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heathen names of even these two days continued in popular use
long after : Ecce enim dies solis adest, sic enim barbaries vocitare
diem dominicum consueta est, Greg. Tur. 3, 15.

Unliappily a knowledge of the Gothic names of days is denied
us. The sahhate dags, sabbato dags, which alone occurs in Ulphilas,
proves nothing, as we have just seen, against a planetary designation
of the remaining six or five days. A sunnons dags, a menins
dags may be guessed ; the other four, for us the most im]Dortant, I
do not venture to suggest. Their preservation would have been of
the very highest value to our inquiry.

Old High Germ. — I. sunwAn dag, 0. v. 5, 22. Gl. bias. TG'^.
Lacombl. arch. 1, 6. — II. mdnin tac (without authority, for
manitag, manotag in Graff 2,795. 5, 358 have no reference ; manetag
in Notker, ps. 47, 1). — III. dies Martis, prob. Ziuivcs tac among
Alamanns; in the lltli cent. Cks dac, Gl. bias. 70^;^ prob. different
among Bavarians and Lombards. — IV. dies INIercurii, perhaps still
Wuotancs tac ? our abstract term, diu mittawccha already in N. ps.
93, and mittwocha, Gl. bias. 7G^. — V. dies Jovis, Donares tac, Toniris
tac, N. ps. 80, 1. c/o?i?rstac, Gl. bias. 76^ Burcard von Worms 195*^:
quintam feriani in honorem Jovis honorati. — VI. dies Veneris, Fria
dag, 0. V. 4, 6. Frije tag, T. 211, 1.— VII. at last, like the Romance
and Gothic, avoiding the heathenish dies Saturni, samlaziag, T. 68,
1. N. 91, 1.^ samiztag, N. 88, 40. sunnun dband, our sonnabend,

1 An old hexameter at the end of the editions of Aiisoniiis : Ungnes
Mercurio, barbam Jove, Cypride crines (nails on Wednesday, heard on Thursday,
hair on Fri(hiy).

2 Cies for Zies, as the same glossist SG'^ writes gicinibere and cinnum.
' hiambazolus n. prop, in Karajan.



124 GODS.

already in 0. v. 4, 9, prob. abbreviation of sunnundages aband, feria
ante dominicam, for vespera solis cannot have been meant [conf.
Engl. Whitsun-eve] ; and occasionally, corresponding to tlie Eom-
ance dies dominica, frontaQ, N. ps. 23.

Mid. High Gerim. — Would any one believe, that the names of
the days of the week are not easily to be picked out of the abun-
dant remains of our MHG. literature ? It is true, sunnen tac
(suntac in Berth. 118) and mdntac (Parz. 452, 16. mcentac 498, 22.
Amis 1648)^ admit of no doubt. Neither do Donrestac (Donerstag,
Uolrich 73^ Dunrestac, Berth. 128), spelt Duristag in a Semi-
Low Germ. urk. of 1300 in Hofer p. 57), and Dornstag in one of
1495, Useners femgerichten p. 131 ; nor Fritac {Parz. 448, 7. 470,
1. Walth. 36, 31. Berth. 134), Vricgtag, Uolrich 73^ nor yet
samztac (Parz. 439, 2. Berth. 138), sunnen dbcnt (Trist. 3880).—
But uncertainty hangs about the third and fourth days. The
former, by a remarkable variation, was in Bavaria named Eritac,
Erdac (the true form not quite certain, eritag in Adelung's vat.
hss. 2, 189. ergetag in Berth. 122 ; see examples collected from
urkunden, Schm. 1, 96-7), in Swabia on the contrary Zicstac, for
Ziewestac. Both of these forms, which have nothing to do with
each other, live to this day in the speech of the common people :
Bav. ierte, Austr. idrta, irita, Vicentino-Germ. corta, ortd, Alem.
zicstag, zinstag, ziestig, zistig, zienstig, zeinstig, zinstag. The insertion of
the liquid has corrupted the word, and brought in quite irrelevant
notions. In central Germany the form diestag, ticstag seems to
predominate (dicstik in the Pdion), whence our dicnstag (less cor-
rectly dinstag, there is good reason for the ie) ; the spelling ding-
stag, as if from ding, thing, judicium, is false ; dinstag occurs in
Gaupps magdeb. recht p. 272. — The fovnth day I have never seen
named after the god, either in MHG. or in our modern dialects,
unless indeed the gwontig cited in the note can be justified as
standing for Gwuotenstag, Wuotenstag; everywhere that abstrac-
tion ' midweek ' has carried all before it, but it has itself become

1 Zuemtig for Monday, Staid. 2, 470 ought perhaps to be zue mentig, _ze
mantage ; yet 1, 490 he has gueiiti, giienti, Tobler 248b has gwontig,
guentig, and Zellwegers iirk. P, 19 guonti, for which Urk. no. 146
has 'an gutem tag,' which seems to 1)6 supported by Haltaus
iahrzeitb. Or is only this particular ]\Iondav after Lent called so? In
the Cod. pal. 372, 103 (ann. 13S2) wo have ' guotem tag.' The resemblance
of this good day to the Westphalian Gudensdag (Woden's day) is purely
accidental.



GODS OF THE WEEK. 125

almost unintelligible by being changed into a masculine mitiwocJi,
viittich, Berth. 24, mdktig, Staid. 2, 194, conf. the Gothl. miijkadag,
Almqv. 442=^), ' an der mitkun' fern., is found in the Cod. zaringobad.
no. 140 (a.d. 1261). So even for the fifth day, the numeric name
2Mnztac (Berth. 128. Ottoc. 144^ Griitzer urk. of 1338. Schwa-
benspiegel, p, 196. Schm. 1, 322), or pliingstag, has made its
way into some districts of Upper Germany through Grseco-Slavic
influences, irefiirrr], petek, piatek, patek, though by these the Slavs
mean Friday (see Suppl.).

New High Germ. — I. sonntag. II. montag. III. Dienstag.

IV. mittwoch. V. Bonnerstag. VI. Freitag. VII. samstag,
sonnaiend.

Old Saxon. — The OS. names are wanting, but must have
differed in some essential points from the OHG., as the derived
dialects prove. We may pretty safely assume Wodanes dag for
the fourth day of the week, for in Westphalia it is still called
Godenstag, Gonslag, Gaunstag, Gunstag, at Aix Goucsdag, in Lower
Rhen. urkunden Gudestag, Gunther, 3, 585. 611 (a.d. 1380-7),
Gudenstag, Kindlinger horigk. p. 577-8 (a.d. 1448). — The third day
was probably Tiwesdag, the fifth Thunaresdag, the sixth Friundag.
The most unlike would doubtless be the seventh, was it formed
after dies Saturni, Sdteresdag ? conf. the Westph. Saterstag, Saiter-
staig, Giinter 3, 502 (a.d. 1365). In Sachsensp. 2, 6Q one MS. reads
for sunavend Saiersdach (see Suppl.).

Mid. Dutch. — I. sondach, Maerl. 2, 159. II. mancndach, Huyd.
op St. 3, 389. maendach, Maerl. 2, 139. III. Disendach, Maerl.
2, 140. al. Dicendach, Dissendach, Cannaert strafrecht, pp. 124, 481
apparently corrupted from Tisdach. IV. Wocnsdach, ]\Iaerl. 2, 143.

V. Donresdach, Maerl. 2, 144. VI. Vridach, Maerl. 2, 159. gen.
Vrindaglm, Maerl. 2, 143. 157. VII. Saterdach, Maerl. 2, 114.
120-3. 157-9. 276. 3, 197. 343. also sonnacM, Maerl. 2, 164. 3, 240.
(see Suppl.).

New Dutch. — I. zondag. II. mdndag. III. dingsdag, for-
merly dinsdag, Disseiidag. IV. Woensdag, Belg. Goensdag. V.
Donderdag. VI. Vridag. VII. Zaterdag.

Old Frislvn. — I. sonnadei. II. monadei. III. Tysdei. IV.
Wernsdci. V. Thmiresdei, Tornsdei. VI. Frigendci, Fredei. VII.
Saterdei (references for all these forms in Pdchthofen).

New Frislvn. — I. s?ic?/?i, abbrev. from sinnedey, sendei, senned



126 GODS.

(conf. Fred) ; the final n in sneyn, no doubt, as in OFris. Frigendei,
a relic of the old gen. sing, in the weak decl. II. moandey. III.
Tycsdcy. IV. Wdnsdey. V. Tongersdey. VI. Fred, abbrev. from
Fredey. VII. sniuwn, snioun, abbrev. from sinnejuwn = Sun(day)-
even. Conf. tegenwoordige staat van Friesland 1, 121. Was-
senbergh's bidraghen 2, 56. Halbertsma naoogst p. 281-2 (see
Suppl.).

North Frisian. — I, sennendei. II. monncndci. III. Tirsdei.
IV. Winsdei. V, Tilrsdei. VI. Fridei. VII. sennin (i7i=:eYen').

Anglo-Saxon. — I. sonnan dseg. II. monan deeg. III. Thoes
daeg. IV. Wodenes or Wodnes dseg. V. TImnores dreg. VI.
Frige dseg. VII. Scetrcs or Sceternes doeg.

Old Korse. — I. sunnudagr} II. mdnadagr. III. Tyrsdagr,
Tysdagr. IV. Offinsdagr. V. Thorsdagr. VI. Friadagr, Frcy-
judagr. VII. laugardagr.

Swedish. — I. sondag. II. mandag. III. Tisdag, whence
even Finn, tystai. IV. Onsdag. V. Tliorsdag. VI. Frcdag
VII. lordag.

Danish. — I. sondag. II. mandag. III. Tirsdag. IV. Ows-
^a<7. V. Torsdag. VI. Frcdag. VII. lovcrdag (see Suppl.).

We see, it is only in the seventh day that the Scandinavian
names depart from the Saxon, Frisian and Dutch : laugardagr
means bath-day because people bathed at the end of the week.
Yet even here there may be some connexion ; a Latin poem of the
9th century on the battle of Fontenay (Bouquet 7, 301) has the
singular verse : Salhatum non illud fuit, sed Saturni dolium ; a
devil's bath ? conf. ch, XII, Saturn. [The Germ, for carnage is
blutbad, blood-bath.]

Even if the Germans from the earliest times knew the week of
seven days from the four j)hases of the lunar change,^ yet the

^ This ON. sunnudagr is noticea])le, as in other cases sol is used rather than
sunna ; sunnudagr seems to have been formed by the christian teachers in imita-
tion of the other Teutonic languages. The Swed. and Dan. sondag (instead of
soldag) must have been taken bodily from a Plattdeutsch form.

" To the Lat. word vix, gen. vicis (chauge, turn) corresponds, without the
usual consonant-change, the Gothic viko, OHG. wecha and wehsal, both refer-
able to the verb veilia, vaik, OHG. wichu (I give way), because change is a
giving way [in German, ' der wechsel ist ein weichen ']. Ulph. has viko only
once, Lu. 1, 8, where evrrj ra^ei r^s ((firjixeplas is translated ' in vikon kimjis ' ; it
is evidently something more than rd^is here, it expresses at the same time a part
of the gen. i(^r]fiepiai, therefore lit. ' in vice generis ', which the Vulg. renders



GODS OF THE WEEK. 127

naming of the days and tlie order in wiiich they stand is manifestly
an importation from abroad. On the contrary supposition, there
would have been variation in details ; and Saturn, for whom no
Teutonic god seems prepared to stand sponsor, would have been left
out in the cold.

But it would be no less absurd to attribute the introduction of
the week and the names of the days to the Christians. As they
came into vogue among the heatlien Eomans, they could just
as well among heathen Gauls and Germans ; nay, considering
the lively intercourse between the three nations, a rapid
diffusion is altogether natural.^ Christianity had the Jewish week,
and it tolerated names which were a frequent offence to it, but were
already too deeply rooted, and could only be partially dislodged.
Those words of Gregory reveal the utter aversion of the clergy,
which comes out still more plainly in the language (publ. in Syn-
tagma de baptismo, p. 190) of an Icelandic bishop in 1107, who
actually did away with tliem in Iceland, and replaced them by
mere numeric names. How should the christian teachers ever have
suffered hateful names of idols to be handed over to their recent
converts for daily use, unless they had already been long established
among the people ? And in Germany, how should the Latin gods
have been allowed to get translated into German ones, as if on pur-
pose to put them within easy reach of the people, had they not
already been familiar with them for centuries ?

Again, the high antiquity of these translations is fully establish-
ed by their exact accordance with the terminology used in the first
centuries, as soon as people came to turn German gods into Roman.
In my opinion, the introduction of the seven days' names



by 'in ordine vicis '. Now whether viko expressed to the Goths the alterna-
tion of the moon's quarters, we do not know for certain ; I incline to believe
it, as the OHG. weha, woclia, AS. wice, wnce, ON. vika, Swed. vecka, Dan.
nge, are all limited to the one meaning of septimana. The very absence of con-
sonant-change points to a high antiquity in the word. It is remarkable that
the Javanese vt(ku means a section of time, the year falling into 30 vukus
(Ilumb. Kawispr. 1, 196). The Finn, wijkko is more likely to have been
borrowed from the Norse than from so far back as the Gothic. I remark
further, that an observance liy the Germani of sections of time must be inferred
from the mere fact that certi dies were fixed for the sacrifices to Mercury, Tac.
Germ. 9.

^ Jos. Fuchs, gesch. von I\Iainz 2, 27 seq. (Knpfert 4, no 7) describes a
Roman round altar, piob. of the 3rd or -Ith century, on which are carved the
.seven gods of the week (1 Saturn, 2 Apollo, 3 Diana, 4 Mars, 5 Mercury, U
Jupiter, 7 Venus), and in an 8lh place a genius.



128 GODS.

amongst us must be placed at latest in the fourth or fiftli century ;
it may not have taken place simultaneously in all parts of Teuton-
dom.

Our forefathers, caught in a natural delusion, began early to
ascribe the origin of the seven days' names to the native gods of
their fatherland. — William of Malmesbury, relating the arrival of
the Saxons in Britain, says of Hengist and Horsa, that they were
sprung from the noblest ancestry: Erant enim abnepotes illius
antiquissimi Voden, de quo omnium pene barbararum gentium
regium genus lineam trahit, quemque gentes Anglorum deum esse
delirantes, ei quartum diem septimanae, et sextum uxori ejus Freae
perpetuo ad hoc tempus consecraverunt sacrilegio (Savile 1601. p.
9). — More circumstantially, Geoffrey of Monmouth (lib. 6. ed. 1587,
p. 43) makes Hengist say to Vortigern : Ingressi sumus maria,
regnum tuum duce Mcrcurio petivimus. Ad nomen itaque Mer-
curii erecto vultu rex inquirit cujusmodi religionem haberent? cui
Hengistus : deos patrios Saturnum, atque ceteros, qui mundum
gubernant, colimus, maxime Mcrcurmm (as in Tac. 9.), quem Woden
lingua nostra appellamus. Huic veteres nostri dicaverunt quartam
septimanae feriam, quae usque in hodiernum diem nomen Wodenes-
dai de nomine ipsius sortita est. Post ilium colimus deam inter
ceteras potentissimam, cui et dicaverunt sextam feriam, quam de
nomine ejus Fredcd vocaraus. — As Matthew of Westminster (Flores,
ed. 1601, p. 82) varies in some details, his words may also be
inserted here : Cumque tandem in praesentia regis (Vortigerni)
essent constituti, quaesivit ab eis, quam fidem, quam religionem
patres eornm coluissent ? cui Hengistus : dcos patrios, scilicet
Saturnum, Jovcm atque ceteros, qui mundum gubernant, colimus,
maxime autem Me^rurium, quem lingua nostra Voden appellamus.
Huic patres nostri veteres dedicaverunt quartam feriam septimanae,
quae in hunc hodiernum diem Vodencsday appellatur. Post ilium
colimus deam inter ceteras potentissimam, vocabulo Fream, cujus
vocabulo Friday appellamus. Prea ut volunt quidani idem est
quod Venus, et dicitur Preu, quasi Proa a frodos [A-frod-ite = from
froth ?] quod est spuma maris, de qua nata est Venus secundum
fabulas, unde idem dies appellatur dies Veneris. — Anglo-Saxon
legend then, unconcerned at the jumbling of foreign and homespun
fable, has no doubt at all about the high antiquity of the names
among its people.



GODS. 129

Saxo Grammaticus, more critical, expresses his opinion (p. 103)
of the Norse nomenclature, that it is derived from the native gods,
but that these are not the same as the Latin. Tliis he proves by
Othin and Thor, after whom the fourth and fifth days of the week
are named, as in Latin after Mercury and Jupiter. For Thor,
being Othin's son, cannot possibly be identified with Jupiter, who
is Mercury's father; consequently, neither can the Norse Othin,
Thor's father, with the Eoman Mercury, who is Jupiter's son. The
discrepancy is certainly strong, but all that it can prove is, that at
the time when Othin and Mercury began to be placed on the same
pedestal, JMercury was thought of as a Celtic divinity, probably
with attributes differing widely from his classical namesake. Saxo
is quite right in what he means, and his remark confirms the early
heathen origin of these names of days ; ^ yet upon occasion, as we
saw on p. 122, he lets himself be carried away after all by the over-
powering identity of Thor and Jupiter (see Suppl.).

The variations too in the names of the seven days among the
various Teutonic races deserve all attention ; we perceive that they
were not adopted altogether cut-and-dry, nor so retained, but that
national ideas still exercised some control over them. The later
heathenism of Friesland and Saxony caused the- old names of
Wednesday and Saturday to live on, while in Upper Germany they
soon sank into oblivion. But what is especially significant to us,
is the deviation of the Alamanns and Bavarians when we come to
the third day ; how could it have arisen at a later (christian) time,
when the idea of the heathen god that does duty for Mars had
already become indistinct ? how came the christian clergy, supposing
that from them the naming had proceeded, ever to sanction such a
divergence ?

The nations that lie behind us, the Slavs, the Lithuanians, do
not know the planetary names of days, they simply count like the
Greeks,^ not because they were converted later, but because they
became acquainted with Latin culture later. The Finns and Lapps



1 Conf. Pet. Er. Miiller om Saxo, p. 79.

- The Indian nations also name their days of the week after planets ; and
it seems worth remarking here, that Wednesday is in Sanskrit Budhuvaras,
Tamil Budhunld/ramei, because some have identified Buddha with Woden. In
reality Budhas, the ruler of Mercury and son of the moon, is quite distinct from
the prophet Buddhas (Schlegel's ind. bibl. 2. 177).

9



130 GODS.

do not count, while the Esthonians again mostly do (see SuppL).
Even the christianizing influence of Byzantium decided nothing on
this point; Byzantium had no influence over Lithuanians and Finns,
and had it over a part only of the Slavs. These in their counting
begin with Monday, as the first day after rest, consequently Tues-
day is their second, and Thursday their fourth,^ altogether deviating
from the Latin and Icelandic reckoning, which makes Monday second
and Thursday fifth. Hence the Slavic piatek (fifth) means Friday,
and that Up. Germ, pfinztag (fifth) Thursday. Wednesday they
call middle, sreda, sereda, srida (whence Lith. serrada), which may
have acted upon our High German nomenclature ; the Finns too
have keskivnjcko (half- week, from keski medium). It would be well
worth finding out, when and for what reason the High German and
the Slav first introduced the abstract names mittewoche and sreda
(Boh. sti-eda), while the Low German and the Eomance have kept
to Woden and Mercury. Alone of Slavs, the Wends in Llineburg
show a trace of naming after a god; dies Jovis was with them
Perendan, from Peren, Perun, thunder-god: apparently a mere
imitation of the German, as in all the other days they agree with
the rest of the Slavs.^

The nett result of these considerations is, that, in Latin records
dealing with Germany and her gods, we are warranted in interpret-
ing, with the greatest probability, Mercurius as Wuotan, Jiqnte^- as
Donar, and 3Iars as Ziu. The gods of the days of the week
translated into German are an experiment on Tacitus's ' interpretatio
Eomana'.



^ E.g. in Kussian : 1, voskresenie, resurrection (but O.Sl. ne-delia, no-
cloing). 2, po-nedel'nik, day after-no-work. 3, vtdrnik, second day. 4,
sereda, middle. 6, chetverg, fourth day. 6, piatnitsa, fifth day. 7, subbota,
sabbath. — Trans.

'^ It is striking, that in 0. Bohem. glossaries (Hanka 54. 165) Mercury,
Venus and Saturn are quoted in the order of their days of the week ; and that
any Slav deities that have been identified with Latin ones are almost sure to
be of the number of those that preside over the week. And whilst of the Slav
gods, Svatovit answers to Mars (Ziu), Eadigast to Mercury (Wuotan), Perun to
Jupiter (Donar), iafZa (golden dame, zolotababa, in Hanusch 241, ^o^) to Venus
(Fria), and perhaps Sitivrat to Saturn ; the names of the planets are construed
quite otherwise, Mars by Smrto-nos (letifer), Mercury by Dobro-pan (good lord,
or rather bonorum dator), Jupiter- by Krcde-moc (rex potens), Venus by Ctitd
(cupitor ? venerandus 1), Saturn by Hlado-kt (famelicus, or annonae caritatem
afferens). Respecting Sitivrat I give details at the end of eh. XII.



CHAPTEE VII.
WUOTAN, WODAN (ODINN).

The highest, the supreme divinity, universally honoured, as we
have a right to assume, among all Teutonic races, would in the
Gothic dialect have been called Vodans ; he was called in OHG.
Wuotan, a word which also appears, though rarely, as the name of a
man : Witotan, Trad. Fuld. 1, 149. 2, 101-5-8. 128. 158. 161. Woatan
2, 146, 152. The Longobards spelt it Wddan or Guodan, the Old
Saxons Wuodan, Wddan, but in Westphalia again with the g prefixed,
Guodan, Gudan, the Amrlo-Saxons Woden, the Frisians Weda from
the propensity of their dialect to drop a final n, and to modify 6
even when not followed by an i} The Norse form is O&inn, in
Saxo Othinus, in the Faroe isles Ouvin, gen. Ouvans, ace. Ouvan.
Up in the Grisons country — and from this we may infer the extent
to which the name was diffused in Upper Germany — the Eomance
dialect has caught the term Vut from Alamanns or Burgundians of
a very early time, and retained it to this day in the sense of idol,
false god, 1 Cor. 8, 4.- (see Suppl.).

It can scarcely be doubted that the word is immediately derived
from the verb OHG. woatan ivuot, ON", vacfa, od', signifying meare,
transmeare, cum impetu ferri, but not identical with Lat. vadere, as
the latter has the a long, and is more likely connected with OS.
gavitan, AS. gewitan. From watan comes the subst. wuot (our
wuth, fury), as /ieVo? and animus properly mean mens, ingenium,
and then also impetuosity, wildness ; the ON. o&r has kept to the



^ A Frisian god Wains has simply been invented from the gen. in the
compound Warnsdei, Wernsdei (Richth. p. 1142), where Werns pkinly
stands for Wedens, Wodens, an r being put for d to avoid collision with
the succeeding sd ; it will be hard to find anywhere a noni. Wern. And the
present West Frisians say Wansdey, the North Frisians Winsdei, without
such r.

* Conradis worterb. 263. Christmann, pp. 30 — 32.



132 WODAN.

one meaning of mens or sensus.^ According to this, Wuotan,
Ocfinn would be the all-powerful, all-penetrating being, qui omnia
permeat ; as Lucan says of Jupiter : Est quodcunque vides, quo-
cunque raoveris, the spirit-god^ ; conf. Virg. Georg. 4, 221 : Deum
ire per omnes terras, and Eel. 3, 60 : Jovis omnia plena. In the
popular language of Bavaria, wudcln is to bestir oneself, to swarm,
grow luxuriantly, thrive, Schm. 4, 203 (see SuppL).

How early this original meaning may have got obscured or
extinguished, it is impossible to say. Together with the meaning
of wise and mighty god, that of the wild, restless, vehement, must
also have prevailed, even in the heathen time. The christians were
the better pleased, that they could bring the bad sense into promin-
ence out of the name itself. In the oldest glosses, wotan is put for
tyrannus, herus malus, Diut. 1, 276\ gl. Ker. 270 ; so wucterich,
wiltcrich (Gramm. 2, 516) is used later on, and down to the present
day, conf. ein ungestiiemer wiieterich, Ben. 431 ; as in Mar. 217.
Herod's messengers of murder are wiieterich e, O.i. 19, 18 names the
king himself gotewuoto. The form wuotunc seems not to differ in
sense ; an unprinted poem of the 13th century says ' Wiietunges
her ' apparently for the ' wiitende heer,'^ the host led as it were by
Wuotan ; and Wuotunc is likewise a man's name in OHG., Wodunc,
Trad, patav. no. 19. The former divinity was degraded into an evil,
fiendish, bloodthirsty being, and appears to live yet as a form of
protestation or cursing in exclamations of the Low German people,
as in Westphalia : Woudan, Woudan ! Firmenich 1, 257, 260 ;
and in Mecklenburg : Wod, Wod ! (see SuppI).

Proofs of the general extension of Woden's worship present
themselves, for one thing, in the passages collected in the preceding
chapter on Mcrcurius, and again in the testimonies of Jonas of
Bobbio (pp. 56 and 121) and Paulus Diaconus, and in the Abre-
nuntiatio, which deserves to be studied more closely, and lastly in the
concurrence of a number of isolated facts, which I believe have
liitherto been overlooked.

If we are to sum up in brief the attributes of this god, he is the

1 A word that has never been fully explained, Goth, vopis dulcis, 2 Cor. 2,
15, OHG. wuodi, Diut. 2, 304% OS. wuothi, Hel. 36, 3. 140, 7, AS. u-e&e, must
either l^e regarded as wholly unconnected, or its meaning be harmonized.

- Finn Magnusen comes to the same conclusion, Lex. myth. 621. 636.

3 The belief, so common in the Mid. Ages, in a 'furious host' or 'wild
hunt,' is described in ch. XXXI. — Trans.



woDAN. 13:^

all-pervading creative and formative pmvcr, who bestows shape and
beauty on men and all things, from whom proceeds the gift of song
and the management of war and victory, on whom at the same
time depends the fertility of the soil, nay wishing, and all highest
gifts and blessings, Saem. 113^'^

To the heathen fancy Wuotan is not only the world-ruling, wise,



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