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rectly Mt. Ardenghen between Boulogne and St. Omer. Comes
Wadanimontis, aft. Vaudemont in Lorraine (Don Cahnet, tome 2,



WODAN. 153

preiives XLVIII. L.), seems to be the same, and to mean Wodarii-
mons} A Wodnes heorg in the Sax. Chron. (Ingram pp. 27. 62),
later Wodnesboroiigli, Wanshorough in Wiltshire ; the corruption
already in Ethelwerd p. 835 : ' facta ruina magna ex utraque parte
in loco qui dicitur Wodnesbyrg ' for Wodnesberg ; but Florence, ed.
1592, p. 225, has ' Wodncsbeorh, id est mons Wodeni '.^ A Wodnes-
heorg in Lappenberg's map near the Bearucwudu, conf. Wodncsbiiry,
Wodnesdyke, Wddanesfdd in Lappenb. engl. gesch. 1, 131. 258. 354.
To this we must add, that about the Hessian Gudensberg the story
goes that King Charles lies prisoned in it, that he there won a victory
over the Saxons, and opened a well in the wood for his thirsting
army, but he will yet come forth of the mountain, he and his host,
at the appointed time. The mythus of a victorious army pining for
water is already applied to King Carl by the Frankish annalists
(Pertz 1, 150. 348), at "the very moment when they bring out the
destruction of the Irminsul ; but lieyond a doubt it is older and
heathen: Saxo Gram. 42 has it of the victorious Balder. The agree-
ment of such legends with fixed points in the ancient cultus can-
not but heighten and confirm their significance. A people whose
faith is falling to pieces, will save here and there a fragment of
it, by fixing it on a new and unpersecuted object of veneration.
After such numerous instances of ancient Woden-hills, one need
not be afraid to claim a mo7is Mercurii when mentioned in Latin
annalists, such as Fredegar.

Other names occur, besides those of mountains. The brevi-
arium Lulli, in Wenk II. no. 12, names a place in Thuringia :
'in Wudancs/msun,' and again Wotencshusun (conf. Schannat no.
84. 105) ; in Oldenburg there is a Wodensholt, now Godensholt,
cited in a land-book of 1428, Ehrentraut Fries, arch. 1, 445 : ' to
Wodensholte Tideke Tammen gut x schillinge ' ; Wothenower (W6-
denover ?), seat of a Brandenburg family, Hofers urk. p. 270, anno
1334 ; not far from Bergen op Zoom and the Scheldt, towards Ant-
werp, stands to this day a Woensdrccht, as if Wodani trajectum.
Wocnsd = Wodenssele, Wodani aula, lies near Eindhoven on the

1 "VVe know of Graisivaudan, a valley near Grenoble in Dauphine, for
■which the Titurel has Graswaldane ; but there is no around for connecting it
with the god. "

- Our present -borough, -burj-, stands both correctly for hurh, byrig, castle,
town (Germ, burg), and incorrectly for the lost beorg, beorh, mountain (Germ,
berg).— Trans. i/. . v



154 WODAN.

Dommel in N. Brabant ; a remarkable passage on it in Gramaye's
Taxandria, p. 23, was pointed out to me by J. W. Wolf: Imo
amplius supersunt aperte Cymbricorum deorum pagis aliquot, ubi
forte culti erant, indita nomina, nominatim Mercurii in Woensel,
honoris in JSersel,- Martis in Roysel. Uti enim Woen Mercurium
eis dictum alias docui, et eer lionorem esse omnes sciunt, ita Roy
Martem a colore sanguineo cognominatum ostendunt illi qui tertiam
hebdomadis feriam Eoydach indigitant In due time I shall
speak of Eersel and Eoysel, which lie in the neighbourhood of
Woensel, and all of them in the N. Brabant district of Oirschot.
This Woensel is like the OSinssalr, Othansale, Onsala named on
p. 158. Wunstorp, Wunsdorf, a convent and small town in Lower
Saxony, stands unmutilated as Wodcnstorp in a doc of 1179, Ealke
tradit. corb. 770. Near Windbergen in the Ditmar country, an
open space in a wood bears the name of Wodcnslag, Wonslag. Near
Hadersleben in Schleswig are the villages of Wonsbcke, Wonski,
Woyc7is formerly Wodensycn, An AS. doc. of 862 (Kemble 2, 73)
contains in a boundary-settlement the name Wonstoc = Wodencsstoc,
Wodani stipes, and at the same time betrays the influence of tlie
god on ancient delimitation. Wuotan, Hermes, Mercury, all seem
to be divinities of measurement and demarcation ; conf. Woedcns-
spanne, Woenslct, p. 160 (see Suppl.).

As these names, denoting the waggon and the mountain of the
old god, have survived chiefly in Lower Germany, where heathenism
maintained itself longest ; a remarkable custom of the people in
Lower Saxony at harvest-time points the same way. It is usual to
leave a clump of standing corn in afield to Woden for his horse.
OSinn in the Edda rides the eight-footed steed Sleipnir, the best of
all horses, Sffim. 46=^ 93^. Sn. 18. 45. Q>5. Bleipnis ver&r (food) is a
poetic name for hay, Yngl. saga cap. 21 : other sagas speak of a
tall white hm^se, by which the god of victory might be recognised in
battles (see Suppl.). Christianity has not entirely rooted out the
harmless practice for the Norse any more than for the Saxon
peasant. In Schonen and Blekingen it continued for a long time
to be the custom for reapers to leave on the field a gift for Odens
horses} The usage in Mecklenburg is thus described by Gryse :

1 Geyers schwed. gesch. 1, 110. orig. 1, 123. In the Hogmmssocken,
Oeland, are some large stones named Odi7is fiisor, Odini lamellae, of which the



WOUAN. 155

Ja, im heidendom hebbeii tor tid der arne (at harvest-tide) de
meiers (mowers) dem afgade Woden umme god korn angeropen
(invoked for good corn), denn wenn de roggenarne geendet, heft
men up den lesten platz eins idem (each) veldes einen kleinen ord
unde humpel korns unafgemeiet stan laten, datslilve baven (b' oben,
a-b'ove) an den aren drevoldigen to samende geschortet, unde
besprenget (ears festooned together three times, and sprinkled).
Alle meiers sin darumme her getreden, c?'C hade (their hats) vam
Tcoppe genamcn (v. supra, p. 32), unde ere seisen (scythes) na der
siilven wode [mode ?] unde geschrenke (encircling) dem kornbusehe
upgerichet, nnd hebben den WodendiXvel dremal semplik lud averall
also angeropen unde gebeden :

^Yodc, hale (fetch) dincm rossc nu voder,

nu distil unde dorn,

tom andern jar beter korn !

welker afgodischer gebruk im Pawestom gebleven. Daher denn ok
noch an dissen orden dar heiden gewanet, bi etliken ackerliiden
(-leuteu, men) solker avergelovischer gebruk in anropinge des
Woden tor tid der arne gesporet werd, und ok oft desiilve helsche
jcger (the same hellish hunter), sonderliken im winter, des nachtes
up dem velde mit sinen jagethunden sik horen let.^

David Franck (Meklenb. 1, 56-7), who has heard the same from
old people, quotes the rhyme thus :

story is told, that Odin, in turning his horse out to graze, took the hit off him
and laid it on a huge block of stone ; the weight of the bit sjijlit tlie stone into
two pieces, which were set upriglit as a memorial. Another story is, that Oden
was about to tight an adversary, and knew not where to tie his horse up. In
the hurry he ran to the stone, pierced it with his sword, and tied his horse fast
through the hole. But the horse broke loose, the stone burst in pieces and
rolled away, and from this arose the deep bog named Hogrumstrask ; people
have tied poles together, but never could reach the bottom. Abrah. Ahkpiist,
Oelands historia, Calmar 1822. 1, 37. 2, 212. There is a picture of the stones
in Liliengren och Brimius, no. xviii. In the Hcigbysocken of Oeland is also a
smooth block of granite named Odinssten, on which, ace. to the folk-tale, the
warriors of old, when marching to battle, used to whet their swords ; Ahl-
quist 2, 79. These legends confirm the special importance of Odin's horse in
his mythus. Verelii notae on the Gautrekssaga p. 40 quote from the Clavis
computi runici : ' Odin heter hesta srna i lielg bunden,' which I do not (juite
understand. In the Fornm. sog. 9, 55-G OSinn has his horse shod at a black-
smith's, and rides away by enormous leaps to Sweden, where a war breaks out
(see Suppl.).

^ Spegel des antichristischen pawestdoms (popery), dorch Nicolaum Grysen,
predigem in Rostock, Eost. 1593. 4, sheet E iiii''. With the verses cited by
him, conf. the formula in weisthiimer : Let it lie fallow one year, and bear
thistle and thorn the next.



156 WODAN.

Wode, Wode,

hal dinen rosse nu voder,

nu distel un dorn,

acliter jar beter korn !
He adds, that at tlie squires' mansions, when the rye is all cut,
there is Wodel-hccr served out to the mowers ; no one weeds flax
on a Wodenstag, lest Woden's horse should trample the seeds ; from
Christmas to Twelfth-day they will not spin, nor leave any flax on
the distaff, and to the question why ? they answer, Wode is galloping
across. We are expressly told, this wild hunter Wode xidiQS, a tuhite
Jwrse} Near Siituna in Yestergotland are some fine meadows
called Onsdngarne (Odens angar, ings), in which the god's horses
are said to have grazed, Afzelius 1, 4. In S. Germany they tell of
the lord of the castle's grazing gray (or white), Mone anz. 3, 259 ; v.
infra, the ' wutende heer'. I have been told, that in the neigh-
bourhood of Kloppenburg in Oldenburg, the harvesters leave a
bunch of corn-stalks uncut on the field, and dance round it. There
may be a rhyme sung over it still, no doubt there was formerly.

A custom in Schaumburg I find thus described :^ the people go
out to mow in parties of twelve, sixteen or twenty scythes, but it is
so managed, that on the last day of harvest they all finish at the
same time, or some leave a strip standing which they can cut down
at a stroke the last thing, or they merely pass their scythes over
the stubble, pretending there is still some left to mow. At the last
stroke of the scythe they raise their implements aloft, plant them
upright, and beat the blades three times with the strop. Each
spills on the field a little of the drink he has, whether beer, brandy,
or milk, then drinks himself, while they wave their hats, beat their
scythes three times, and cry aloud Wold, Wold, Wold ! and the
women knock all the crumbs out of their baskets on the stubble.
They march home shouting and singing. Fifty years ago a song
was in use, which has now died out, but whose first strophe ran
thus :

Wold, W6ld, W6ld!
havenhiine weit wat schiit,
jiimm hei dal van haven siit.

1 Mussaus meklenb. volkssagen no. 5 ; in Liscli meklenb. jahrb. 2, 133 it
is spelt Wavxl, and a note is made, that on the Elbe they say //it'i Wod, i.e.
froho, lord ; conf. infra, fru Gane and fru Gaiiden in the ' wutende heer ',

* By Miinchhaiisen in Bragur VI. 1, 21 — 34.



WODAN. 157

Vulle kruken un sangen hat liei,
upen holte wiisst (grows) manigerlei :
liei is nig barn un wert nig old.
Wdld, ivdld, Wdld!

If the ceremony be omitted, the next year will bring bad crops of
hay and corn.

Probably, beside the libation, there was corn left standing for the
venerated being, as the fourth line gives us to understand : ' full
crocks and shocks hath he ' ; and the second strophe may have
brought in his horse. ' Heaven's giant knows wiiat happens, ever
he down from heaven sees,' accords with the old belief in
Wuotan's chair (p. 135) ; the sixth line touches off the god that
' ne'er is born and ne'er grows old ' almost too theosophically.
Wold, though excused by the rhyme, seems a corruption of Wod,
Wode^ rather than a contraction from waldand (v. supra, p. 21).
A Schaumburg man jDronounced the name to me as Waudcn, and
related as follows : On the lake of Steinhude, the lads from the
village of Steinhude go every autumn after harvest, to a hill named
Heidenhligel, light a fire on it, and when it blazes high, wave their
hats and cry Waiiden, Waudcn ! (see Suppl.).

Such customs reveal to us the generosity of the olden time.
Man has no wish to keep all his increase to himself ; he gratefully
leaves a portion to the gods, who will in future also protect his
crops. Avarice increased when sacrificing ceased. Ears of corn
are set apart and offered here to AVuotan, as elsewhere to kind
spirits and elves, e.g., to the brownies of Scotland (see Suppl. to
Elves, pixy-hoarding).

It was not Wuotan exclusively that bestowed fertility on the
fields ; Donar, and his mother the Earth, stood in still closer con-
nexion with agriculture. We shall see that goddess put in the place
of Wuotan in exactly similar harvest-ceremonies.

In what countries the worship of the god endured the longest,
may be learnt from the names of places which are compounded
with his name, because the site was sacred to him. It is very
unlikely that they should be due to men bearing the same name as
the god, instead of to the god himself ; Wuotan, OSinn, as a man's

1 Conf. Dutch Olid, goud for old, gold ; so Woade, which approximates
the form Wode. Have we the latter in * Thcodericud de IVodestede '^ ' Scheldt's
mantissa p. 433, anno 1205.



] 58 WODAN.

name, does occur, but not often ; and tlie meaning of the second
half of the compounds, and their reappearance in various regions,
are altogether in favour of their being attributable to the god.
From Lower Germany and Hesse, I have cited (j). 151) Wodenesv.ieg,
Wodencsberg, WodeneshoU, WodeneshAsun, and on the Jutish border
Wonsild ; from the Netherlands Woensdrecht ; in Upper Germany
such names hardly show themselves at all.^ In England we find :
Woodneshoro' in Kent, near Sandwich : Wcdnesbury and Wednes-
field in Staffordsliire ; IVcdncsham in Cheshire, called Wodncs/leld
in Ethelwerd p. 848.^ But their number is more considerable in
Scandinavia, where heathenism was preserved longer : and if in
Denmark and the Gothland portion of Sweden they occur more
frequently than in Norway and Sweden proper, I infer from this a
preponderance of Odin-worship in South Scandinavia. The chief
town in the I. of Funen (Fion) was named Odinsve (Fornm. sog. 11,
266. 281) from ve, a sanctuary ; sometimes also O&insey (ib. 230.
352) from cy, island, meadow ; and later again Odcnsc, and in
Waldemar's Liber censualis^ 530. 5-42 Othdnso, In Lower Norway,
close to Frederikstad, a second OSinsey (Ileimskr, ed. Havn. 4, 348.
398), aft. called Onso. In Jutland, Othdnshylld (-huld, grace,
Wald. lib. cens. 519), aft. Onsild. Othdnslef (Othini reliquiae,
leavings, ib. 526), now Onslev. In Halland, Othd7isdle (-saal, hall,
ib. 533), now Onsala (Tuneld's geogr. 2, 492. 504) ; as well as in
Old Norway an Odhinssalr (conf. Woensel in Brabant, Woenssele ?).
In Schonen, Othdnslidrd (Wald. lib. cens. 528) ; OthensMlrat (Bring
2, 62. 138. 142),* now Onsjo (Tuneld 2, 397) ; Onslunda (-grove,
Tuneld 2, 449) ; Othensvara (Bring 2, 46-7, Othenvara 39) ;
Othenstrdo (Bring 2, 48), from vara, foedus, and tro, fides ? In
Smaland, OdensvalakuU (Tuneld 2, 146) and Odcnsjo (2, 109. 147.
Sjoborg forsok p. 61). In Ostergotland, Odenfors (Tuneld 2, 72).
In Vestergotland, Odenshulla (2, 284) and Odcnskdlla (2, 264), a
medicinal spring ; Odensaker, Onsdker (-acre, field, 2, 204. 253). In

1 An Odensherg in tlie Mark of Bibelnheim (now Biebeslieim below Gerns-
heim in Darmstadt) is named in a doc. of 1403. Climels reg. Ruperti p. 204 ;
the form Wodensberg would look more trustworthy-

" If numbers be an object, I fancy the English contribution might be
swelled by looking up in a gazetteer the names beginning with Wans-, Wens-,
Wadden-, Weddin-, Wad-, Wed-, Wood-, Wam-, Wem-, Worn-.— Trans.

^ Langebek script, torn. 7.

* Sven Bring, monuinenta Scanensia, vol 2, Lond. goth. 1748.



WODAN. 159

Westmanland, Odensvi (1, 266. conf. Gran, p. 427)/ like tlie
Odinsve of Fliuen ; and our Lower Saxon Wodeneswege may have
to do with tins vc (not with weg, via), and be explained by the old
iviff, ivih, templuni (see p. 67). This becomes the more credible,
as there occurs in the Cod. exon. 341, 28 the remarkable sentence :

Woden worhte tucos, wuldor alwealda
rume roderas ;
I.e., Woden construxit, creavit fana (idola), Deus omnipotens amplos
coelos ; the christian writer had in his recollection the heathen
sanctuaries assigned to Woden, and contrasts with them the greater
creations of God. The plur. weos is easily justified, as wih is
resolved into weoh, and weohas contracted into weos : so that an
AS. Wodenesweoh would exactly fit the OS. Wodanesweg = W6-
daneswih, and the ON. OSinsve. Also in Westmanland, an Odensjo
(Grau p. 502). In Upland, Odensala (Tuneld 1, 56) ; Odensfors
(1, 144) ; Onsike (1, 144). In Nerike, OdcnshacTce (1, 240), (see
Suppl.).

It seemed needful here to group the most important of these
names together, and no doubt there are many others wdiicli have
escaped me f in their very multitude, as well as the similarity or
identity of their structure, lies the full proof of their significance.
Few, or isolated, they might have been suspected, and explained
otherwise ; taken together, they are incontestable evidence of the
wide diffusion of Odin's worship.

Herbs and plants do not seem to have been named after this
god. In Brun's beitr.j). 54, icodcsterne is given as the name of a
plant, but we ought first to see it in a distincter form. The Ice-
landers and Danes however call a small waterfowl (tringa minima,
inquieta, lacustris et natans) Offmshani, Odenshane, Odcns fugl^
which fits in with the belief, brought out on p. 147, in birds conse-
crated to him. An OHG. gloss (Haupts altd. bl. 2, 212) supplies
a doubtful-looking vtinsivaluwe, fulica (see Suppl.).

Even a part of the human body was named after the god : the

^ Olof Grau, beskrifning ofver Wastiuanland. Wasteras 1754. conf. Dybeck
rima I. 3, 41.

2 There are some in Finn Magnusen's lex. niytli. 648 ; Imt I do not agree
with him in including the H. Germ, nanu'8 Odeuwald. Odenheim, whicli lack
the HG. form Wuotan and the -s of the genitive ; nor the Finn. Odenpii, which
means rather bear's head.



160 WODAN.

space between the thumb and the forefinger when stretched out,
which the Greeks name Xt^a?, was called in the Netherlands
Wocdcnsspanne, Woede7ispanne, Wocnslet. The thumb was sacred,
and even worshipped as thumbkin and Pollux = pollex ; AVodan
was the god of play, and lucky men were said to have the game
running on their thumb. We must await further disclosures about
the name, its purport, and the superstition lying at the bottom of
it (see Suppl.).

I started with assuming that the worship of this divinity was
common to all the Teutonic races, and foreign to none, just because
we must recognise him as the most universal and the supreme one.
Wuotan — so far as we have succeeded in gleaning from the relics
of the old religion an idea of his being — Wuotan is the most
intellectual god of our antiquity, he shines out above all the other
gods ; and tlierefore the Latin writers, when they speak of the
German cultus, are always prompted to make mention first of
Mercury.

We know that not only the Norsemen, but the Saxons, Thurin-
gians, Alamanns and Langobards worshipped this deity ; why should
Franks, Goths, and the rest be excluded from his service ?

At the same time there are plain indications that his worship
was not always and everywhere the dominant one. In the South
of Germany, although the personification of Wish maintahied its
ground, Wuotan became extinct sooner than in the North ; neither
names of places, nor that of the fourth day of the week, have pre-
served him there. Among the Scandinavians, the Swedes and
Norwegians seem to have been less devoted to him than the Got-
landers and Danes. The ON. sagas several times mention images
of Thor, never one of OSinn ; only Saxo Gram, does so in an
altogether mythical way (p. 113) ; Adam of Bremen, though he
names Wodan among the Upsala gods, assigns but the second place
to him, and the first to Thor. Later still, the worship of Freyr
seems to have predominated in Sweden.

An addition to the St. Olaf saga, though made at a later time,
furnishes a striking statement about the heathen gods whom the
introduction of Christianity overthrew. I will quote it here,
intending to return to it from time to time: ' Olafr konungr
kristnaSi J^etta riki allt, oil blot braut hann niSr ok oil goS, sem



WODAN. 161

Thor Engilsmanna gO(5, ok Od'in Saxa go5, ok SkioM Skanimga goc5,
ok Frey Svla goS, ok GoSorm Dana goS ' ; i.e. king 0. christened
all this kingdom, broke down all sacrifices and all gods, as Thor the
Englishmen's god, ()5in the Saxons' god, &c., Fornm. sog. 5, 239. —
This need not be taken too strictly, but it seems to nie to express
the still abiding recollections of the old national gods : as the
Swedes preferred Freyr, so probably did the Saxons Woden, to all
other deities. Why, I wonder, did the writer, doubtless a Norwe-
gian, omit the favourite god of his own countrymen ? To them he
ought to have given Thor, instead of to the English, who, like other
Saxons, were votaries of Woden.

Meanwhile it must not be overlooked, that in the Abrenuntiatio,
an 8th century document, not purely Saxon, yet Low German, 0.
Frankish and perhaps Ripuarian, Thunar is named before Vuodan,
and Saxnot occupies the third place. From this it follows at all
events, that the worship of Thunar also prevailed in those regions;
may we still vindicate Wuodan's claims to the highest place by
supposing that the three gods are here named in the order in which
their statues were placed side by side? that Wuodan, as the greatest
of them, stood in the middle ? as, according to Adam of Bremen,
Thor did at Upsala, with Wodan and Fricco on each side of him.

In the ON. sagas, when tivo of these gods are named together,
Thorr usually precedes OSinn. The Laxdailasaga, p. 174, says of
Kiartan : At hann ]?ykist eiga meira traust undir afli sinu ok
vapnum (put more trust in his strength and weapons, conf. pp. 6,
7) heldr enn J?ar sem er Thorr ok O&inn. The same passage is
repeated in Fornm. sog. 2, 34. Again, Eyvindr relates how his
parents made a vow before his birth: At sa maSr skal alt til
dauGadags ];iona TJior ok Odlii (this man shall until death-day
serve, &c.), Fornm. sog. 2, 161.^ But it does not follow from this,
that Thorr was thouglit the greatest, for Eyvindr was actually
dedicated to OSinn. In Fornm. sog. 5, 249, Styrbiorn sacrifices to
Thorr, and Eirekr to Oc5inn, but the former is beaten. Thorr tok



^ So in an AS. homily De temporibus Anticliristi, in Wheloc's Bedap. 495,
are eiimnerated ' Tlior and EotStven, \c li,'vSeue men hciiai^ swiSe' ; and before
that, ' Erculus se ent (Hercules ^igas) and ApoUinis (Apollo), J^e hi mterne god
leton'. The preacher was thinking of the Greek and the Norse deities, not of
the Saxon, or he vould have said Thunor and Woden. And in other cases,
where distinctly Norse gods are meant, AS. writers use the Norse form of name.
F. ]\lagnusen3 lex. p. 919.

11



162 WODAN.

jolaveizlu fra Haraldi, cnn Offinn tok fra Halfdani, Fornm. sog.
10, 178. In the popular assembly at Thrandheim, the first
cvip is drunk to Off inn, the second to Thorr, ibid. 1, 35. In the
famous Bravalla fight, Othin under the name of Bruno acts as
charioteer to the Danish king Harald, and to the latter's destruction;
on the Swedish side there fight descendants of Frcyr, Saxo Gram.
144-7. Yet tlie Eddie HarbarzlioS seems to place OSinn above Thorr.
A contrast between OSinn and Thorr is brought out strongly in the
Gautrekssaga quoted below, ch. XXVIII. But, since Thorr is repre-
sented as OSin's son, as a rejuvenescence of him, the two must
often resolve into one another.^

If the three mightiest gods are named, I find OSinn foremost :
O&inn, Tlior, Frcyr, Sn. edda 131. According to Fornm. sog. 1, 16,
voyagers vow money and three casks of ale to Freyr, if a fair wind
shall carry them to Sweden, but to Thorr or O&inn, if it bring them
home to Iceland (see Suppl.).

It is a different thing, when OSinn in ON. documents is styled
Thricli, the third f in that case he appears not by the side of Thorr
and Freyr, but by the side of Hdr and lafnhdr (the high and the
even-high or co-equal, OHG. epan hoh) as the Third High^ (see
Suppl.), Sn. 7. Yngl. saga 52. Stem. 46*. As we might imagine,
the grade varies : at other times he is Tvcggi (duplex or secundus).
Again, in a different relation he appears with his brothers Vili and
Ve, Sn. 7 ; with Hoenir and Lo&r, Seem. 3^^, or with Hmnir and Loki
Sffim. 180. Sn. 135; all this rests upon older myths, which, as
peculiar to the North, we leave on one side. Yet, with respect to
the trilogy Offinn, Vili, Vc, we must not omit to mention here,
that the OHG. %oillo expresses not only voluntas, but votum,
impetus and spiritus,^ and the Gothic viljan, velle, is closely con-
nected with valjan, eligere; whence it is easy to conceive and

1 When OSinn is called Thundr in the songs of the Edda, S<Tm. 281^ 47^
this may be derived from a lost l^ynja = AS. l)unian, tonare, and so be equivalent
to Donar ; it is true, they explain Jmndr as loricatus, from l^und lorica. But



Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 17 of 46)