direct.*

Complaints at this time were as dilck upon die head of Uncas as can wel
be conceived of^ and still we do not imagine that half the crimes he was guilty
of, stre on record. Another Indian named SanapSy at the same time, complain-
ed that he had dealt in like manner with the wife of another chief, since dead ;
that he had taken away his com and beans, and attempted his life also. The
court say they found no prool^ ** first or last, of these charges,'' still, as to the
com and beans, ** Foxon conceives Uncaa seized it because Sannop^ with a
Pequot, in a disorderly manner withdrew himself from Uncas." Hence i:
seems not much evidence vtras required, as Uncases deputy uniformly pleaded
guilty ; and the court could do no less than order that, on investigation, he
should make restitution. As to Soamop^ who was ^'no Peciuot," but a '^ Con-
necticut Indian," he had liberty to live under the protection of the English
also.

To the charges of die Pequots against Uneas^ of *^ his vnjustice and tyranny,
drawing wampam from them vpon new pretences," *<they say they haue
giuen him wampam 40 times since they came vnder him, and that they haue
sent wampam by him to the English 25 times," and had no account that he
ever delivered it ; it was answered by J\»zon, that Uncas had received wam-

tnun divers times as tribute, but deni^ that, in particular, any had been given
lim for the English, and that "he thinks the nomber of^25 times to be
altogether false."

There were a long train of charges against Uncas for his oppression of the
Pequots, which when the commissioners had heard through, they '^ ordered
that Vncits be dul^ reproved, and seriously enformed that the English cannot
owne or protect him in any vnlawful, much lease trecherous and outrageous
courses." And notwithstanding the commissioners seem not to doubt of the
rascality of their ally, yet nothing seems to have been done to relieve the
distressed Pequots, because that "after the [Pequot] warre they spared the
Hues of such as had noe hand in the blonde of the English." To say the least
of which, it is a most extraordinary consideration, that because some innocent
people had not been destroyed in war, they might be harassed according as
the caprice of abandoned minds might dictate.

Mr. John ffhUkrop next prefers a complaint against Uncas from anodier
Quarter : the Nipmuks had oeen attacked, in 164^ by 1^ Mohegans, under
Mfweauay a brotner of Uncas, It does not appear that he killed any of them,
but roobed diem of effects to a great amount ; amonff which are enumerated >
35 fathom of vnmipum, 10 copper ketdes, 10 " great nempen baskets," many
bear skins^ deer skins, &c Of this charge Foxon said Uncas was not guilty,
for that he knew nothing of Nowt^u^s proceedings in it : that at the time of
it [September] Uncas^ with his chief counsellors, was at New Haven with the
commissioners of the United Colonies ; and that Nowcqua had at the same
time robbed some of Uncaps own people.

It was also urged by Winthropy that not long before the meeting of the com- •
missioners in September, 1647, this same Nlowtqwi had been vrith 40 or 50 men
to Fisher's Island, where he had broken up a canoe belonging to him, and greatly
alarmed his man and an Indian who were there at diat time. That Nbwequa
next ^hovered against the English plantation, in a suspicious manner, with 40-
or 50 of his men, many of them armed with gunns, to the afifrightment not
onelv of the Indians on the shore (soe that some of them began to bring their
goods to tlie English houses) but divers of the English themselues."

* This chief is the same, we believe, called in a later part of the records (Hazard, ii. 419)
Abbaehiekwood. He was fiiie<L with seveo others, ten fathom of wampum for going to fight
the Pocomptack Indians with Vneaa, in the summer of 1659.

14» L



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162 UNCAS.— WAR WITH THE NIPMURS. [Book H.

These ehanef beim admitted br JVxon, the commiarioiien <*ordeied that
VneuB fh>m them be Ally mformed, that he must either regulate and continue
his brother in a righteous and peaceable frame for the future voderstandinge,
and providing that vpon due proof due restitution to be made to such as hatie
been wronged by him, or else wholy disert and, leaue him, that the Nanagen-
sett and others may requere and recouer satisfiiction as they can*

We pass now to the year 1651, omitting to notice some few events more or
less connected with our subject, which, in another chapter, may properly pass
under review.

Last year, T%oma$ StanUm had been ordered <* to get an account of the num-
ber and names of the several Peqnots living among the Narraganaels, Niantick?,
or Mohegan Indians, Sicj who, by an agreement made ailer the Pequot v^ar, are
jusdy tmnitaiies to &e Enghsh colonies, and to receive the tribute due for this
iast year." Sbmion now appeared as interpreter, and with him came also
Uncos and several of his men, Wequash Cook and some of '^ ACftnaero/ft" men,
^Roberif a Pequot, sometimes a servant to Mr. ffmOaropf and some vnth him,
and some Pequots living on Long Idand.^ They at this time delivered 312
fathom of wampum. Of this Uncos brought 79, J\fimgrd!*s men 91, Sic

*This wampum being laid dovim, Uncas and others of the Pequots
demanded why this tribute was required, how long it was to continue, and
whether the children to be bom hereaAer were to wv it" They were
answered that the tribute had been due yearly from the Pequots since 1638,
on account of their murders, wars, &c. upon the English. ** Wherefore the
conmiifisioners might have required both account and payment, as of a just
debt, for time past, but are contented, if it be thankfblly accepted, to remit
what is past, accounting only from 1650, when T%ntMS SlanUm^s employment
and salary besan." Also that the tribute should end in ten years more, and
that children hereafter bom should be exempt Hitherto all male children
were taxed.

The next matter with which we shall proceed, has, in the lifo of Ousame-
qviny been merely glanced at, and reserved for this place, to which it more
oroperiy belongs.

We have now arrived to the year 1661, and it was m the spring of this year
that a Mrar broke out between Uhcas and the old sachem before named. It
veems very clear that the Wampanoags had been friendly to the Narragansets,
for a long time previous; being separated from them, were not ofbeu
involved in their troubles. They saw how Uhcas was favored by the English,
and were, therefore, careful to have nothing to do with the Mohegans, from
whom they were still farther removed. Of the rise, progress and termkiation
of their war upon the Quabaogs, a tribe of Nipmuks belonnng to Was€magi$i,
the reader may ga^er the most important facts firom some documents,* which
we shall in the next place lay before him.

^Mercurius de Quabaconk, or a declaration of the dealings of Uncas
and the Mohegin Indians, to certain Indians the inhabitants of Quabaconk,
21, 3d mo. 1661.

" About ten weeks since Uncos' son, accompanied vrith 70 Indians, set upon
the Indians at Quabaconk, and slew three persons, and carried away six pris-
oners ; among which were one squaw and her two children, whom wh^ he
had brought to the fort, Uncas dismissed the squaw, on conditions that she
would go home and brine him £25 in peaff, two guns and two blankets, for
the release of herself and her children, which as yet she hath not done, being
retained by the sagamore of Weshakeim, in hopes that their league with the
English will free them.

** At the same time he carried away also, in stuff and money, to the value
of £37, and at such rime as Uncas received notice of the die^easure of the
English in the Massachusetts by the worshipful Mr. FFtntArop, he insolently
laughed them to scorn, and professed that he would still go on as he had
begun, and assay who dares to controll him. Moreover, four days since
thm came home a prisoner that escaped ; two yet remaining, whom Uncos

* In mamiscript, and never before publtsbed.



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Ca4P. v.] REFLECTIONS.— MESSAGE TO UNCAS. 163

tfareatens^ the ooe of them to kill, and the other to sell away ai a slave, and
still threatens to contiDue his war agamst them, uotwithstancuoff any prohibi-
doD whatsoever; whose very threats are so terrible, that our Indiaos aare not
ivander far firom the towns about the Indians for fear of surprise.

From the reladon of

Paxbassua,
and testimony of

Wasamaoin,
QuAi^ur.quuNSET,

and others."

From this narrative it is veiy plain that Uneas cared very little for the dis-
pleasure of the English : it is plam, also, that he knew as well as they what
kept them from dealing as severely witn him as with the Narraganset^ his
neighbors. They mast succumb to him, to keep him in a temper to aid in
fighting their battles when called upon. Hence, when he had committed the
nossest insults on other Indians, the wheels of justice oflen moved so slow,
that they arrived not at their object until it had become quite another matter.
It must, however, be considered, that the English were very peculiarly sit-
uated — upon the very marein of an unknown wndemess, inclosed but on one
side by Indians, whose chief business was war. They had destroyed the
Pequots, but this only added to their fears, for they knew that revenge lurked
still in the breasts of many, who only were waiting for an opportunity to
gratify it ; therefore, so long as one of the most numerous tribes could possi-
bly be kept on their side, the English considered themselves in safety. They
had made many missteps in their proceedines with the Indians, owing some-
times to one cause and sometimes to anoSier, for which now there was no
remedy ; and it is doubtful whether, even at this day, if any set of men were
to go into an unknown region and setde among wild men, that they would
get along with them so much better than our fathers did with the Indians
here, as some may have imagined. These are considerations which must be
taken into account in estimating the ** wrongs of the Indians." They seem
the more necessary in this place ; for, m die Mographv of UncaSy there is as
much, perhaps, to censure regarding the acts of me English, as in any other
article of Indian history.

The narrative just recited, being sent in to the court of Massachusetts, was
referred to a select committee, who, on the 1 June, reported.

That letters should be sent to Uneasy signifying how sensible the court was
of the iniuries he had done them, l^ his outrage upon the Indians of Quaba-
conk, who lived under their sagamore, Wasaamaginj as set forth in the
narrative. That, therefore, they now desired him to give up the captives and
make restitution for all the goods taken from them, and to forbear for time to
come all such unlawful acts. That, if Wdasamagin or his subjects had or
should do him or his subjects anv wrong, the English would, upon due
proof, cause recompense to be made. Also that Uncas be given to under-
stand and assured, that if he refuse to comply with the request, they were
then resolved to right the injuries upon him and his, and for all costs they
might be put to in the service. ''That for the encouraffement and safetv ol*
the sayd ffaasamagin and his subjects, there be by order of Major JflUard
three or four armed men, well accomodate in all respects, with a proporcon
of powder, buUetts and match sent from Lancaster to Quabaconk vnto the
sayd Wasaamaginy there to stay a night or two, and to shoote of their mus>
quets so of^n, and in such wise, as the mi^or shall direct, to terrifie the
enemies of fVa»9amaginj and so to return home again.** To inform fVassama-
gin and his subjects, that the authorities of Massachusetts would esteem it an
acknowledgment of theur regard, if they would permit them to have the
captives to be recovered from UncaSy to bring them up in a proper manner,
that they might be serviceable to their friencS, &c. Also, ''aduice and re-
quire frtuiomagm and his men to be verie carefull of iniuring or any ways
prouoking of Vncas, or any of his men, as he will answer our displeasure



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164 UNCAS WAR WITH ALEXANDER. [Book n.

thereiD, and incurr due punishment for the same.^ That if Uneas committed
any other hostile acts, he must complain to them, &c.* Thus Wasaamegin
was as much threatened as Uneas,

Matters seem to have remained thus until the meeting of the conmiission-
ers in September following ; when, in due course, the business was called up,
and acted upon as follows : —

<< Vpon complaint made to the comissionars of the Massachusetts against
VhJuUf this following message was sent to him : —

^ FneaSj wee haue receiued information and complaint from the generall
court of the Massachusetts of youer hostile invading of fVosameqmn and tlie
Indians of Quabakutt, whoe are and longe haue bine subjects to the English,
killing some and carrying away others ; spovling theire goods t6 the vallue of
331b. as they alle^.** That he had done this contrary to his covenants, and
had taken no notice of the demands of the Massachusetts, though some time
since they had ordered him to deliver up the captives, make remuneration,
&c. And to all he had returned no answer ; ** which,** continues the letter,
** seemes to bee an insolent and proud carriage of youers- We cannot but
wonder att it, and must beare wimess against it" He was, as before, required
to return the captives, &c and give reasons for his operations ; and if he
nefflected to do so, the Massachusetts were at liberty to right themselves.

In the mean time, as we apprehend a letter from Uneas was received, writ-
ten by Captain Mason, which was as rollows : —

"Whereas there was a warrant sent from the court of Boston, dated in my
last to Fncas, sachem of Mohegen, wherin it was declared vpon the com-
plaint of ffesamequenj f a sachem subject to the Massachusetts, that the said
Vncas had offered great violence to theire subjects at Quabauk, killing some and
taking others captiue ; which warrant came not to Uncas^ not aboue 20 daies
before these presents, who, being siunmoned by Major John Mason, in full
scope of the said warrant, wherein he was deeply charged if he did not return
the captiues, and £33 damage, then the Massachusetts would recouer it by
force of armes, which to him was uery grieuous : professing he was altogether
ignorant that they were subjects belonging to the Massachusetts ; and further
daid that thej^ were none of fVesamequen^s men, but belonging to Onopequin, his
deadly enemie, whoe was there borne ; one of the men then taken was his
own cousin, who had fonnerly fought against him in his own person ; andyett
sett him att libertie ; and further saith that all the captiues were sent home.
Alsoe that fVesameyum[^s\ son | and diuers of his men had fought against him
diuers limes. This he desired might bee returned as his answare to the
comissioners.

^Mtxander allis Wamsutta. sachem of Sowamsett, being now att Plymouth,
hee challenjg;ed Quabauke Indians to belong to him ; and nirther said that hee
did warr against Fncas this summer on that account. §

Signed by

John BIason.**



* Here end otir MSSI. relating to this affair.

t By this it would seem that Mastatoit had, for some time, resided among the Nipmucks.
He had, probably, gi^ren up Pokanoket to his sons.

t There can scarce be a doubt that this refers to AUxamUr. and that the next paragraph
cuufirms it ; hence ^(usasoit was alive in May, 1661, as we have before stated. And the
al>ove letter of Mason was probably written in September, or whDe the commissioners were
in session.

( It seems always to have been uncertain to whom the Nipmacks belonged. Rofi^er
IViUiamt savs, in 1668, " That all the Neepmocks we« nnquesUonabW subject to the Nan-
liigonset sachems, and, in a special manner, to Mefksahf the son of CiaamoumctUf and late
husband to this old Squate- Sachem, now only surviving. I have abundant and daily proof of
it," &c. M8. Utter, See life Massasoitf b. ii. ch. ii.

At one time, Kutshamaktn claimed some of the Nipmueki, or consented to be made a tool
of by toaie of them, for some private end. But Mr. Pvnchon said they would not own him as
a saehem any longer *< than the sun shined upon him.'' Had they bekmaped to him, Massft-
chusetu must have owned them, which wouM have involved them in much difficulty in 1648.
by reason of several murders among them.



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Chap. VI.] UNCAS.^-8ASSACUS. \6S

The particulara of the issue of diese troubles were not recorded, and the
presumption is, that Uncas complied with the reasonable requests of the £ng-
Ush, and the old, peaceable OusamequMj being unwillinff to get into difficulty,
put up with the result without aveneinff his wrongs. His son, WamsvUOy as
will be seen, about this time found lumself invdved in difficuhies nearer
home, which probably prevented him fix>m continuing the war against UncaSy
had he been otherwise disposed.



CHAPTER VL

OfUuPyuot nation — Geography of their emmtry — Sassacus, their first ehitff known
to the EngUeh — TasoaauanoU — War — The cause of it — WsquASH — Canonicus and
Miawtunnomoh accused of harboring fugitive Pequots — Sassamon — Monokotto—

(kash-~CAMA88lgnAM09,

** Bat tinea Pt« mentiooad Somocu* gnmi naaae,
That day m nrach a tarror whara it cama ; .
Let ma, in proaaoutioo of my ttory,
Sajr fomathing of his pride and kiogdom'e glor/.**— Wolcott.

It is said by Mr. HMardJ^ that the Pequots,! ''being a more fierce, cruel,
and warlike people than the rest of the Indians, came down out of the more
inland parts of the continent, and by force seized upon one of the goodliest
places near the sea, and became a terror to all their neighbors.^ The time of
their emigration is unknown. They made all the other tribes " stand in awe,
though fewer in number than the Narragansets, that bordered next upon
them.''t

Their country, according to Mr. Gookin^^ "the English of Connecticut



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