J. W. O'Neill Samuel Gardner Drake.

The aboriginal races of North America: comprising biographical sketches of ... online

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proceeded on his journey. On delivering lAie remainder and the letter to the
ladjr, she asked him where tiie rest of the oranges were ; he said he had
delivered all ; she told him that the letter said there were several more sent ;
to which he answered that the letter lied, and she must hot believe it But he
was soon confronted in his falsehood, and, begging forgiveness of the offenro
was pardoned, t

JStrewdne9$,'-'AB Governor Joseph Dudley of Maiaachusetts was superiu
tendinff some of his workmen, he took notice of an able-bodied Indian, who,
hfdf^ni&ed, would come and look on, as a pastime, to see his men work. The
governor took occasion one day to ask him t^Ay ke did not work and gd mnne
dothe$y wherewiA to cover himo^. The Indian answered bv adung him 10^
he did not to&rL The governor, pointing vrith Ins finger to his head, said, <* 7
^oork headworitf and so have no need to work with my hands as you riiould."
The Indian then said he would work if any one would employ him. Tho

• Caref't MoMum, vl. 40,

t Urh^t Voyage to N. England In ITOft, Svo. Londoo. ITK.

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ffovernor told him he wanted a calf killed, and that, if he would ^ and do it,
he would give him a shilling. He accepted the offer, and went mimediately
and killed the calf, and then went sauntering about as before. The governor,
on observing what he had done, asked him why he did not dress the calt
before he left it The Indian answered, *'JVb, no, Copanoh; that was not in
the bargain : I was to have a shilling for killing him. ^m he no dead^ Copan-
oh f^ [governor.] The governor, seeing himself thus outwitted, told him to
dress it, and he would give him another shilling.

This done, and in possession of two shillings, the Indian goes directly to a
grog-shop for rum. After a short stay, he returned to tlie governor, and Johl
him he bad given him a bad shilling-piece, and presented a bruss one to be
exchanged. The governor, thinking possibly it might have been the cose,
gave him another. It was not long before he returned a second time w itli
another brass shilling to be exchanged ; the governor was now convinced of
his knavery, but, not caring to make words at the time, gave him another ;
and thus the fellow got four shillings for one.

The governor detennined to have the rogue corrected for his abuse, and,
meeting with him soon after, told him he must take a letter to Boston for him
[and gave him a half a crown for the service.] * The letter was directed to tlie
keeper of bridewell, ordering him to give the bearer so many lashes ; but,
mistrusting that all was not exactly agreeable, and meeting a servant of the
governor on the road, ordered him, in the name of his master, to carry the
letter immediately, as he was in haste to return. The consequence was, this
servant got egreffiously whipped. When the governor learned what bad
taken place, he felt no litde chagrin at being Sius twice outwitted by the

He did not see the feUow for some time after this, but at length, falling in
with him, asked him by what means he had cheated and deceived him so
many times. Taking the governor again in his own play, he answered,
pointing with his finger to his head, ** Head toork, Coponoh, head work ! " The
governor was now so well pleased that he forgave the whole offence.f

Equality, — Ad Indian chief, on being asked whetheT his people were free,
answered, "Why not, since I myself am free, although then* king? "J

Matrimony. — " An aged Indian, who for many years had spent much time
among the whitepeople, both in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, one day,
about the year 17/0, observed that the Indians had not only a much easier
way of getting a wife than the whites, but also a more certain way of getting
a good one. * For,' said he in broken English, * white man court — court —
may be one whole year ! — ^may be two years before he marry ! Well — may
be then he get very good wire— but may be not — ^naay be very cross! Well,
now suppose cross ! scold so soon as get awake in the morning ! scold all
day ! — scold until sleep ! — all one— he must keep him ! — ^White people have
law forbidding throw away wife he be ever so cross — must keep him always !
Well, how does Indian do? Indian, when he see industrious squaw, he
go to him, place his two fore-fingers close aside each other make two like
one — then look squaw in the face — see him smile — this is all one he sny
yes ! — so he take him home— no danger he be cross I No, no — squaw knou
too well what Indian do if he cross! throw him away and take anotiier! —
Squaw love to eat meat — no husband no meat Squaw do every thing to
please husband, he do every thing to please squaw — ^live happy.' "§

Thleration, — ^In the year 1791, two Creek chiefti accompanied an American
to England, where, as usual, they attracted great attention, and many fioi-kcd
aroimd them, as well to learn their ideas of certain things as to behold *^ tiie
savages." Being asked their opinion of religion, or of what religion they were,
one made answer, that they had no priests in their country, or established
religion, for they thought, tliat, upon a subject where there was no possibility
of people's agreeing m opinion, and as it was altogether matter of men

* A sentence added in a version of this anecdotejn Carnf* Musenm, vi. 20i.

f Urinr, ut sttpra. 120.

i HeeMe¥>elder*s Hist Ind. Nations.

t Vr"f* "*? f^''^V.'^; . «, . ^ Caret^s MuMum, vi. 468.


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opinioii, *^ it was best that every one should paddle his canoe his own way.**
Here is a volume of instruction in a short answer of a savage !

Justice, — A white trader sold a quantity of powder to an Indian, and im
poeed upon him by making him believe it was a grain which ffrew like wheat,
by sowing it upon the ground. He was greatly elated by the prospect, not
only of raising nis own powder, but of being able to supply others, and there-
by becominj^ immensely rich. Having prepared his ground with great care,
he sowed his powder with the utmost exactness in the spring. Month afle*
month passed away, but his powder did not even sprout, and winter came
before ne was satisfied that he had been deceived. He said nothing; but
some time after, when the trader had forgotten the trick, the same Indian suc-
ceeded in ^ttinff credit of him to a large amount The time set for |)ayment
having expired, he sought out the Indian at his residence, and demanded' pa) •
ment fbr his goods. The Indian heard his demand with great complaiskice ;
then, looking him shrewdly in the eye, said, ^ Me pay y<m when mv jxnoder
grow/* This was enough. The guilty white man quickly retraced his steps,
satisfied, we apprehend, to balance his account with the chagrin he hod re

Hunting. — ^The Indians had methods to catch game which served them ex-
tremely well The same month in which the Mayflower brought over the
fore&thers, November, 1620, to the shores of Plimouth, sevei-al of them
ranged about the woods near by to learn what the country contained. Having
wandered ferther than they were apprized, in their endeavor to return, they
say, ** We were shrewdly puzzled, and lost our way. As we wandered, we
came to a tree, where a young sprit was bowed down over a bow, and some
acorns strewed underneath. Stephen Hopkins said, it had been to catch some
deer. So, as we were looking at it, fFUltam Bradford being in the rear, when
he came looking also upon it, and as he went about, it gave a sudden jerk up,
and he was immediately caught up by the legs. It was (they continue) a vei^
pretty device, made with a rope of their own making, [of bark or some kind
of roots probably,] and having a noose as artificially made as any roper in
England can make, and as &e ours as can be; which we brought away

PreaMng against Practice, — John Simon was a Sogkonate, who, about the
year 1700, was a settled minister to that tribe. He was a man of strong mind,
generally temperate, but sometimes remiss in the latter particular. The fol-
lowing anecdote is told as characteristic of his notions of justice. Simony
on account of his deportment, was created justice of the peace, and when dif
ficokies occurred involving any. of his people, he sat with the English justice
to aid in making up judgment It happened that Simon^s squaw, with some
others, had committed some offence. Justice ^my and Simon, in making up
their minds, estimated the amount of the offence differently ; Almy thought
each should receive eight or ten stripes, but Simon said, ^ No, Jour or fioe art
enough — Poor Indians art ignoranty and it is not Chnslian^l^ to punish so
harmy those who are ignoranty as those who have knowledge.** Simon*8 judg-
ment prevailed. When Mr. ^my asked John how many his wife should
receive, he said, ^DoubUy because she had knovdedge to ?iave done better;** but
Colonel JUmyy out of regard to John's feelings, wholly remitted his wife's
punishment John looked very serious, and made no reply while in presence
of the court, but, on the first fit opportunity, remonstrated very severely
against his jud^ent, and said to him, ** To whitt puroose do we preach a relt-
gum ofjustuXy \f wedo unrighteousness in jwtgment ^

Sam Hide, — ^There are few, we imagine, who have not heard of this per-
sonage ; but, notwithstanding his great notoriety, we might not be though
nrums in the rest of our woik, were we to enter seriously into his biography
lor the reason, that from his day to this, his name has been a by-word in all
New E!ngland, and means as much as to say the greatest of liars. It is on
tecount of the following anecdote that he is noticed.

* Moun'i RfJaiioii.

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Srnn HUk y^tm a noCorioue cider-drinker as weH as liar, and osed to travel the
^UDtry to and fro begging it from door to door. At one time be happened
ji a region of country where cider was very hard to be procured, either from
tts scarcity, or from Sam^s frequent visita However, cider he was determined
ix> have, if Wing, in any shape or color, would sain it Being not far from
the house of^ an acquaintance, who he knew had cider, but he knew, or wan
well satisfied, that, in the ordinary way of beggings he could not get it, he set
his wits at work to lay a plan to msure it This did not occupy him long.
On airiving at the house of the gentleman, instead of adung for cider, he in-
quired for the man of the house, whom, on appearing, Sam requested to go
aside with him, as he had sometliing of importance to communicate to him.
When they were by diemselves, Sam told him he had that morning shot a fine
deer, and that, if he would ^ve him a crown, he woukl tell him where it was.
The gentleman did not inchne to do this, but offered half a crown. Finally,
Sam said, as he had walked a great distance that morning, and was very dry,
for a half a crown and a mug of cider he would tell him. This was agreed
upon, and the price paid. Now Sam was required to point out the spot where
the deer was to be found, which he did in this manner. He said to his friend,
You know of $uch a meadoWy describinff it — Yes — You know a btgoik tree, with
a big top hy^ litOe hrookr-^Yesr^Wel^ under thai irte lies the deer. This was
satisfactory, and Sam departed. It is unnecessary to mention that the meadow
was found, and the tree by the brook, but no deer. The duped man could
hardly contain himself on considering what he had been doinff. To look
after Som for satisfaction would be worse than looking after the deer , so the
farmer concluded to go home contented. Some years after, he happened to
fall in with the Indian ; and he immediately began to rally him for deceiving
him so, and demanded back bis money and pay for his ckler and trouble.
HJi^ said Sam, umdd you find fault if Indian told truth half the Itme?— No
^-WdLf says Siim, uou find kim meadow f — ^Yee — You find hm trte^ — ^Yes —
What for then you find fault, Sean Hide,tdien he toldyou twotru^tomeUef
The afiair ended here. Sam heard no more from the farmer.

This is but one of the numerous anecdotes of Sam Hide^ which, coald tb^
be collected, would fill many pftgea. He died in Dedham, 5 January, 1732,
At the gre^ age of 105 vears. He was a great jester, and passed for an un-
common wit In all the wars against the Indians during his lifetime, he
served the English faithfully, and bad the name of a brave soldier. He had
himself killed 19 of the enemy, and tried hard to make up the SOth, but was

Characters contrasted. — ^^An Indian of the Kennebeck tribe, remarka-
ble for hiH good cx>nduct, received a grant of land from the state, and fixed
himself in a new township where a number of fiuniKes were settled. Though
not ill treated, yet the common prejudice against Indians prevented any sym-
pathy with himi. This was shown at the death of bis only child, when none
of the people came near him. Shortly afterwards he went to some of the
itiliahitaiits and baid to them, fVhen tohite man*s thM die, fndian man he sorrif
— he hdp biary kim^ — Hlien my child dxt, no one speak to me — I make his grave
alone. I can no Iwe here. He gave up hb farm, dug up the body of his chiki,
and carrieH it with him 300 m^es through the forests, to jom the Canaila

v9 ludicrous Error. — ^Tbere was published in London, in 1762, <<The
American Gazetteer," &c.f in which is the following account of Bristol,
K.I. ** A county and town in N. England. The capitd is remarkable for the
King of Spain*s hamng a palace in it, and being Killed there ; and also for
Crotm the noet's begging it 6f Charles II." The blunder did not rest here,
hilt is found in "The N. AMEaiCAEi and the West Iicdiak Gabetteer,"! &c.
Thus PhUip of Spain seems to have had the misfortune of being mistaken for
Philip of the Wampanoags, alias Pometacom of Fokanoket.

* Tm \(^r' -ti« r> Oil til' r •, rn States, 294. f 3 vols. 12mo. witbout naina.

t ' *' ' n. 1.« i' P88, also luionjnnoitt.

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i;BAr. m.] OF CUSTOMS and MAffNERS. 99

Ongm €r Muming of the Mnne CcnMkia.— It is said, dmt Canada was diseor-
ered by tlie Spamarda, before the time of Cartier, and tbat tbe Bay of Cba-
tetire was discovered bv tbein, and is tbe same as the Baye dea Espagnola;
and that the Spaoioran, not meeting with any appearances of mines of the
precious metals, said to one another, aoa nadoj which in their lanffuaffe signi-
fied, noUnmg hart, and forthwith departed from the country. The Indians,
baTiDfr fae^ these words, retained them in theur memories, and, when the
Prendi came amonc them, made use of them, probably by way of salutation,
not understanding meir import ; and they were supposed by the voyagers to
be the name of the coun&y. It was only necesmry to drop the first letter,
and use the two words as two syllables, and the word Canada was complete.*

But as long ago as when Father CkarUwnx wrote his admurable History
OF Niew Frmct^ he added a note upon the derivation of the name Canada,
in vHiich be said some dmived it firom an Iroquois word meaning an assem-
blage 6[ houses.t Doctor /. it FwfAtr has a learned note upon it also, in his
valuable account of Vo/yages and Discoveries in the North, He objects to the
Jka Ahda origin, because^ in Spanish, the word for here is not ooo, but ootis,
and thht to fbrin Canada from Jlquinada would be forced and unnatural Yet
he says, **' In ancient maps we often find Ca: da JSTada^ that is. Cape Nothing.
** But' fix>m a Canadian [Indian] vocabulary, annexed to the original edition
6f the second voyage of Jaques Cartier, Paris, 1545, it appears^ that an assem-
blage of houses, or habitations, i. e. a totcn, was by tbe natives called Canada.
CtaHer says, iZz t^fpellerU une ViUe — CanadaJ* Mr. Heckewelder is of much
the same opinion as Charlevoix and Forster, He says, that in a prayer-book
in the Mohawk language, he read ** JV*e KAVADA-gonf^h Konwayatsk Jvaxareth,^
vrfaicb was a translation of " in a citt called Nazareth."

Qr^ftn of the Name Yankee^ — Ajtbitrt, an author who did not respect the
Americans, any more than many others who have been led captive by them, has
the following paragraph upon this wordj — ^The lower class of these Yan-
ftres— apropos, it may not be amiss here just to observe to you the etymology
<^ this term : it is derived from a Cherokee word, eankte, which signifies
eoward and slave. This epithet of yankee was bestowed upon the inhabitants
of N. England by the Virginians, for not assisting them in a war with the
Cherokees, and they have always been held in derision by it But the name
has been more prevalent since [1775] the commencement of hostilities ; tbe
soldiery at Boston used it as a term of reproach ; but after the aftair at Bun-
ker's Hill, tbe Americans gloried in it Yankee-doodle is now their pcoan, a
fiivorite of favorites, played in their army, esteemed as warlike as the grena-
dier's inarch — ^it is the lover's spell, the nurse's lullaby. After our rapS siir-
eesses, we held the yankees in great contempt ; but it was not a little morti-
lyinff to hear them play this tune, when their army marched down to our sur-
render." §

But Mr. Hecketoelder thinks that the Indians, in endeavoring to pronounce
tiie name Engtieh, could get that sound no nearer than these letters give it,
yengees. Th& was perhaps the true origin of Yankee.

A ainguUtr Stratagem to escape Thrturt, — ^^Some years ago tbe Shawano
Indians, Deing obliged to remove from their habitations, in their way took a
Muskohge warrior, known by the name of old Scrany, prisoner ; they bas-
tinadoed him severely, and condemned him to the fiery torttne. He under-

Tbe formerTfl . England Rarities, 5] sayi, Canada was '* so called iirom Monsieur Cane."
Hie laOer [HisL America, 11 says, " Ccmadaf in tbe Indian language, signiiies tbe MotOh of
Ae Commtry, from can, mouth, and ada, tbe countrj^."

t Qnelqaes-ones d^rivent ce nom du root Iroquois K(mmaia,qpxL se prononce canadoy et stg>
Bi6e an amas de cabannes. HitL Now. France, i. 9.

t Trawls thromgh the htUrior FarU of North America, 1716, iee, vol. ii. 46, 47. AfUmr%
was an oflieer in General Bwrgoipu^e army, and was among tbe captives surrendered aj

( Tfis dirfvaiioa is alowsi as hidicroas as that givM by hvbig in his IC]ii«ke»b*eker.

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went a great deal without Bbowiriff auy concern ; bis countenance and beha-
vior were as n" he suffered not the least pain. He told his persecutors with a
bold voice, that he was a warrior ; that he had gained roost of his martial
reputation at the expense of their nation, and was desirous of showing theni,
in the act of dying, that he was still as much their superior, as when he headec]
bis gallant countrymen : that although he had fallen into their bands, and for-
feited the protection of the divine power by some impurity or other, when
carrying the holy ark of war against his devoted enemies, yet he had so much
remaining virtue as would enable him to punish himself more exquisitely than
all their despicable, ignorant crowd possibly could ; and that be would do so,
if they gave him liberty by untying nim, and handing him one of the red-hot
gun-barrels out of the fire. The proposal, and his method of address, appeared
so exceedingly bold and uncommon, that his request was |;ranted. Then
suddenly seizing one end of the red-hot barrel, and brandisbmg it from side
to side, leaped down a prodigious steep and high bank into a branch of the
river, dived through it, ran over a small island, and passed the other branch,
amidst a shower of bullets ; and though numbers of his enemies were in close
pursuit of him, he got into a bramble-swamp, through which, though naked
and in a mangled condition, he reached his own country."

An unparallekd Cast of Suffering. — ^**The Shawano Indians captured a
warrior of the Anantoocah nation, and put him to the stake, accoiding to their
usual cruel solemnities : having unconcernedly suffered much torture, he told
them, with scorn, they did not know how to punish a noted enemy ; therefor©
be was willing to teach them; and would confirm the truth of his assertion if
they allowed him the opportunity. Accordingly he requested of them a pipe
and some tobacco, which was given him ; as soon as he had lighted it, he sat
down, naked as he was, on the women's burning torches, that were within his
circle, and continued smoking his pipe without the least discomposure: On
this a head warrior leaped up, and said, they saw plain enough that he was a
warrior, and not afraid of dying, nor should he have died, only that he was
both spoiled by the fire, and devoted to it by their laws ; however, thouffh he
was a very dangei'ous enemy, and his nation a treacherous people, it should
be seen that they paid a regard to braveiy, even in one who was marked with
war streaks at the cost of many of the lives of their beloved kindred ; and then
by way of favor, he with bis friendly tomahawk instantly put an end to all his
pains.** *

Ignorance the Offspring of absurd Opinions, — ^The resolution and courage of
the Indians, says Colonel Jiogers, "under sickness and pain, is truly surpris-
ing. A young woman will be in labor a whole day without uttering one
groan or cry ; should she betray such a weakness, they would immediately
say, that she was unwoithy to l>e a mother, and that her offspring could not
fail of being cowards." f

A J^orthem Custom, — When Mr. Hecame was on the Coppermine River, in
1771, some of the Copper Indians in his company killed a number of Esqui-
maux, by which act they considered themselves unclean ; and all concerned
in the murder were not allowed to cook any provisions, either for themselves
or others. They were, however, allowed to eat of others' cooking, but not
until they had painted, with a kind of red earth, all the space between their
nose and chin, as well as a greater part of their cheeks, almost to their ears.
Neither would they use any other dish or pipe, than their own. }

Another Pocahontas, — While Lems and Clarke were on the shore of the
Pacific Ocean, in 1805, one of their men went one evening into a village of
the Killamuk Indians, alone, a small distance from his party, and on the
opposite side of a creek from that of the encampment. A strange Indian
happened to be there also, who expressed great n^spect and love for the white

• The two preceding relations are from Lori'r'f Voi" gef and TVoiWa, 72 and 73, a book of
small pretensions, but one of the best on IndiHii hisK i \ . Its author lived among the Indian!
of the North- West, as an Indian trader, about 19 3*eai8.

f Concin Account of N. America, 212. t Journey to the Northern Omom, SOS.

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man ; but in reality be meant to murder him for the articles he had about him
This happened to come to the knowledge of a Chinnook woman, and she
determined at once to save his life : therefore, when the white man was about
to return to his companions, the Indian was going to accompany him, and kill
him in the way. As they were about to set out, the woman caught the white
man by the clothes, to prevent his goiuff with the Indian. He, not under-
standing her intention, pulled away from her ; but as a last resort^ she ran out
mid shrieked, which raised the men in every direction ; and the Indian
became alarmed for his own safety, and made his escape before the white
man knew he had been in danger.

Self-command in Time of Danger, — ^There was in Carolina a noted chief of
the \ ainois »es, who, in the year 1702, with about 600 of his countrymen,
w"nt with Colonel Daniel and Colonel Moore against the Spaniaids in Flori-
da. His name was Jhrratommakaw, When the English were obliged to
abandon their undertaking, and as they were retreating to their boats, they
became alarmed, supposing the Spaniards were upon them. Airntommakaw^
haviug arrived at the boats, was reposing himself upon his oars, and was last
asleep. The soldiers rallied him for being so slow in his retreat, and order.d
him to make more haste: **But he replied, * No— though tour governor


Indifference, — JMdhau was a sachem of Maryland, whoso residence was
upon the Potomack, when that country was setded by the English in 16;33-4.

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