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Holm. cap. 118-9, where a large standing figure of Thor is described ;
and Fornm. sog. 4, 245, ed. Christ, p. 26. Freyr gioir af silfri, Isl.
sog. 1, 134. Landn. 3, 2. One man carried a statuette of Thor
carved in whalebone (likneski Thors af tonn gert) in his pocket, so
as to worship him secretly, when living among christians, Fornm.
sog. 2, 57. Thor's figure was carved on the ondvegis -pillars,
Eyrbygg. p. 8. Landnamab. 2, 12 ; and on the prows of ships,
Fornm. sog. 2, 324. A figure of ThorgerSr holgabriiSr, with rings
of gold round the arm, to which people kneel, Fornm. sog. 2, 108.^

1 Finn Magnnsen, bidrag til norclisk archaeologie, pp. 113-159.

2 There is another thing to notice in this passage. The fignre of ThorgerSr
lent its hand up, when some one tried to snatch a ring off its arm, and the
goddess was not disposed to let him have it. Tlie same man then brought a
lot of money, laid it at the figure's feet, fell on his knees and shed tears, then
rose up and once more grasped at the ring, which now the figure let go. The
same is tokl in the Foereyingasaga, cap. 23, p. 103. I regard it as a genuine
tiait of heathen antiq^uity, like others which afterwards passed into christian
iolk-tales of the Mid. Ages (see Suppl.). Of more than one image of grace we
are told that it dropt a ring off its finger or a shoe off its foot as a gift to those
who prayed before it. A figure of Christ gave its shoes to a poor man (Nicolai
abbatis peregrinatio, ed. Werhiuft" p. 20), and a saint's image its gold slippers
(Mones anz. 7, 584. Archiv. des Henneb. vereins, pp. 7«, 71). A figure of
Mary accepts a ring that is presented to it, and bends her finger as a sign that
she will keep it (Meon nouv. recueil 2, 296-7. Maerl. 2, 214). The two
Virgin-stories in Meon and Maerlant, though one at bottom, have very differ-
ent turns given them. In the latter, a young man at a game of ball pulls the
ring off his finger, and puts it on the hand of a Madonna ; in the former, the
youth is boxing in the Colosseum at Rome, and puts his ring on the finger of a
heathen statue, which bends the finger. Both figmes now hold the man to his
c-ngagement. But the O. French poem makes the afilicted youth bring an
image of Mary to bear on the heathen one, the Mary takes the ring oil the
other figure, and restores it to the youth. Conf. Kaiserchr. 13142. 13265.
13323. "Forduni Scoti chronicon 1, 407 (W. Scott's minstr. 2, 136), relates
tliis fable as an event of the 11th century : a nobleman playing at ball slips his
ring on the finger of a broken statue of Venus, and only gets it back with the
help of a priest Palumbus who understands magic. We see the story had
spread at an early time, but it is old Teutonic in its origin [' wndeutsch,' evid. a
slip for itrdeutsch]. Even in a painting of Mary, the infant in her lap hands her
a casket to give to a suppliant, Cod. pal. 341 fol. 63). Similarly, statues turn
the face aivaij, stretch out the arm to •protect, they speaJc, laugh, weep, eat and walk ;
tluis a figure of Christ turns itself away (Ls. 3, 78. 262), another begins to eat
and grow bigger (Kinderm. legenden no. 9), to weep, to beckon, to run away


Frcy's statue of silver, (Frcyr markaSr af silfri), Vatnsd. p. 44. 50 •
carried abuiit in a waggon in Sweden, Fornm. sog. 2, 73-7. The
Jonisvikingasaga tells of a temple on Gautlaud (I. of Gothland), in
which were a Imndred gods, Fornm. sog. 11, 40 ; truly a ' densitas
imaginuni,' as Jonas has it (see p. 83). Saxo Gram. 327 mentions
a simulacrum qucrcii factum, carved in oak ? or an oaktree
worshipped as divine ? (see Suppl).

Not only three, but occasionally two figures side by side are
mentioned, particularly those of Wuota7i and Donar or of Mars and
Merciirius, as w^e see from the passages cited. Figures of Freyr
and Thor together, and of Frigg and Freyja, occur in Miiller's
sagabibl. 1, 92. Names of places also often indicate such joint
worship of two divinities, e.g. in Hesse the Donnerseiche (Thor's
oak) stood close by the Wodansberg ; and explorers would do well
to attend to the point.

But noitlier the alleged number of the statues, nor their descrip-
tions in the sagas can pass for historical ; what they do prove is,
that statues there were. They appear mostly to have been hewn
out of wood, some perhaps were painted, clothed, and overlaid with
silver or gold ; but no doubt stone images were also to be met with,
and smaller ones of copper or ivory .^

I have put off until now the mention of a peculiar term for
statue, with which some striking accounts of heathen idols connect

OHG. glosses have the word irmansidi, pyramides, Mons. 360.
aveirUn, irmansiUt, pyramides. Doc. 203^ irmansid, colossus,
altissima columna, Florent. 987^^, Bias. 86. colossus est irminsiM,
Gl. Schletst. 18, 1. 28, 1. The literal meaning seems to be statue,
to judge by the synonym avard, which in Gl. Jun. 226 is used for

(Deutsche Scaqen, no. 347. Tettaus, preuss. sagen, pp. 211-5-8). In Eeinbot's
Georg tlie idol Apollo is flogged with rods by a child, and forced to walk away
(3258-69), which reminds one of the god Perun, Avhom, according to monk
Nestor, Vladimir the Apostolic caused to be scourged with rods. In an Indian
story I find a statue that eats the food set before it, Poller 2, 302-3. Antiquity
then did not regard these images altogether as lumps of dead matter, but as
penetrated l)y the life of the divinity. The Greeks too have stories of statues
that move, shake the lance, fall on their kness, close their eyes {KaTajj-vaeis),
bleed and sweat, which may have been suggested by the attitudes of ancient
images ; but of a statue making a movement of the hand, bending a finger, I
have nowhere read, significant as the position of the arms in images of gods
was held to be. That the gods themselves x^ 'P" vneptxovcnv over those whom
they wish to protect, occurs as early us in Homer.
1 Finn Maynusen ibid. 132-7.

116 GODS.

statua and imago. It was not yet extinct in the 12th century, as
appears from two places in the Kaiserchronik, near the beginning
of the poem, and very likely there are more of them ; it is said of
Mercury (Massmann 129) : —

uf einir ynnensule Upon an yrmensul

stuont ein abgot ungehiure, Stood an idol huge,

den hiezen sie ir koufman. Him tliey called their

Again of Julius Csesar (Massm. 624) : —

Eomere in ungetruweliche Eomans him untruly slew,

sluon-en. On an yrm. they buried him.

uf einir yrmensul sie in begruoben.
And of Simon Magus 24° (Massm. 4432) :—

lif eine yrmensul er steic. On an yrmensul he climbed,

daz lantvolc im allesamt neic. The land-folk to him aU bowed.
That is, worshipped him as a god. Nay, in Wolfram's Titurel, last
chapter, where the great pillars of the (christian) temple of the
Grail are described, instead of ' inneren seul ' of the printed
text (Hahn 6151), the Hanover MS. more correctly reads irmensdl
Further, in the Frankish annals ad ann. 772 it is repeatedly
stated, that Charles the Great in his conquest of the Saxons
destroyed a chief seat of their heathen superstition, not far from
Heresburg ^ in Westphalia, and that it was called Irin insul. Ann.
Petav. : Domnus rex Karolus perrexit in Saxoniam et conquisivit
Erisburgo, et pervenit ad locum qui dicitur Ermensul, et succendit
ea loca (Pertz 1, 16). Ann. Lauresh. : Fuit rex Carlus hostiliter
in Saxonia, et destruxit /a?iM?/i eorum quod vocatur Irminsul (Pertz
1, 30). The same in the Chron. Moissiac, except the spelling Hir-
minsul (Pertz 1, 295), and in Ann. Quedlinb., &c. (Pertz 5, 37).
Ann. Juvavenses : Karolus idolum Saxonorum combussit, quod
dicebant Irminsul (Pertz 1, 88). Einhardi Fuld. annales : Karolus
Saxoniam bello aggressus, Eresburgum castrum cepit, et idolum Sax-
onum quod vocabatur Irminsul destruit (Pertz 1, 348). Ann. Eatis-
bon. : Carolus in Saxonia conquesivit Eresburc et Irminsul (Pertz 1,
92). Ann. Lauriss.: Karlus in Saxonia castrum Aeresburg expugnat,
fanum et lucum eovum. famosum Irminsul subvertit (Pertz 1, 117).

1 Now Stadtbergen, conf. the extract from Dietmar ; but strong reasons
incline us to pusli the pillar (seule) some 15 miles deeper into the Osning
forest ; Clostermeier Eggesterstein, pp. 26-7 : Eresburg, Horohus in pago Hessi
Saxonico Saracho 735. 350. Conf. Massmann's Eggesterst. p. 34.

GODS. 117

Ann. Lauriss. : Et hide pen-exit partibus Saxoniae prima vice,
Aeresburgum castrum cepit, ad Ermensul usque pervenit, et ipsum
fanum destruxit, et aurum et argentum quod ibi repperit abstulit.
Et fuit siccitas magna, ita ut aqua deficeret in supradicto loco ubi
Ermeimd stabat, &c. (Pertz 1, 150). Einhardi Ann. : Ferro et igni
cuncta depopulatus, Aeresburgum castrum cepit, idoluvi quod Irmin-
sul a Saxonibus vocabatur evertit (Pertz 1, 151) ; repeated in Ann.
Tilian., and Cliron. Piegin.,with spelling Ormensul (Pertz 1, 220, 557).^
And Dietmar of Merseburg (Pertz 5, 744) further tells us, in connex-
ion with later events: Sed exercitus capta urbe (Eresburcli) ingressus,
juvenem praefatum usque in ecclesiam S. Petri, ubi prius ah antiqids
Irminsul colehatur, bello defatigatum depulit. — Taking all these
passages together, Irminsul passes through the very same grada-
tions of meaning we unfolded in ch. IV, and signifies now fanum,
now lucus, now idolum itself. It can scarcely be doubted, that vast
w^oodlands extended over that region : what if Osning^ the name of
the mountain-forest in which the pillar stood, betokened a lioly-
loood ? The gold and silver hoard, which Charles was supposed to
have seized there, may well be legendary embellishment.^ Ptuodolf
of Fuld goes more into detail about the Irminsul ; after his general
statement on the heathen Saxons, that ' frondosis arboribus fonti-
busque venerationem exhibebant ' (p. 101), he goes on: Truncum
quoque liyni non parvae magnitudinis in altum erectum sub divo
colebant, patria eum lingua Irminsul appellantes, quod Latine
dicitur universalis columna, quasi sustinens omnia (Pertz 2, 67G),

1 Poeta Saxo 1, 65 (Bouquet 5, 1.37) :

Gens eadein coluit simulacrum quod vocitaliant
Irminsul, cujus factura simulque columna
Non operis parvi fuerat, pariterque decoris.

2 6s is the Sax. form for cms (p. 25), which denoted a god, and also a moun-
tain ; in High G. the name would be Ansninc, Ensninc. But, beside this
mons Osnengi near Theotmelli, i.e. Detmold (Pertz 2, 447), there stood also a
silva Osning not far from Osnabriick (Mdser urk. no 2), and a third in Eipuaria
on the Lower Rhine (Lacomblet no 310. 34.'}. 354), which seems to have ex-
tended towards the Ardennes as far as Aachen (Aix la Chap.), mentioned in
Vilkinasaga cap. 40 ; and according to Barsch on Schannat's Eiflia, illustr. 1,
110, and llattemerS, 602% the Ardennes itself was called Osninka, Oseninch.
By the Osnabruck charter above, the forest there appears even to have been
modelled on the Osning of Aachen (ad similitudinem foresti Aquisgranum per-
tinentis). That Osning is met with in several places, speaks for a more general
meaning [than that of a mere proper name] ; like as, ans, and fairguni, it is
the sacred mountain and forest. Ledebur takes the Teutoburgiensis saltus to
be Osning. OA'?iabrtick, ylsvicl^ruggi (bridge of the ases) seems nearly related.

3 Is this Ermen-pillar hoard an allusion to the legend of Ermenrich's hoard I
(Saxo Gram. 106. Keinh. fuchs CLII.)

118 GODS.

(see Suppl.). Here was a great wooden pillar erected, and wor-
shipped under the open sky, its name signifies universal all-sustain-
ing pillar. This interpretation appears faultless, when we take
with it other words in which the meaning is intensified by
composition with irmin. In the Hildebrands lied, irmingot is the
supreme god, the god of all, not a peculiar one, agreeing in sense
with thiodgod, the (whole) people's god, formed by another streng-
thening prefix, Hel. 33, 18. 52, 12. 99, 6. irminman, an elevated
expression for man, Hel. 38, 24. 107, 13. 152, 11. irminthiod,
the human race, Hel. 87, 13 and in Hildebr.^ In the same way I
explain proper names compounded with irman, irmin (Gramm. 2,
448). And irmanslXl, immmilis the great, high, divinely honoured
statue ; that it was dedicated to any one god, is not to be found in
the term itself — In like manner the AS. has eormcncgn (genus
humanum), Beow. 309. Cod. Exon. 333, 3. eormcngrv.nd (terra),
Beow. 1711. (and singularly in an adj. form : ofer ealne yrmcnne
grund. Cod. Exon. 243, 13). eormenstri)nd (progenies). — ON.
iommngrund (terra), iormungandr (anguis maximus), iormunrehr
(taurus maximus). Erom all this may be gathered the high mythic
antiquity of these appellations, and their diffusion among all
branches of the Teutonic race ; for neither to the Goths can they
have been strange, as their famous king's name Ermanaricus
(Airmanareiks, ON. lormunrekr) shows ; and beyond a doubt the
Hcvmunduri are properly Ermunduri (Gramm. 2, 175), the H being
often prefixed to all such forms.

Now whatever may be the probable meaning of the word irman,
iormun, eormen, to which I shall return in due time, one thing is
evident, that the Irman-piUar had some connexion, which continued
to be felt down to a late period (p.ll6),with Mercury or Hermes, to
whom Greek antiquity raised similar posts and pillars, which were
themselves called Hermae, a name which suggests our Teutonic one.

The Saxons may have known more about this ; the Eranks, in
Upper Germany, from the 8th to the 13th century, connected with
irmansUl, irminsul the general notion of a heathen image set up on
a pillar. Probably Euodolf associated with his truncus ligni the

1 The Slav, ramo, Bohem. ramenso, is with transposition the Lat. armus,
OHG. aram, and means both arm and shoulder ; in the Sloven, compound
ramen-velik, valde magnus, it intensifies exactly like irman ; doe^ this pouit to
an affinity between irman and arm % Arminius too is worth considering ; conf.
Schaftarik 1, 427.


thoiiglit of a choice and hallowed tree-stem (with, or without, a
god's image ?), rather than of a pillar hewn into shape by the hand
of man ; this fits in too with the worshipping sub divo, with the
word lucus used by some of the chroniclers, and with the simplicity
of the earliest forest- worship. As the image melts into the notion
of tree, so does the tree pass into that of image ; and our Wesi-
phalian Irmen-pillar most . naturally suggests the idea of that
Thor's-oak in Hesse ; the evangelists converted both of them into
churches of St. Peter. I suspect an intimate connexion between
the Irman-pillars and the Boland-pillars erected in the later Mid.
Ages, especially in ISTorth Germany ; there were in Sweden Thors-
pillars, and among the Anglo-Saxons JEthelstdn-jnllars (Lappenberg
1, 376). There yet remains to be given an account of a sacred post
in Neustria, as contained in the Vita Walarici abbatis Leuconeusis
(t622), said to have been composed in the 8tli century : Et juxta
ripam ipsius fluminis slips erat magmis, divcrsis imaginibus figurahis,
atque ibi in terram magna virtute immissus, qui nimio cultu morem
gentilium a rusticis colebatur. Walaricus causes the log to be
thrown down : et his quidem rusticis habitantibus in locis non
l)arvum tam moerorem quam et stuporem omnibus praebuit. Sed
undique illis certatim concurrentibus cum armis et fustibus, iudigne
hoc ferentes invicem, ut injuriam dei sui vindicarent (Acta Bened.
sec. 2, pp. 84-5). The place was called Augusta (bourg d' Angst,
near the town of Eu), and a church was built on the spot.

I think I have now shown, that in ancient Germany there were
gods and statues. It will further be needful to consider, how
antiquity went to work in identifying foreign names of gods with
German, and conversely German with foreign.

The Romans in their descriptions cared a great deal more to
make themselves partially understood by a free translation, than,
by preserving barbarous vocables, to do a service to posterity. At
the same time they did not go arbitrarily to work, but evidently
with care.

Caesar's Sol, Luna and Vulcan are perhaps what satisfies us
least ; but Tacitus seems never to use the names of Roman deities,
except advisedly and with reflection. Of the gods, he names only
Mercury and Mars (Germ. 9. Ann. 13, 57. Hist. 4, 64) ; of deified
heroes, Hercules, Castor and Pollux (Germ. 9, 43) ; of goddesses,

120 GODS.

Isis (Germ. 9), the terra mater by her German name (Germ. 40),
and the mater deum (Germ. 45). Incompatible deities, such as
Apollo or Bacchus, are never compared. What strikes us most, is
the absence of Jupiter, and the distinction given to Mercury, who
was but a deity of the second rank with the Eomans, a mere god
of merchants, but here stands out the foremost of all: Deorum
maxime Mercurium colunt : to him alone do human sacrifices fall,
while Mars and Hercules content themselves with beasts. This
prominence of Merciiry is probably to be explained by the fact,
that this god was worshipped by the Gauls likewise as their chief
divinity, and was the most frequently portrayed (deum maxime
Mercurium colunt, hujus sunt plurima simulacra, Caes. B. Gall. 6,
17) ;^ and that the looks of the Eomans, when directed towards
Germany, still saw Gaul in the foreground ; besides, it may have
been Gallic informants that set the German divinity before them in
this light. Observe too the Gaulish juxtaposition of Mars and
Mercurius in statues (p.lll), precisely as Tacitus names the German
ones together (Ann. 13, 57). The omission of Jupiter is obviously
accounted for, by his worship yielding the precedence to that of
Mercury in those nations which Tacitus knew best : we shall see, as
we go on, that the northern and remoter branches on the contrary
reserved their highest veneration for the thunder-god. On Isis and
Hercules I shall express my views further on. Whom we are to
understand by the Dioscuri, is hard to guess ; most likely two sons
of Woden, and if we go by the statements of the Edda, the brothers
Baldr and HermoSr would be the most fitting.

This adaptation of classical names to German gods became
universally spread, and is preserved with strict unanimity by the
Latin writers of the succeeding centuries ; once set in circulation,
it remained current and intelligible for long ages.

The Gothic historian names but one god after the Roman fashion,
and that is Mars : Quern Gothi semper asperrima placavere cultura
(Jornandes cap, 5), with which the Scythian Ares, so early as in
Herodotus 4, 62-3, may be compared.

Paulus Diaconus winds up his account of Wodan with the
express announcemtnt (1, 9): Wodan sane, quern adjecta litera
Gwodan dixerunt, ipse est qui apud Eomanos Mercurius dicitur, et

* Schopflin, Als. ill. 1, 435-60 ; esp. on a faniuii of Mercury at Ebermiinster
1, 58. Conf. Hummel, bibl. deutscli. alterth. p. 229. Creuzer, altrom. cultiu-aiu
Oberrhein, pp. 48, 98.

GODS. . 121

ab universis Germaniae gentibus ut deus adoratirr. Just so his
older countryman Jonas of Bobbio, in that account of the sacrificing
Alamanns, declares : Illi aiunt, deo suo Vodano, quem Mcrcurium
vocant alii, se velle litare ; upon which, a gloss inserted by another
hand says less correctly : Qui apud eos Vuotant vocatur, Latini
autem Martem ilium appellant ; though otherwise Woden greatly
resembles Mars (v. infra).

Gregory of Tours (supra, p.l07) makes Saturn and Jiqnfcr, and
again 3Iars Mcrciwufsqne the gods whom the heathen Chlodovich
adored. In 1, 34 he expresses himself in more general terms: Pri-
vatus, Gabalitanae urbis episcopus. = . . daemoniis immolare com-
pellitur a Chroco Alamannorum rege (in the third cent.). Wide-
kind of Corvei names Mais and Hercules as gods of the Saxons (see
p. Ill); and that little addition to the Corvei Annals (see p.lll)
couples together the Greek and Latin denominations Aris and Mars,
Ermis and JMercurius.

The Indiculus paganiarum reckons up, under 8: De sacris
Mcrcurii vel Jovis^ ; under 20 : De feriis quae faciunt Jovi vel
Mcrcurio. So that the thunder-god, of whom Tacitus is silent, is
in other quarters unforgotten ; and now we can understand Wili-
bald's narrative of the robur Jovis (see p. 72), and in Bonifac.
epist. 25 (a.d. 723) the presbyter Jovi mactans (see Suppl.).

In the Additamenta operum Matthaei Paris, ed. W. Watts,
Paris 1644, pp. 25-6, there is an old account of some books w^hich
are said to have been discovered in laying the foundation of a church
at Verlamacestre (St Albans) in the tenth century, and to have been
burnt. One of them contained ' invocationes et ritus idololatrarum
civium Varlamacestrensium, in quibus comperit, quod specialiter
Fliochum dcum solis invocarunt et coluerunt, secundario vero Mcr-
curium, Voden anglice appellatum, deum videlicet mercatorum,
quia cives et compatriotae . . . fere omnes negotiatores
et institores fuerunt.' Evidently the narrator has added somewhat
ovit of his own erudition ; the invocations and rites themselves
would have given us far more welcome information.

Passages which appear to speak of a German goddess by the
name of Diana, will be given later. JS'cptune is mentioned a few
times (supra, p. 110).

1 Had these been Roman gods, Jupiter would certainly have been named
first, and Mercury after.

122 GODS.

Saxo Grammaticus, though he writes in Latin, avoids applying
the Eoman names of gods, he uses Othinus or Othin, never
Mercurius instead; yet once, instead of his usual Thor (pp. 41,
103), he has Jupiter, p. 236, and malleus Jovialis; Mars on p. 36
seems to stand for Othin, not for Tyr,. who is never alluded to in
Saxo. Ermoldus Mgellus, citing the idols of the Normanni, says 4, 9
(Pertz 2, 501), that for God (the Father) they worshipped Neptune,
and for Christ Jupiter ; I suppose Neptune must here mean OSin,
and Jupiter Thor ; the same names recur 4, 69. 100. 453-5.

Melis-Stoke, as late as the beginning of the 14th century, still
remembers that the heathen Frisians worshipped Mercury (1, 16.
17) ; I cannot indicate the Latin authority from which no doubt he
drew this.^

If the supposition be allowed, and it seems both a justifiable
and almost a necessary one, that, from the first century and during
the six or eiglit succeeding ones, there went on an uninterrupted
transfer of the above-mentioned and a few similar Latin names of
gods to domestic deities of Gaul and Germany, and was familiar
to all the educated ; we obtain by this alone the solution of a
remarkable phenomenon that has never yet been satisfactorily
explained : the early diffusion over half Europe of the heathen
nomenclature of the days of the week.

These names are a piece of evidence favourable to German
heathenism, and not to be disregarded.

The matter seems to me to stand thus.^ — From Egypt, through
the Alexandrians, the week of seven days (e^So/ia?), which in
Western Asia was very ancient, came into vogue among the Romans,
but the planetary nomenclature of the days of the week apparently
not till later. Under Julius Caesar occurs the earliest mention
of 'dies Saturni' in connection with the Jewish sabbath, TibuU. 1,
3, 18. Then tjXiov rjfiepa in Justin Mart, apolog. 1, 67. 'Epfiov
and A^poScTr]^ rjfiepa in Clem. Alex, strom. 7, 12. The institution
fully carried out, not long before Dio Cassius 37, 18, about the close

1 Our MHG. poets impart no such information ; they only trouble tlieir
heads about Saracen gods, among whom it is true Jupiter and Apollo make
their appearance too. In Rol. 97, 7 are named Mars, Jovinus, Saturnus.

^ I can here use only the beginning, not the conclusion, which would be
more useful for my investigation, of a learned paper by Julius Hare on the
names of the days of the week (Philolog. Mus., Nov." 1831). Conf. Idelers
handb. der chronol. 2, 177-180, and Letronne, observations sur les representa-
tions zodiacales, p. 99.


of the 2nd century .^ The Eomans had previously had a week of
nine days, nundinae=noveudinae. Christianity had adopted from
the Jews the hebdomas, and now it could not easily guard the
church against the idolatrous names of days either (see Suppl).

But these names, together with the institution of the week, had
passed on from Eome to Gaul and Germany, sooner than the
christian religion did. In all the Eomance countries the planetary
names have lasted to this day (mostly in a very abridged form),
except for the first day and the seventh : instead of dies solis they
chose dies dominica (Lord's day). It. domenica, Sp. domingo, Fr.
dimanche ; and for dies Saturni they kept the Jewish sahbahim, It.
sabbato, Sp. sabado, Fr. samedi (=sabdedi, sabbati dies). But the

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