University of California Berkeley
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APHORISMS, ADAGES, AND PROVERBS,
OF ALL AGES AND NATIONS,
JACOB CATS AND ROBERT FARLIE.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FREELY RENDERED,
FROM DESIGNS FOUND IN THEIR WORKS,
BY JOHN LEIGHTON, F.S.A.
TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH ADDITIONS,
BY RICHARD PIGOT.
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS.
V, P3INTKH, 1I1IKA1) STIIKKT Hill..
LIBROS Y AMIGOS,
WILLIAM STIRLING, ESQRE. (OF KEIR) M.P.
A LEARNED COLLECTOR OF THE PROVER-
BIAL PHILOSOPHY OF ALL AGES AND
NATIONS, THIS ATTEMPT TO REVIVE
A LOVE FOR EMBLEMATICAL
LITERATURE AND ART
POCOS Y BUENOS.
A GOOD NAME IS BETTER THAN A GOLDEN GIRDLE.
ALTHOUGH the Typification of Moral truths and Doctrines by Symbolical
Images and Devices had its origin in remote antiquity, and subsequently became a Q
j favourite method of imparting counsel and instruction with the Greeks and Romans, UJ
it was not until the middle of the sixteenth century that it began to assume (first
in Italy) the character of a distinct kind of literature. Ul
Towards the 'end of that century, the poetic genius of the erudite Andrea
Alciati, of Milan, imparted so pleasing an impress to this new style of literature,
as to direct thereto the attention of men of letters, with whom it soon became
a favourite medium for the diffusion and popularization of moral maxims applicable
to all the phases and circumstances of human life.
The Emblems of Alciati, written in Latin verse, and eulogized by such men UJ
as Erasmus, Julius Scaliger, Toscan, Neander, and Borrichius, were soon translated
into the Italian, French, and German languages, and became so highly esteemed,
h that they were publicly read in the Schools, to teach youth the Art of Emblematic
Thus established, as an elegant and useful method of inculcating, both by D
"Word and Eye-pictures, the virtues of civil life ; men of learning, poets, and states-
men, in France, Holland, Germany, Spain, and England, vied with each other, as it (t
were, throughout the seventeenth century, in the cultivation of this branch of
Composition, insomuch that it had become a favourite and admired medium for
the diffusion of Religious, Social, and Political maxims, and maintained that position
in public favour up to the end of the eighteenth century.
In the seventeenth century, Printing, and its sister art Engraving, had attained
in Holland to a higher grade of perfection than in any other country of Europe ;
and, favoured by circumstances so auxiliary to the artistic illustration of works in
the then not inaptly-termed " Picture Language," the poetic genius of a Jacob
Cats found, in the pencils of Jan and Adrian Van De Venne, and the burins
of Matham, Pet de Jode, Verstralen, Van Bremden, and others, artistic exponents
worthy of his muse, and equal to his most ardent desires.
WISDOM FREQUENTLY CONQUERS FORTUNE.
WISDOM IS BETTER THAN RUBIES:
D. JACOB CATS, the eminent Dutch Jurisconsult, Statesman, and Poet, was born
at Brouwershaven in the Isle of Schouwen, province of Zeeland, on the loth
November, 1577. His father was a counsellor of some standing ; and his son Jacob
was first destined to the profession of the law. Having completed his course of phi-
losophy, he proceeded to the University of Leyden, to study jurisprudence. From
thence he went to France, and was some time at the University of Orleans, where
he took the degree of Doctor of Laws. He subsequently went to Paris, and was
Q very desirous to visit Italy ; but his family opposed his going thither, and he was
obliged to return to Holland. Arrived at the Hague, he applied himself wholly to
jurisprudence, and was assiduous in his attendance at the Public Pleadings of the
most distinguished lawyers. To perfect himself still more in his profession, he put
JJj himself under the direction of the jurisconsult, Cornelius Van der Pol, one of the
most eminent pleaders of the Dutch Bar. Some time afterwards, Cats practised with
distinction at Zieuwreckzee, and at Brouwershaven. At this period it would seem he
applied himself no less assiduously to Poetry, and not only became distinguished
among the literati of Holland for the purity and elegance of his Latin verses, but
soon took rank as one of her first lyrists in his native tongue. Falling seriously
0) ill of an hectic fever, induced by over-application to study, he was advised by his
physicians to seek a change of air.
Hereupon he repaired to England, and visited the Universities of Cambridge
2 and Oxford. When in London he consulted the then celebrated physician, Dr.
Butter, on the subject of the obstinate fever which still afflicted him; but that
physician was not more fortunate in his prescriptions than those of Holland. Upon
his return to his native country, he was eventually cured, says his biographer, Moreri,
by an old alchemyst.
Distinguishing himself by his legislatorial and statesmanlike qualifications, no
Q less than he had done by his poetic genius, Jacob Cats rose subsequently to high
Official rank, and for several years filled the post of State Pensionary and Chief
Magistrate of Middleburgh and Dordrecht. He was eventually promoted to the
rank of State Counsellor and Grand Pensionary of the province of West Friesland, and
0) made Keeper of the Great Seal of Holland. After filling these important Offices for
eighteen years, having now attained the age of seventy-two, he requested permission
to retire into private life ; which was at length granted by the States. His valuable
Z services were, nevertheless, once more required, and he was solicited to form a
member of the Embassy sent at that time to England, to arrange a treaty of com-
merce between the two countries. After discharging the important duties therein
delegated to him, he retired wholly into private life, and devoted himself with
faculties still unimpaired to the Muses, up to the advanced age of eighty-three years,
when he may be said to have expired with the pen in his hand. Few men have left
behind them greater proofs of indefatigable industry than Jacob Cats ; and his
numerous lyrical works are as rich in poetic genius as they are replete with evidence
of world-knowledge and genial with the love of mankind.
ITS FRUIT IS BETTER THAN GOLD.
HONOUR TO WHOM HONOUR IS DUE.
Would the limits allotted to this Introduction permit of a more detailed
account of the life and works of this highly gifted, good man, numerous incidents
and passages in both might be adduced, which would awaken in the breasts
of Englishmen and women (for he was especially the poetic champion of the
worth and virtues of the fair sex) an appreciation and esteem of his genius and
character, as great Almost as that felt for him by his own countrymen and women :
Q among whom Father Cats, as he is affectionately called, is honoured as the bard of
Home and of the Domestic hearth, the still popular and revered instructor of his
countrymen in the Virtues of Social life, and in the Maxims of purest world-wisdom.
The " Moral Emblems " of Jacob Cats, to which Daniel Heinsius rendered
his tribute of eulogy, as also two of Holland's greatest lyrists, Hoogstraaten and
< Zeeuwes, are almost unknown, even by name, in England, from being chiefly written
in the Dutch language, of which it has been truly said, that " it has been a language
too hastily neglected and despised by Englishmen."
They form, nevertheless, in the collect, a series of the most admirable com-
positions in Emblematic Literature which any language can boast, though written at
a period when the Dutch tongue, like the rest of the northern European languages,
was yet rigid and quaint in its structure, and so different in its orthographical style QJ
IJJ and idiom to the Dutch of the present day, that to most modern Dutch scholars his
earlier works are almost a sealed book. Nevertheless, when Cats wrote in the verna- QJ
ill cular of his day, the Dutch language, like that of his contemporary, Shakespeare, had - 1
been developing capabilities of harmony combined with vigour of expression, quite
U equal to our own, as an exponent of poetic thought and imagery, and was one in
which no writer of his day knew better how to speak to the feelings of his country- ' QJ
3C men, and win their hearts by the pleasantly conveyed wisdom of his " household
words" than Jacob Cats.
By his " Sinne en Minne Beelden," and his " Emblemata Moralia et CEcono-
mica, " Jacob Cats first established his fame, both as a classical writer, an amiable QJ
moralist, and a popular poet. The former written in Dutch and Latin verse, each 0)
theme accompanied by a short distich in French verse, gave evidence both of the
versatility of his poetic genius and of his linguistic talent. The success achieved Q_
< by these compositions encouraged him to carry out his predilection for this style of
writing in a yet more extended form ; and some time after he gave to the world his
" Spiegel van den Voorleden en Tegenwoordigen Tyt," or " Mirrors of the Past and
Present Time," in which he emblematised, in Dutch verse, the numerous proverbs
5 and sayings of antiquity, together with the most popular and current adages of his
day, in most of the European languages.
The above-named Emblematic works comprise many hundred subjects, in the
treatment of which he evinced as much ingenuity as poetic grace, in working them
out so as to render them a charming Code of Moral Instruction, addressed alike to
the Youth of both sexes, and applicable to every phase of Civil and Political life.
INGENIO STAT SINE MORTE DECUS.
INQENUAS DIDICISSE FIDELITER ARTES,
To every subject of his Word-Pictures, he appends, in support of the moral he
inculcates, the most pertinent quotations from the Ancient writers, and a most inte-
resting collect of Popular adages, bearing upon the sense of each theme.
From so rich a mine of Emblematic lore, the present volume forms, of course,
but a selection from each of the above-named series, the subjects of which could not
therefore be placed in the same order as in the originals, without the appearance of
meagreness ; while the embodiment of the subjects selected in the present form will,
it is hoped, be found more pleasing as a whole, and best calculated to give an idea
of the diversity of subject treated by the Author.
Sir Joshua Reynolds, when a youth, was much influenced by the Artistic
excellence of Adrian Van de Venne's Designs for the illustration of the Dutch
Folio Edition of Cats' Works, of which he made careful copies ; and Sir Wm.
Beechy, in his Life of Reynolds, states that "Sir Joshua's richest store was Jacob
Cats' Book of Emblems, which his grandmother, a native of Holland, had brought
with her from that country."
Reproduced with the best appliances of Modern Art, in the Pictorial Illustration
of the word-pictures of the Author, the original designs of Adrian Van de Venne, in
a few instances only, have been deviated from, in so far as was deemed most con-
sistent with the more elevated taste of the present day in pictorial embellishment.
The Proverbs of the different nations, that wisdom which of all others sprang
from the bosom of the Peoples in every land, and was handed down from generation
to generation, rather orally than by books, form so pleasing and instructive a feature
in the Emblems of Cats, that they have been for the most part preserved in their literal
garb of Cats' day, an adhesion to the original which it is believed will have a greater
charm and interest for the student of Languages, curious to see the shape in which
the traditionally acquired wisdom of long past days was expressed until it reached us
in the more polished garb of modern times.
Wherever admissible, passages from English and other Authors, having an affinity
in sense, and moral, to the Emblem or theme, have been introduced, by way of
elaborating, or of giving more weight to the doctrine inculcated by the Author. The
appendage to this selection from Cats' Moral Emblems of a reprint of the now
exceedingly rare and curious Poems and Emblems of his contemporary Emblematist,
the pious Scot, ROBERT FARLIE, published in London under the title of " Lychnocausia,"
in 1638, will, it is hoped, be considered a not unpleasing associate for the Dutch
moralist, and their juxtaposition in the same volume give an additional interest
to the whole.
EMOL.LIT MORES, NEC SINIT ESSE FEROS.
NON G^UO, SED QUOMODO.
PORTRAIT OF JACOB CATS Under allegorical figure of Universal Justice, supported on one side
CD by Solomon, Confncius, and ^Esop ; upon the other by Age instructing Infancy and
-v Adolescence, in the presence of Labour and Travel ; whilst in the background Peace and
Plenty are contrasted with the violent acts of man against the will of Supreme Power. In
the centre foreground is a vase of flowers surrounded by choke-weeds type of elevated nature
a constant prey to the coarser elements. On the base are sculptured bas-reliefs, " Suum
cuique " Let each apply to himself that which him fits ; " Bonus cum bonis " The just with
the true ....... . . Frontispiece, engraved by LEIGHTON.
None can clean their dress from stain, but some blemish will remain . . LEIGHTON.
4 / lurke and shine .... ........ GREEN.
IN 5 Act wisely and thou shall't be free . .... . . . DALZIEL.
03 8 Diogenes Lanterne . ..... .... DALZIEL.
\ 9 Whither the breath of my mistress calls me ...... GREEN.
12 Whilst I breathe, I hope . ..... . . LEIGHTON.
13 If poor, act cautiously . ......... WHYMPER.
16 Light onely is my praise . . . . . . . . . LEIGHTON.
1 7 Rest content where thou art . . . . . . . . GREEN.
20 Better with a little ...... .... DE WILDE.
2 1 Love takes possession of the mind insensibly . ..... LEIGHTON.
24 I lay open here onely .... ....... DE WILDE.
25 The inexpert are wounded .......... GREEN.
28 Hence commeth my filth . ........ LEIGHTON.
29 While we draw, we are drawn ..... . . . . GREEN.
32 Upward . . . . . . LEIGHTON.
MANY MEN, MANY MINDS,
LABOUR IS THE SALT OF
Contents and Illustrations.
33 Both sides should be seen Engraved by LEIGHTON.
36 Darknesse addeth glory to me LEIGHTON.
37 Who is hurtful to himself, benefits no one .... GREEN.
40 So I am undon. by doing good LEIGHTON
41 The pot goeth so long to the water, til at last it commeth broken home . GREEN.
44 Whither my soule . GREEN.
45 Play, but chastely GREEN.
48 My life is my death LEIGHTON.
49 Hasten at leisure LEIGHTON.
52 So to die is miserable . . ' . LEIGHTON.
56 The Lanterne leades the way ..,. GREEN
57 Smoke is the food of Lovers GREEN.
jjj 60 Fire fottoweth smoake LEIGHTON.
61 Each deplores his own lot GREEN.
64 I nourish myselfe DALZIEL.
65 Every flower loses its perfume at last .. DALZIEL.
'68 I will dye, but I shall ascend LEIGHTON.
69 Many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip . . . , .. . GREEN.
UJ 7 2 Light me, I shal sigh no more . . .. LEIGHTON.
7 3 Love, like a ball, requires to be thrown back DALZIEL.
UJ 76 Quickly or I am consumed D E WILDE.
77 The biter bitten GREEN.
80 My light is net the lesse . GREEN
U 8 1 The branches may be trained, but not the trunk . . . . . LEIGHTON.
^ 84 In vaine thou puttest me out LEIGHTON.
85 When slovenly servants get tidy, they polish the bottoms of the saucepans . LEIGHTON.
h 'Tis better to tarry LEIGHTON.
89 Grease the fat sow SMYTHE.
92 Altero extinguor, Altero accendor (The one puts me out, the other kindles me) GREEN.
93 Play with the dog, and he'll spoil your clothes GREEN.
< 96 I am consumed more, and shine less. (Magis consumer minus luceo) . GREEN.
97 Bees touch no fading flowers .... DALZIEL
too You feared me whilst I skined LEIGHTON
101 One rotten apple infects all in the basket JACKSON.
104 Farewell DE WILDE.
105 I am touched, not broken by the waves GREEN.
108 I envie not thy light GREEN
109 Birdes of one feather will flocke together '. JACKSON.
112 If thou abroad, I at home . LEIGHTON.
113 The ripe pear falls ready to the hand LEIGHTON.
116 My light escapes thee LEIGHTON.
PERSEVERANCE VIENT A BOUT DE TOUT.
THE USEFUL. AND THE BEAUTIFUL.
Contents and Illustrations.
IS THE ARCHITECT
Page ii 7 Who has not felt love ? Engraved by
121 The higher the rise the greater the fall
125 The hunchback sees not his own hump, but he sees his neighbour's .
129 Enter not, or pass through
133 A hen lays every day, but an ostrich only once a year . . .
137 When the eyes are won, love is begun
141 Who cuts off his nose, spites his own face
145 Though taken to the water's brink, no blows can force the horse to drink .
148 morning star re, shew ye day
149 Excess of liberty leads to servitude
153 Who would learn to shave well, should first practise on a fool's beard
156 At the bottom least and worst .
157 What the sow does, the little pigs must pay for
160 On mine own cost
161 A ship aground, is a beacon at sea
164 I seeke mine hurt .......'..
1 65 The goose hisses well, but it don't bite ......'.
168 The end tryeth all
169 With unwilling hounds it's hard to catch hares ......
172 Thus must I be consumed quickly . .. ...
173 A whole mill to grind a peck of corn .......
1 76 Not under a bushell
177 The dogs and the bone
1 80 I doe not put out myselfe ...... .
181 No one can love Thetis and Galatea at the same time ....
1 88 It is a token that I shined
189 When the wolf comes, the oxen leave off fighting to unite in self-defence .
192 / save others, I waste myself
193 While she weeps, she devours . .
196 Fessa tibi nunc lampada trado. (I weary give my light to thee) .
197 By yielding thou may'st conquer ... k ....
200 Compare small with great
^x^-^^Sx^^*- ARE NEVER APART. ^^& '*&*>*Sx&
AS MUSIC TUNES THE EAR, AND COLOURS TUTOR THE EYE,
Contents and Illustrations.
Page 201 Great cry and little wool -..-... Engraved by SWAIN.
204 Sursun Peto, deorsiim trahor. (I bend up, and am drawn down) . LEIGHTON.
205 Cripple will always lead the dance LEIGHTON
208 Herostratus his light . . .. .. . ..../' : ...'.'. LEIGHTON.
209 Fire, Cough, Love, and Money are not long concealed . . LEIGHTON.
Death is gaine to me DE WILDE.
213 Every bird sings according to his beak LEIGHTON
2 16 Aut splendors aut situ consumer. (Either by light or mouldiness I die) DE WILDE.
217 Hares are not caught with beat of drum, nor birds with tartlets . . EVANS.
220 I faide things lost . ... ,. . ; . .. ., . / f % ^ LEIGHTON.
221 The Gnat stings the eyes of the Lion -.... LEIGHTON
224 How great a light . . . ... . t ^. f . LEIGHTON.
225 Like melons, friends are to be found in plenty, of which not even one is good
intwent y ..>.." SMYTHE.
228 I see all and say nothing . LEIGHTON.
229 Every cock scratches towards himself LEIGHTON
232 An evill-doer hateth light ... . . . . . .. ^ % LEIGHTON.
233 Well set off is half sold . .... . DALZIEL
236 Finis ^ . . . . DE WILDE.
237 One stroke fells not an oak HARRAL
240 THE END. Study me in thy prime, bury death and weary time . LEIGHTON.
OF TASTE REFINE THE MIND,
On ne peut decrotter sa robe sans emporter le poil.
NONE CAN CLEAN THEIR DRESS FROM STAIN, BUT SOME
BLEMISH WILL REMAIN.
|OW I've fplafh'd and foil'd my gown !
With this gadding through the town :
How bedraggled is my fkirt,
Trapefing through the bye-ftreets dirt :
In what a ftate for me to be,
From this Town-life gaiety !
EHRE QLAUBE, UNO AUGE KEIN SCHERTZ.
FILLE TROP EN RUE, EST TOST PERDUE.
Come girls here, come all I know,
Playmates mine, advife me, mew
In this plight that I'm come to,
What is beft for me to do ?
How mail I remove this ftain,
And reftore my gown again ?
Z If to warn it out I try
Q Warning fhrinks the cloth when dry ;
UJ Makes the colour often fade,
Or elfe gives a darker made :
ro If I cut it out, there'll be
^ Such a hole that all muft fee :
If I rub it hard, 'twill take
All the nap off then, and make
Yet more plain, the ftain that ne'er
Q_ Honeft maiden's drefs mould bear.
0* Pray then tell me fome of you,
What in this mifhap to do ?
Thus fo flut-like to be ftain'd,
0- Makes me of myfelf afham'd ;
UJ For wherever I may go,
j People will look at me fo,
And think perhaps, fuch dirt to fee,
I 'm not what I ought to be.
Say, can none of you fuggeft,
What in fuch a cafe is beft ?
LL No ? then this I plainly fee,
You muft warning take by me !
If you would not foil your gown ;
Go not gadding through the town :
In the ftreets who plays the flirt,
Never yet efcaped fome dirt :
Run not therefore Eaft and Weft,
Home for girls is much the beft.
RARA VAGA VIRGO PUDICA EST
Maidens, wherefoe'er you go,
Walking, traveling to and fro ;
Over land or over fea,
In whatever way it be ;
In the Country or the Town,
Over meadow, dale or down,
Over hill or over moor,
In the houfe or out of door,
Over road or over ftreet,
< Girls, where'er you bend your feet, y
Keep your Clothes and Kirtles neat.
A GOOD name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than D
silver and gold. Proverbs xxii. i.
Q Redire, cum periit, nescit pudor. SENEC. Agam.
Ego ilium periisse puto, cui periit pudor. PLAUT.
Omnia si perdas ; famam servare memento ;
Qua semel amissa postea nullus eris.
Etiam sanato vulnere cicatrix manet.
Although the wound be healed it always leaves a scar. (!)
Of schoon de wond'al is genesen,
Daer sal noch al een teyrken wesen. Old Dutch Proverb.
Die in een quaet geruchte kommt, is half gehangen. Ibid.
Who comes to an evil repute is half hanged. >
Give a dog a bad name and hang him. ,
(j CONDUCT thyself always with the same prudence, as though thou wert observed
Q by ten eyes, and pointed at by ten fingers.' CONFUCIUS.
Q. PUT a curb upon thy desires if thou would'st not fall into some disorder. ARISTOTLE.
IT is better to be poor, and not have been wanting in discretion, than to attain
the summit of our wishes by a loose conduct. DIOGENES. 0)
BE discreet in your discourse, but much more in your actions ; the first evaporates,
the latter endure for ever. PHOCYLIDES.
SHUN the society of the depraved, lest you follow their pernicious example, and lose
yourself with them. PLATO.
Eer is teer. Honour is tender.
The finest silk will spoil the soonest.
Celle n'est pas entierement chaste qui fait douter de sa pudicitd
MUCH IN THE STREET, LIGHT OF REPUTE.
LASSES AND GLASSES ARE ALWAYS IN DANGER.
BEFORE my Light was to the winds a fcorne,
My body likewife fubject to be torne ;
Now for a fafeguard I this lanterne have,
So whilft I fhine from wrong it doth me fave ;
Even as the Diamond his light forth fends,
And with his hardnelTe ftill himfelfe defends.
Honour is fubject to unconftant chance,
Nor can it without envy 't .felfe advance :
Vertue to honour is a brafen wall,
Guarded with which, it is not hurt at all;
And how fo ever Fortun's ftormes doe blow,
Yet Glory lurking thus, his light can mow.
FAR LIE'S Emblems.
FIGLIE E VETRI SON SEMPRE IN PERICOLO.^>=^
STRAW BANDS WILL- TIE A FOOL'S HANDS.
Fac Saptas, et Liber ens.
ACT WISELY AND THOU SHALL'T BE FREE.
UCH Men do is Folly merely ;
And if afked the reafon, why ?
Seldom, truthfully and clearly,
To the queftion they reply.
If reply they make, 't is ever,