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ingenious god, he is above all the arrancjer of wars and battles.^
Adam of Bremen cap. 233, ed. 1595 says of the Norse god : Wodau,
id est fortior, bella gerit, hominique ministrat virtutem contra
inimicos . . . Wodanem sculpunt (Sveones) armatum, sicut nostri
Martem sculpere solent. To the fortior, fortis, would answer his
ON", name of Svi&r, i.e. the strong, masterful, swift (OS. suith) : but
fortior is, no doubt, a false reading, all the MSS. (conf. Pertz 3, 379)
read 'Wodan, id est /«ror,' which agrees with the conclusion arrived
at above. To him, says the Edda, belong all the nobles who/a// in
battle (Seem. 77^). and to Thor the common folk, but this seems
added merely to depreciate the latter ; in another passage (Seem.
42^), Freya shares i\\Q, fallen with OSinn; he is named valfa&ir oxiA
herfa&ir (val, choice ; her, host). Od'inn vildi J'iggja mann at hlut-
falli at hanga or herinom, Fornald. sog. 3, 31. Eidem prostratorum
manes muneris loco dedicaturum se pollicetur (Haraldus), Saxo p.
146. Othinus armipotens, p. 37, auctor aciei corniculatae, ordinandi
agminis disciplinae traditor et repertor, pp. 138-9, 146. When old,
he teaches arraying of battle, p. 17, the hamalt at fyll-ja, svinfjlkja,
Fornald. sog. 1, 380 ; he teaches how to bring down with pebbles
those whom sword will not wound, ibid. p. 157 (see Suppl.).

We need not be surprised then to find him confounded with
Ziu or Tyr, the special god of war, or Mereurius coupled with Mars
(pp. 107, 111), or a gloss on Jonas of Bobbio, who had rightly
identified him with Mercury (p. 121), correcting him thus : Qui
apud eos (Alamannos) Vuotant (part. pres. of wuotan) vocatur,
Latini autem Martem ilium appellant. Are Adam's words also,
' sicut nostri Martem sculpere solent,' to be so taken that nostri



1 Got waldes an der sige hiir ! Wh. 425, 24. sigehafte hende fiiege in got !
Dietr. 84». OSinn, when he sejit the people forth to war, laid his hands on their
heads and blessed, ace. to Yngl. cap. 2, gaf J^eim bianac ; Ir. beannact, bean-
nugad, beandacht, Gael, beanuachd, Wei. bianoch (Villemarque, essai LIX) =
benedictio, prob. all I'rom the Lat. word ? conf. Fr. benir, Ir. beannaigini.



134 WODAN.

should mean Saxones ? He, it is true, may have meant those
acquainted with Eoman mythology.

Especially does the remarkable legend preserved by Paulus
Diaconus 1, 8 show that it is Wodan who dispenses victory, to whom
therefore, above all other gods, that antique name siliora (p. 27)
rightfully belongs, as well as in the Eddas the epithets Sigtyr (god
of victory), Seem. 248% Sn. 94, Sigfoffr (father of victory), Saem. 68^ ;
AS. vigsifjor (victor in battle), Beow. 3107, sigmetod (creator of
victory), Beow, 3554 (see Suppl.) : — Eefert hoc loco antiquitas ridi-
culam fabulam, quod accedentes Wandali ad Wodan, victoriam de
Winilis postulaverint, illeque responderit, se illis victoriam daturum,
quos primum oriente sole conspexisset. Tunc accessisse Gambaram
ad Fream, uxorem Wodan, et Winilis victoriam postidasse, Frcam-
que consilium dedisse, Winilorum mulieres solutos crines erga
faciem ad barbae similitudinem componerent 7?ia?tcque primo cum
viris adessent, seseque a Wodan videndas pariter e regione, qua
ille per fenestram orientem versus erat solitus adspicere, colloca-
rent ; atque ita factum fuisse. Quas cum Wodan conspiceret oriente
sole, dixisse : qui sunt isti Langobardi ? tunc Fream subjunxisse,
ut quibus nomen tribuerat, victoriam condonaret, sicque Winihs
Wodan victoriam concessisse. Here deacon Paul, as a good chris-
tian, drops the remark : Haec risu digna sunt, et pro nihilo habenda :
victoria enim non potestati est adtributa hominum, sed e coelo
potius ministratur ; and then adds a more exact interpretation of
the name Longobard : Certum tamen est Longobardos ab intactae
ferro barbae longitudine, cum primitus Winili dicti fuerint, ita
postmodum appellatos. Nam juxta illorum linguam lang longam,
bart barbam significat. Wodan sane, quem adjecta litera Givodan
dixerunt, et ah universis Germaniae gentihus ut deus adoratur, qui
non circa haec tempora, sed longe anterius, nee in Germania, sed in
Graecia fuisse perhibetur.'-

The whole fable bears the stamp of high antiquity ; it has even
been related by others before Paul, and with variations, as in the
Hist. Francor. epitomata, which has for its author, though not Fre-
degar, yet some writer of the seventh century. Here Chuni

1 Godfrey of Viterbo (in Pistorius, ed. Struve 2, 305) has the legend out of
Paul Diac. with the names corrupted, Godam for Wodan, Feria for Frea.
Godam or Votam sets him thinking of the Germ, word got (deus). The
unheard-of ' Toclacus historiographus ' has evidently sprung out of ' hoc loco '
in Paid.



WODAN. 135

(Huns) are named instead of Vandals : — Cum a Chunis (Lango-
bardi) Danubium transeuntes fuissent comperti, eis bellum conati
sunt inferre. Interrogati a Chunis, quare gens eorum terminos
introire praesumeret ? At illi mulieribus suis praecipiunt, comam
capitis ad maxillas et mentum ligare, quo potius virorum habitum
simulantes plurimam multitudinem hostium ostenderent, eo quod
erant mulierum comae circa maxillas et mentum ad instar barbae
valde longae : fertur desuper utraeque plmlangae vox dixisse : ' hi
sunt Langobardi ! ' quod ab his gentibus fertur eorum deum fuisse
locutum, quem fanatici nominant Wodanum (al. Wisodano, a mere
copyist's or reader's error for Wuodano). Tunc Langobardi cum cla-
massent, qui instituerat nomen, conccdcrd victoriam, in hoc praelio
Chunos superant. (Bouquet 2, 406 ; according to Pertz, all tli.e MSS.
read Wodano.) In this account, Frea and her advice are nowhere ;
the voice of the god, giving the name, is heard up in the air.

It was the custom for any one who bestowed a name, to follow
it up with a gift.^ Wodan felt himself bound to confer the victory
on those for whom he had found a new national name. In this
consisted the favour of fortune, for the people, in dressing up their
wives as men, had thought of nothing but swelling the apparent
numbers of their warriors. I need scarcely remind the reader, that
this mythical interpretation of the Lombard name is a false one,
for aU the credit it found in the Mid. Ages.^

There is one more feature in the legend that must not escape
our notice. Wodan from his heavenly dwelling loolis doum on the
earth through a window, which exactly agrees with ON. descrip-
tions. OSinn has a throne named fflicfshicdf, sitting on which he
can survey the whole world, and hear all that goes on among
men : ]?ar er einn staSr er HliSscialf heitir, oc )?aer OSiun settiz
Jjar i hasoeti, oc }?a sd hann of alia heima, oc vissi aUa luti,
J?a er hann sa (there is a stead that H. hight, and when 0.
sat there on high-seat, then saw he over all countries, and
wist, &c.), Sn. 10. oc Jxi er AllfoSr sitr i ]?vi soeti, ]?a ser hann oj
allan heim, Sn. 21. hlustar (listens) OSinn HliSscialfo i, Sjem. 89^.

1 Lata fylgja nafni, Sfcm. 142*. 150\ Fornm. sog. 3, 182. 203. gefa at
nafnfesti (name-feast), Sn. 151. Fornm. sog. 2, 51. 3, 133. 203. Islend. sog.
2, 143. 194. Vocabuli largitionem muneris additione commendare, Saxo
Gram. 71.

2 Longobardi a longis barbis vocitati, Otto fris. de gest. Frid. 2, 13. But
OSinn himself was named LdiigbarSr.



136 WODAN.

When Loki wanted to hide, it was from this seat that OSinn espied
his whereabouts, Sn. 69. Sometimes also Frigg, his consort, is
imagined sitting by his side, and then she enjoys the same prospect :
OSinn ok Frigg sdto i HliSscialfo, ok sd urn heima alia, Ssem, 39.
The proem to the Grimnismal bears a strong resemblance to the
legend in Paul ; for, just as Frea pulls her favourites the Winili
through, in opposition to Wodan's own resolve, so Frigg brings to
grief GeirroSr, whom OSinn favoured. — Sensuous paganism, how-
ever, makes the god-like attribute of overseemg all things depend
on the position or structure of a particular chair, and as the
gift forsakes the god when he does not occupy the seat, others can
enjoy the privilege by taking his place. This was the case when
Freyr spied the beautiful GerSr away down in lotunheim ; Freyr
hafffi sctsc i HliSskialf, oc sd um heima alia, Ssem. 81. Sn. 39. The
word hlid'scialf seems to mean literally door-bench, from hli3
(ostium, conf. Engl, lid), and skiaK (scamnum), AS. scylfe, Csedm.
79, 4. Engl, shelf (see Suppl). Mark the language in which the
OS. poet describes the Ascension of Christ : sohta imo thena helagon
stol, sitit imo thar an thea suidron (right) half Godes, endi thanan
all gisihit (seeth) waldandeo Crist, so huat so (whatso) thius werold
behabet, Hel. 176, 4—7, conf. Ceedm. 265, 16.

This idea of a seat in the sky, from which God looks on the
earth, is not yet extinct among our people. The sitting on the
right hand is in the Bible, but not the looking down. The
formulas 'qui haut siet et de loing mire, qui haut siet et
loins voit ' (supra, p. 23) are not cases in point, for men
everywhere have thought of the Deity as throned on high and
seeing far around. Zeus also sits on Ida, and looks on at mortal
men ; he rules from Ida's top, "ISijdev fieSiav, even as Helios, the
eye of the sun, surveys and discerns all things, II. 3, 277. But a
widely-circulated marcheu tells us of a mortal man, whom St. Peter
admitted into heaven, and who, led on by curiosity, ended by
climbing into the chair of the Lord, from, which 07ie can look down
and see all that is done on the whole earth. He sees a washerwoman
steal two lady's veils, and in his anger seizes the footstool of the
Lord, which stands before the chair (al. a chair's leg), and hurls it
down at the thief.^ To such lengths has the ancient fable travelled.

1 Kindermarchen no. 35. First in Bebel, ed. 1, Tub. 1506, p. 6. Frey's
gartengesellscliaft cap. 109, ed. 1556 p. 106, ed. 1590 p. 85. Rollwagenbiichlein
1590, pp. 98-9 (here a golden settle). Moserrf vermischte schriften 1, 332. 2,



WODAN. 137

Can it be alluded to in tlie MHG. poem, Amgb. 3^ ?

Der nu den himel hat erkorn,

der geiselt uns bi uuser habe ;

ich viirhte sere, unt wirt im zorn,

den slegel wirft er uns her abe.^
In a Servian song (Vuk 4, 9) the angels descend to earth out of
God's window (od Bozhieg prozora ; pro-zor (out-look, hence window)
reminds one of zora (dawn), prozorie (morning twilight), and of
Wodan at early morn looking toward the sunrise. The dawn is, so
to speak, the opening in heaven, through which God looks into the
world.

Also, what Paulus Diac. 1, 20 tells of the anger of the Lord
(supra, p. 18), whereby the Herulian warriors were smitten before
their enemies, I am inclined to trace up to "VVuotan : Tanta super eos
coelitus ira res^jcxit ; and again : Vae tibi, misera Herulia, quae
coeiestis Domini flecteris ira! Conf. Egilssaga p. 305: reiffr se
rogn ok OSinn ! wrathful see the gods and 0.,; and Fornald. sog. 1,
501 : grainr er ySr OSinn, angry is 0. with you.

Victory was in the eyes of our forefathers the first and highest
of gifts, but they regarded Wuotan not merely as dispenser of
victory ; I have to show next, that in the widest sense he repre-
sented to them the god to whose bounty man has to look for every
other distinction, who has the giving of all superior blessings ; and
in this sense also Hermes (Mercury) was to the Greeks pre-
eminently SctiTcop idcov, giver of good things, and I have ventured
to guess that the name Gihika, KijncJw originally signified the
same to us-.

235. ed. 1842, 4, 5, 39. H. Sachs (1563) v. 381. According to Greek and 0.
Norse notions, the gods have a throne or cliair : tha gengengo regin oil a rokstola
ginheilog goS, S;eni. 1''. Compare in the Bible : heaven is God's throne, the
earth his footstool, Matt. 5, 34-5 ; and Hel. 45, 11. 12 (see Suppl.).

1 Also MS. 2, 254'' : ze hus wirf ich den slegel dir. MS. 2, 6'' : niit
einem sleijel er zuo dem kinde warf. This cuchjel-throicing resembles,
what meant so much to our ancestors, the hammer's throw, and the
OHG. slaga is malleus, sledge-hanimev (Grail' 6, 773). The cudgel thrown
from heaven can hardly be other than a thunderbolt ; and the obscure
proverb, ' swer irre rite daz der den sler/el fihide,' wJioso astray should ride, that
he the s. might fiml, Parz. 180, 10, .may refer to a thunder-stone (see cli. VIII,
Donar) which jwints to hidden treasure and brings deliverance, and which only
those can light upon, who have accidentally lost tlieir way in a wood ; for
which reason Wolfram calls trunks of trees, from under which peeps out the
stone of luck, ' slegels urkiinde und zil,' slegcl's document and mark (aim).

- Haupts zeitschr. 1, 573. Lasicz. 47 names a Latanus donator bonorum.



138 WODAN.

The sum total of well-being and blessedness, the fulness of all
graces, seems in our ancient language to have been expressed by a
single word, whose meaning has since been narrowed down ; it was
named tvunsch (wish). This word is probably derived from wunja,
wunnja, our wonne, bliss ; wunisc, wunsc, perfection in whatever
kind, what we should call the Ideal. Thus, Er. 1699 ' der wunsch
Avas an ir garwe,' wish was in her complete ; Iw. 3991 ' daz mir des
wunsches niht gebrast,' nought of wish was wanting ; Iw. 6468
' der rat, des der wunsch an wibe gert,' such store as wish can
crave in wife ; Gerh. 1754! ' an der got wunsches niht vergaz,' in
whom God nought of wish forgot (left out) ; Parz. 742, 15 ' der
wunsch wirt in beiden ' ; Trist. 3710 ' dir ist der wunsch gegeben';
Frauend. 87 ' der wunsch von edlem obze,' the pick of noble fruit ;
Parz. 250, 25 ' erden wunsches riche,' rich in all gifts of the earth ;
235, 24, 'erden wunsches iiberwal'; Trist. 4696. 4746 ' der wunsch
von worten, von bluomen ' ; Trist. 1374 ' in dem wunsche sweben,'
i.e., in perfect satisfaction. And the magic wand, by whose impact
treasures are acquired, was a wunschiligerta, wishing-rod ; conf.
Parz. 235, 22 ' wurzel unde ris des wunsches,' root and spray of
wish. The (secondary) meaning of ' desiring and longing for '
these perfections would seem to have but accidentally attached
itself to the wunsc, ON. osk (see Suppl.).

Among other Eddie names of 06inn, appears Osci, Ssem. 46^
Sn. 3, 24, i.e. he who makes men partakers of wunsch, of the
highest gift. Osk, gen. Oskar, a woman's name, Fornm. sog. 1, 246.
Eyrbyggja saga cap. 7. Laxd. p. 12.

Another thing seems to me to be connected with this, and there-
fore to be a relic of the heathen religion : the fact that our poets of
the 13th century personify wunsch, and represent it as a mighty
creative being. Instances in proof of this are found chiefly in
Hartmann, Eudolf and Conrad :

Got erloubte dem WimscJie liber About him, God gave to Wish

in, full leave,

daz er lib unde sin that he body and mind

meistert nach sim werde. fashioned according to his worth,

swa von ouch uf der erde Of whatsoever upon earth,

deheinem man ze loben geschiht, to any man, praiseworthy falls,

desn gebrast im niht ; thereof lacked him nought ;

der Wicnsch hat in gemeistert so Wish had him fashioned so,



WODAN.



139



daz er sin luas ze kinde vrS,
wande er nihts an im vergaz :
er hetn geschaffet, kunder, baz.

Greg. 1091-1100.

man sagt daz nie kint gewan
ein lip so gar dem Wunsche glich.
Ex. 330.

also was ez (daz phert) gestalt,
und ob er (der werltwise man)

danne den gewalt
von dem Wunsche hmte,
daz ez belibe st^ete

swes er darzuo gedsehte,

und swenne erz volbra^hte,

daz erz fiir sich stalte

und er von sinem givalte

dar abe noeme

swaz daran im missezaeme,

also was ez volkomen

daz er dar abe niht hete geno-

men
alse groz als umb ein bar.

Er. 7375-87.



tliat he was glad of liim for child,
for he nought in him forgot :
he had him shapen, if he could,
better.

They say that never a child won
a body so wholly equal to Wish
(or, exactly like Wish).

So was it wrought (tlie horse),
that if he (the wright) had had

the command from Wish,

that (liis work) should be left

unaltered,
whatever he attempted thereon,
and when he had completed it,
that he should set it before Him,
and He at his discretion
therefrom should take away
whatever therein mislilvcd him, —
so perfect was it
that he therefrom nought would

have taken
so great as a hair.



als ez der Wmisch gehot (bade). Er. 8213.

was ein wunschldnt (was a child of wish). Ex. 8277,

Enite was des Witnschcs kint,

der an ir nilites vergaz. Er. 8934.

da was ir har und ir lich (lyke, lych, body)

so gar dem Wunsche gelich (like). Iw. 1333.

diz was an ir (zuht, schoene, jugent) und gar der rat (all the store)

des der Wunsch (or wunsch ?) an wibe gert (desires.) Iw. 6468.

wande sie nie gesahen (for they never had seen)

zwene riter gestalt (two knights fashioned)

so gar in Wunsches gewalt

an dem libe und an den siten (manners). Iw. 6913.

der Wimsch vluochct (curses) im so. Iw. 7066.



140 WODAN.

mil- hat der Wunsch gevluochet. Hartm. biichl. 2, 113.

er was schcene und wol gevar (for gefarwet, coloured),

rehte, als in der Wunsch erkos (chose). Gerh. 771.

mill herze in (ihnen, to them) des begunde jehen (acknowledge),

in wsere des Wunsches fiiz (zeal, care) bereit, Gerh. 1599.

an der der Wunsch mit kiusche har

sine sileze lebcnde fruht. Gerh. 1660,

daz ich ir schoene kroene

ob alien frouwen schoiie

mit des Wimsches krone. Gerh. 1668.

ein regen uz dem wolken vloz

der uf des Wimsches ouwe goz

so heizen regen (?). Gerh. 2307.

an lobe (praise) des Wunsches hronc. Gerh. 2526.

swes ich begunde daz geschach (was accomplished),

der Wunsch ie niinen werken jach (ever to my works said yea)

des wunsches als ich wolte

und als ich wiinschen solte. Gerh. 2945.

nach des Wunsches lere (lore). Gerh. 4500.

der Wttnsch mit siner hende

vor wandel (change, fault) hete si getwagen (cleansed). Troj. 1212.

der Wunsch hat ane lougen (without lying, undeniably)

erzeiget an ir sine kmftj

und siner Jcilnste meisterschaft

mit vlize an ir bewert (carefully evinced in her). Troj. 7569.

der Wunsch hat in gemachet wandels vri (free of fault). Troj. 3154.

der Wunsch der hete an si geleit (gelegt, laid out, spent)

me flizcs denne uf elliu wip (more pains than on any woman).

Troj. 19620.
so daz er niemer wibes leben
fur sie gesdwpfen wolde baz (better) ;
do sin gewcdt ir bilde maz (measured),
do leit (legte) er an -sie manec model. Troj. 19627
und hsete sin der Wtinsch gesworn,
er wolde bilden ein schoener wip,
und schepfcn also klaren lip
als Helena min frouwe treit (tragt, bears)
er miieste brechen sinen eit (eid, oath)
wan er kunde niemer (for he could never),



WODAN. 141

unci solte Uldcn iemer (were he to shape for ever),

(jcschcpfen wunneclicher fruht. Troj. 19526-32.

ez hat ze sinem telle der Wunsch vergezzen niender. Engelh. 579.

daz haete an si der Wunsch geleit. Engelh. 4703.

der Wunsch der hete niht gespart

an ir die sine mcisterscliaft,

er hete sine beste hraft

mit ganzem fiiz an sie geleit. Der werlde Ion. 84.

Other poets personify too (not, however. Wolfram nor Gotfried):
der zweier kurtesie
sich ze dem Wimsche het geweten,
si ware niender uz getreten. Wigal. 9246.
an ir schoene was wol schin,
daz ir der Wunsch gedahte. Wigal. 9281.
der Wunsch het sich gcneigct in ir gewalt. ibid. 904.
in was der Wunsch bereit. ib. 10592.
des Wunsches amic. ib. 7906. 8735.
wen mohte da erlangen,
da der Wunsch inne was. ib. 10612.
der Wunsch het si gemachet so,
imd ist ir ze kinde vrS. Amur 1338. (Pf. 1343).
des Wuoischcs ougenweicle (food for the eye)
sit ir und miner sfelden spil (are ye, and the play of my delight).

Wigal. 8760. Amur 1068. (Pf. 1072).
si schepfet uz des Wunsches hcilctwdgc (lioly water). Martina, 259.
(diu hant) ist im groz, lane unde wiz,
zuo der het sich der Wunsch gesellct. Turl. Wh. 38=*.
hie stuont (here stood) der Wunsch. ib. 137^
dar an lit (therein lieth) wol des Wunsches vliz. Tyrol E, 3.
si ist des Wunsches hostez zil (highest mark or aim). Ms. 1, 84^
sie ist der Wunsch uf erde. Ms. 2, 100^.

sie ist des Wunsches ingesinde (one of W.'s household). Ms. 1, 6^
von ir scheitel uf ir zehen (from her crown to her toes)
so ist niht an minneclichen widen wan (save, but) des Wunsches

blic. MsH. 3, 493^
des Wwischcs blucte sint entsprungen in mine herzen. Fragm. 45^
si trage des Wunsches hildc. Ms. 1, 191^
des Wunsches krdnc tragen. Docen misc. 2, 186.



142 WODAN.

sie hat des Wimsches gewalt. Amgb. 31^
er was so gar des Wunschcs hint,

daz alle man gein (against, before) siner schoene waren blint,
und doch menlich gestalt bi clarem velle (complexion) ;
der Wunsch im niht gebrechen liez (let nought be lacking)
da von man 's Wtinsches hint den stolzen hiez (should call the
stately one). Lohengr. ed. Eiickert str. 625.

The following is outside the bounds of MHG. :
an yr yst Wensches vlyt geleit. Haupts zeitschr. 3, 221.
Mid. Dutch poems have no personification Wensch ; nor is there a
Wunsch in the Nibelungen or Gudrun ; but in Wolfdietrich 970 :
des W'lmsches ein amie ! There must be many more instances ;
but the earliest one I know of is found in the Entekrist from the
12th century (Hoffm. fundgr. 2, 107) :

mit Wunschis gewalte With Wish's might

segniti sie der alte. Tlie old man blessed her.

We see Wish provided with hands, power, looks, diligence, art,
blossom, fruit ; he creates, shapes, produces master-pieces, thinks,
bows, swears, curses, is glad and angry, adopts as child, handmaid,
friend : all such pretty- well stock phrases would scarcely have
sprung up and lived in a poetry, in a language, if they did not
unconsciously relate to a higher being, of whom earlier times had a
livelier image; on such a basis indeed nearly all the personifications
made use of by MHG. poets seem to me to rest. In the majority
of our examples we might fairly put the name of God in the place
of Wish, or that of Wish in the phrases quoted on pp. 17-8, which
describe the joyous or the angry God : freudenvoll hat sie Got
gegozzen, MS. 1, 226^ ; der Wunsch maz ir bilde, as mezzen is said
of God, p. 23 ; and gebieten, to command, is just as technically
applied to the one as to the other, p. 24. The 'gramr er ySr OSinn,'
p. 137, might be rendered in MHG, 'der Wunsch zlirnet iu, fluochet
iu,' meaning, the world is sick of you. At times the poet seems to
be in doubt, whether to say God or Wish: in the first passage from
Gregor, Wish is subordinated, as a being of the second rank, so to
speak, as a servant or messenger, to the superior god; the latter has
to give him leave to assume his creative function, which in other
cases he does of his own might. Again, when body, figure, hair are
said to be 'like Wish,' it exactly reminds us of Homer's KOfiav



WODAN. 143

XapkeaaLv ofjLolat, II, 17, 51; and Xdpire'i, the Gratiae, creatresses
of grace and beauty, play precisely the part of our Wish, even
down to the circumstance, that in addition to the personal meaning,
there is an abstract %a/3t9, gratia, as there is a wish.^ Piiterich of
Eeicherzhausen (Haupts zeitschr. 6, 48) speaks of ' die ivuntsclics
fiiesse ' of a princess ; the older phrase would have been ' ir fiieze
waren deni Wunsche gelich'. It is a genuine bit of German
heathenism to make this creative faculty reside in a god, and not,
after the Greek fashion, in a female personage. And there are other
features too, that point back to our native heathen eld. Wish's
aue and heilwac can be matched by Phol's ouwa and brunno, or the
meads and holywells of other gods ; Wish's crovm by that worn by
gods and kings. And, most remarkable of all, Wish rejoices in his
creature as in a child ; here Woden's self comes upon the scene as
patriarcli or paterfamilias, before whom created men make their
appearance like children, friends, domestics ; and ' wunschkint ' is
also used in the sense of an adopted, i.e. wished for, child.^ Her-
bort 13330 makes Hecuba exclaim : ich han einen sun verlorn, er
gezseme gote ze kinde (would suit God as a child) ; which does not
mean in a christian sense, ' God has doubtless been joleased to take
him to Himself,' but in a heathen sense, ' he was so lovely, he
might be called Wish's child '. For the Norse OSinn too has these
marvellous children and wish-maidens in his train (see Suppl.)^

To the ON. Oshi ought by rights to correspond an OHG. Wunsco,
Wunscjo, (weak deck), which I am not able to produce even as a
man's name (see Suppl.).^ A ]\IHG. Wtinsche cannot be proved

1 In many places it is doubtful, whetlier tlie poet meant icish or Wish. In
Wolfram and Gotfiied, who abstain from distinct personification, I always
prefer the abstract interpretation, while Hartmann admits of both by turn's.
When we read in Parz. 102, 30 : si was gar ob dem wunsches zil (over wish's



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