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Wuotan, as Voma, is the noise of the rushing air, and we saw him hml the
cudgel, as Thorr does the hammer.

- As Zeus also is rplros, from which Tpiroyiveta is more easily explained
than by her birth from his head (see Suppl.).

* iElfric's glosses 56% Altanus : Woden. Altanus, like Summanus, an
epithet of Jove, the Altissimus ; else Altanus, as the name of a wind, might
also have to do with the storm of the ' wiitende heer '.

* The Greek fiivos would be well adapted to unite the meanings of courage,
fury (mut, wut), wish, will, thought.


believe, liow Wuotau, Wish and Will should touch one another (see
Suppl.). With the largitor opum may also be connected the AS.
wela, OS. welo, OHG. wolo, welo = opes, felicitas [weal, wealth],
and Wela conies up several times almost as a personification (conf.
Gramm. 4, 752), like the Lat. goddess Ops (conf. infra Seelde, note) ;
there is also a Vali among the Norse gods. In the case of Ve, gen.
vea, the sense may waver between wiho, sanctus (Goth. Alima sa
veiha. Holy Ghost), and wih, idolum. In Seem. 63, Loki casts in
the teeth of Frigg her intrigues with Ve and Vili ; this refers to
the story in Yngl. saga cap. 3, from which we clearly gather the
identity of tlie three brothers, so that Frigg could be considered the
wife of any one of them.^

Lastly, a principal proof of the deeply-rooted worship of this
divinity is furnished by Wodan's being interwoven with the old
Saxon genealogies, which I shall examine minutely in the Appendix.^

Here we see Wodan invariably in the centre. To him are
traced up all the races of heroes and kings ; among his sons and
his ancestors, several have divine honours paid them. In parti-

1 According to this story, OSinn was alroad a long time, during which his
brothers act for him ; it is worthy of note, that Saxo also makes Othin travel
to foreign lands, and Milhothin fill his place, p. 13 ; this Mithothin's position
throws light on that of Vili and Ve. But Saxo, p. 45, represents Othin as once
more an exile, and puts Oiler in his place (see Suppl.). The distant journeys
of the god are implied in the Norse by-names GdngratSr, Gungleri, Vegtamr,
and Vitf/uridl, and in Saxo 45 viator indefcssus. It is not to be overlooked,
that even Paulus Diac. 1, 9 knows of Wodan's residence in Greece (qui non
circa haec tempora — of the war between Langobards and Vandals — sed longe
anterius, nee in Germania, sed in Graecia fuisse perhibetur ; while Saxo removes
him to Byzantium, and Snorri to Tyrkland). In the passage in Paul. Diac. :
'Wodan sane, quern adjecta litera G wodan dixerunt, ipse est qui apud Romanos
Mercurius dicitur, et ab universis Germaniae gentibus ut deus adoratur, qui
non circa haec tempora, sed longe anterius, nee in Germania, sed in Graecia
fuisse perhibetur ' — it has been proposed to refer the second ' qui ' to Mercurius
instead of Wodan (Ad. Schmidt zeitschr. 1, 2G4), and then the harmony of
this account with Snorri and Saxo would disappear. But Paul is dealing with
the absurdity of the Langobardic legend related in 1, 8, whose unhistoric basis
he lays bare, by pointing out that Wodan at the time of the occurrence between
the Wandali and Winili, had not ruled in Germany, biit in Greece ; which
is the main point here. The notion that Mercury should be confined to Greece,
has wider bearings, and would shock the heathen faith not only of the Germans
but of the Romans. The heathen gods were supposed to be omnij^resent, as
may be seen by the mere fact that Woden-hills were admitted to exist in
various spots all over the country ; so that the community of this god to
Germans, Greeks and Romans raised no difficulty.

- This Appendix forms part of the third volume. In the meanwhile,
readers may be glad to see for themselves the substance of these pedigrees,
which I have extracted from the Appendix, and placed at the end of this
chapter. — TiiANa.

164 WODAN.

ciilar, there appear as sons, Balder and that Saxnot who in the 8th
century was not yet rooted out of N.W. Germany ; and in the line
of his progenitors, Hercmod and Gedt, the latter expressly pro-
nounced a god, or the son of a god, in these legends, wliile Wodan
himself is regarded more as the head of all noble races. But we
easily come to see, that from a higher point of view both Geat and
Wodan merge into one being, as in fact OSinn is called 'alda Gautr'
Ssem. 93^ 95*^ ; conf. infra Goz, Koz.

In these genealogies, which in more than one direction are
visibly interwoven with the oldest epic poetry of our nation, the
gods, heroes and kings are mixed up together. As heroes become
deified, so can gods also come up again as heroes ; amid such reap-
pearances, the order of succession of the individual links varies [in
different tables].

Each pedigree ends with real historical kings : but to reckon
back from these, and by the number of human generations to get
at the date of mythical heroes and gods, is preposterous. The
earliest Anglo-Saxon kings that are historically certain fall into the
fifth, sixth or seventh century ; count four, eight or twelve genera-
tions up to Woden, you cannot push him back farther than the
third or fourth century. Such calculations can do nothing to shake
our assumption of his far earlier existence. The adoration of
Woden must reach up to immemorial times, a long way beyond
the first notices given us by the Eomans of Mercury's worship in

There is one more reflection to which the high place assigned
by the Germans to their Wuotan may fairly lead us. Monotheism
is a thing so necessary, so natural, that almost all heathens, amidst
their motley throng of deities, have consciously or unconsciously
ended by acknowledging a supreme god, who has already in him
the attributes of all the rest, so that these are only to be regarded
as emanations from him, renovations, rejuvenescences of him.
This explains how certain characteristics come to be assigned, now
to this, now to that particular god, and why one or another of them,
according to the difference of nation, comes to be invested with
supreme power. Thus our Wuotan resembles Hermes and Mercury,
but he stands higher than these two ; contrariwise, the German
Donar (Thunor, Thorr) is a weaker Zeus or Jupiter •, what was
added to the one, had to be subtracted from the other ; as for Ziu



(Tiw, Tyr), he hardly does more than administer one of Wuotan's
offices, yet is identical in name with the first and highest god of the
Greeks and Eomans : and so all these god-phenomena keep meet-
ing and crossing one another. The Hellenic Hermes is pictured as
a youth, the Teutonic Wuotan as a patriarch : OSinn hinn gamli
(the old). Yngl. saga cap. 15, like ' the old god' on p. 21. Ziu and
Froho are mere emanations of Wuotan (see Suppl.).

Genealogies of Anglo-Saxon Kings.

Descending Series.

Hengest (d. 489)
Eoric (Oesc)

iEthelbeorlit (567)


Riedwald (d. 617)
Eorpwald (632)


iEscwine (527)
Sa3l)eorht (604)













Penda (d. 656)

^Ue (d. 588)

Bernicia. Wessex. Lindesfaran.

Woden Woden Woden

Bseldseg Baeldieg Winta

Brand Brand Cretta

Beonoc Fridhogar Queldgils

Aloe Freawiue Ceadbed

Angenwit Wig Bubba

Ingwi Gewis Bedeca

Esa Esla Biscop

Eoppa Elesa Eanferth

Ida (d. 560) Cerdic (d. 534) Eatta

Cynrio Ealdfritli


According to this, Woden had seven sons (Bfeldfeg being common to two
royal lines) ; elsewhere he has only three, e.g. Wil. Malm. p. 17 : tres filii,
Weldegms, Withlegius et Beklegius, from whom the Kentish kings, the
^lercian kings, and the West Saxon and Northumbrian kings respectively were

Ascending Series.

Woden Finn Beaw Hathra (Itermod)

tndhuwald Godwulf (Folcwald)Sceldwa Hwala (Hathra)

Freawine (Frealaf) Geat Heremod (Sceaf) Bedwig (Hwala)

Fndliuwulf Tietwa Itermon (Herem6d)Sceaf (Bedwig)

Some accounts contain only four links, otliers eight, others sixteen, stopping
either at Fridhuwulf, at Geat, or at Sceaf. Sceaf is the oldest heathen name ■
but alter the conversion the line was connected with Noah, and so with Adam '



The god who rules over clouds and rain, who makes himself
known in the lightning's flash and the rolling thunder, whose bolt
cleaves the sky and alights on the earth with deadly aim, was
designated in our ancient speech by the word Donar itself, OS.
Tliiinar, AS. Thunoi\ OiST. Tlwrr} The natural phenomenon is
called in OX. ]?ruma, or duna, both fem, like the Gothic J?eihv6,
which was perhaps adopted from a Finnic language. To the god
the Goths would, I suppose, give the name Thunrs. The Swed,
tordon, Dan. torden (tonitru), which in Harpestreng still keeps the
form thordyn, thordun, is compounded of the god's name and that
same duna, ON. Thorduna ? (see Suppl.). In exactly the same
way the Swed. term usM (tonitru, fulmenj, in the Westgothl. Laws
asikkia,^ has arisen out of asaka, the god's waggon or driving, from
as, deus, divus, and aka, vehere, vehi, Swed. aka. In Gothland they
say for thunder Thorsakan, Thor's driving ; and the OJST. reid'
signifies not only vehiculum, but tonitru, and reiSarslag, reiSar-
]?ruma, are thunderclap and lightning. For, a waggon rumbling
over a vaulted space comes as near as possible to the rattling and
crashing of thunder. The comparison is so natural, that we find
it spread among many nations : BoKel o^vi^^ "^ov Zito? rj /Spovrr)
elvai, Hesychius sub. v. eXaai^povra. In Carniola the rolling of
thunder is to this day gotta fahren. [To the Eussian peasant it is
the prophet Ilia driving his chariot, or else grinduig his corn.]
Thorr in the Edda, beside his appellation of AsaJ>6rr, is more
minutely described by Oku];6rr, i.e. Waggon-thorr (Sn. 25) ; his
waggon is drawn by two he-goats (Sn. 26). Other gods have their

1 So even in High German dialects, durstag for donrstag, Engl. Thursday,
and Bav. doren, daren for donnern (Schm. 1, 390). In Thorr it is not ER, but
only the first R (the second being flectional), that is an abbrev. of NR. ; i.e.
N suffers syncope before R, much as in the M. Dut. ere, mire, for enre minre.

- Conf. Onsike (Odin's drive ?) supra, p. 159.


waggons too, especially OSinn and Freyr (see pp. 107, 151), but Thorr
is distinctively thought of as the god who drives ; he never appears
riding, like OSinn, nor is he supposed to own a horse : either he
drives, or he walks on foot. We are expressly told : ' Thorr gengr
til domsius, ok veSr ar,' walks to judgment, and wades the rivers
(Sn. 18).^ The people in Sweden still say, when it thunders :
godguhhen aker, the good old (fellow) is taking a drive, Ihre 096.
740. 926. gofar akar, goffar kor, the gaffer, good father, drives (see
Suppl.). They no longer liked to utter the god's real name, or they
wished to extol his fatherly goodness (v. supra, p. 21, the old god,
Dan. vor gamle fader). The Norwegian calls the lightning Tkors-
varmc, -warmth, Faye p. 6.

Thunder, lightning and rain, above all other natural phenomena,
proceed directly from God, are looked upon as his doing, his
business (see Suppl.). ^ When a great noise and racket is kept up,
a common expression is : you could not hear the Lord thunder for
the uproar ; in France : le bruit est si fort, qu'on n'entend pas Dieu
tonncr. As early as the Roman de Eenart 11898 :

Font une noise si grant
quen ni oist pas Dieu tonant.

29143 : Et commeuQa un duel si grant,
que len ui oist Dieu tonant.

Ogier 10915 : Lor poins deterdent, lor paumes vont batant,
ni oissiez nis ame Dieu toiumt.

Garin 2, 38 : Nes Dieu tonnant ni possiez oir.

And in the Eoman de Maugis (Lyon 1599, p. 64) : De la noyse
quils faisoyent neust Ion pas ouy Dieu tonner.

But thunder is especially ascribed to an angry and avenging
god ; and in this attribute of anger and punishment again Donar
resembles Wuotan (pp. 18, 142). In a thunderstorm the people say
to their children : the gracioiis God is angry ; in Westphalia : tise
Iter got kift (chides, Strodtm. osnabr. 104) ; in Franconia : God is out

1 Scarcely contrailicted by his surname HldrritFi ; this I'iSi probably points
to rei3, a wa^^gon ; H16riit)i seems to me to come by assimilation from hloSriSi,
conf. ch. XIll, the goddess HloSyn.

- A peasant, being reqnested to kneel at a procession of the Host, said : I
don't believe the Lord can be there, 'twas only yesterday I heard him thunder
up in heaven ; Weidners apophthegmata, Amst. 1643, p. 277.


there scolding ; in Bavaria : der Ummdtatl (-daddy) greint (Schm.
1, 462). In Eckstrom's poem in honour of the county of Honstein
1592, cii^ it is said:

Gott der herr muss warlich from sein (must be really kind),

dass er nicht mit donner schlegt drein.^
The same sentiment appears among the Letton and Finn nations.
Lettic : wezzajs kahjas, wezzajs tehws barrahs (the old father has
started to his feet, he chides), Stender lett. gramm. 150. With
dievas (god) and dievaitis (godkin, dear god) the Lithuanians
associate chiefly the idea of the thunderer : dievaitis grauja !
dievaitis ji numusse. Esthonian : wanna issa hliab, wanna essa
waljan, miirrisep (the old father growls), Eosenpliinters beitr. 8,
116. 'The Lord scolds,' 'heaven wages war,' Joh. Christ. Petris
Ehstland 2, 108 (see Suppl.).

Now with this Donar of the Germani fits in significantly the
Gallic Taranis whose name is handed down to us in Lucan 1, 440 ;
all the Celtic tongues retain the word taran for thunder, Irish toran,
with which one may directly connect the ON. form Thorr, if one
thinks an assimilation from rn the more likely But an old
inscription gives us also Tanarus (Forcellini sub v.) =. Taranis.
The Irish name for Thursday, dia Tonlain (dia ordain, diardaoin)
was perhaps borrowed from a Teutonic one (see Suppl.).

So in the Latin Jupiter (literally, God father, Diespiter) there
predominates the idea of the thunderer ; in the poets Tonans is
equivalent to Jupiter {e.g., Martial vi. 10, 9. 13, 7. Ovid Heroid.
9, 7. Fasti 2, 69. Metam. 1, 170. Claudian's Stilicho 2, 439) ;
and Latin poets of the Mid. Ages are not at all unwilling to apply
the name to the christian God (c.r7.,Dracontius de deo 1, 1. satisfact.
149. Yen. Fortunat. p. 212-9. 258). And expressions in the
lingua vulgaris coincide with this : celui qui fait toner, qui fait
courre la nue (p. 23-4). An inscription, Jovi tonanti, in Gruter 21,
6. The Greek Zeus who sends thunder and lightning {Kepavv6<;) is
styled Kepavveco<;. Zeu? eKTvire, I\. 8, 75. 170. 17, 595. Jio^
«Tu7ro9, II. 15, 379.2 And because he sends them down from the

1 In a poem made up of the first lines of hymns and songs : Ach gott vop
himmel sieh darein, iind werfe einen donnerstein, ^s ist gewislieh an der zeit,
dass schwelgerei und iippigkeit zerschmettert werden mansetodt ! sonst schrein
wir bald aus tiefer noth.

2 One might be tempted to connect the Etruscan Tina = Jupiter with
Tonans and Donar ; it belongs more immediately to Zrjv (v. inira, Zio).


height of heaven, he also bears the name aKpw;, and is . pictured
dwelling on the mountain-top (aKpi<;). Zeus is enthroned on
Olympus, on Atlios, Lycaeus, Casius, and other mountains of Greece
and Asia Minor.

And here I must lay stress on the fact, that the thundering
god is conceived as emphatically a fatherly one, as Jupiter and
Diespiter, as far and tatl. For it is in close connexion with this,
that the mountains sacred to him also received in many parts such
names as Etzcl, Altvatcr, Grossvatcr} Tliorr himself was likewise
called Atli, i.e. grandfather.

A high mountain, along which, from the earliest times, the
main road to Italy has lain, in the chain between the Graian and
Pennine Alps, what we now call the St. Bernard, was in the early
Mid. Ages named mons Jovis. This name occurs frequently in the
Prankish annals (Pertz 1, 150. 295. 453. 498. 512. 570. 606. 2, 82),
in Otto fris. de gest. Frid. 2, 24, in Eadevicus 1, 25, who designates
it via Julii Caesaris, modo mons Jovis ; in AS. writers 7nunt Jofes
(Lye sub. v.), in ^Ifr. Boet. p. 150 muntgiow ; in our Kaiserchro-
nik 88^^ nionte job. — The name and the worship carry us back to
the time of the Komans ; the inhabitants of the Alps worshipped
a Fenimis deus, or a Pcnina dea : i^eque montibus his ab transitu
Poenorum ullo Veragri, incolae jugi ejus norunt nomen inditum,
sed al3 eo (al. deo) quem in summo sacratum vertice -peninum
montani adpellant ; Livy 31, 38. Quamvis legatur a poenina dea
quae ibi colitur Alpes ipsas vocari ; Servius on Virg. Aen. 10, 13.
An inscription found on the St Bernard (Jac. Spon miscellanea
antiq. Lugd. 1685, p. 85) says expressly : Lucius Lucilius deo
Pcnino opt. max. donum dedit ; from which it follows, that this god
was understood to be no other than Jupiter. Conf. Jupiter apenni-
nus, Micali storia 131-5. Zev^; Kapaco^ occurs in Hesych. [Kapa
means head, and so does the Celtic ^^f?i., hen]. The classic writers
never use mons Jovis, and the tabula Antonini names only the
sumnms Penninus and the Penni lucus ; but between the 4th and
7th centuries Jovis mons seems to have taken the place of these,

1 Zeitschr. des hess. vereins 2, 139-142. Altd. blatt. 1, 288. Haupta
zeitschr. 1,26. Finnish: isainen panee (Kenval. 118-'), the lather thnnders.
To the Finns nl-ko signifies proavus, senex, and is a surname of the gods
Wainasnoinen and Ilniarinen. But also Ukko of itself denotes the thunder-
god (v. iui'ra). Among the Swedish Lapps aija is both aviis and touitrus (see


perhaps with reference [not so much to the old Eoman, as] to the
Gallic or even German sense which had then come to be attached
to the god's name. Eemember that German isarnodori on the Jura
mountains not far off (p. 80).^

Such names of mountains in Germany itself we may with
perfect safety ascribe to the worship of the native deity. Every
one knows the Donnersberg (mont Tonnerre) in the Ehine palatinate
on the borders of the old county of Falkenstein, between Worms,
Kaiserslautern and Kreuznach ; it stands as Thoneresberg in a doc.
of 869, Schannat hist, wormat. probat. p. 9. Another Thuneresberg
situate on the Diemel, in Westphalia, not far from Warburg, and
surrounded by the villages of Wormeln, Germete and Welda, is
first mentioned in a doc. of 1100, Schaten mon. paderb. 1, 649 ;
in the Mid. Ages it was still the seat of a great popular assize,
originally due, no doubt, to the sacredness of the spot : ' comes ad
Thunercsberhc ' (anno 1123), Wigands feme 222. comitia de Dionris-
berg (1105), Wigands arch. I. 1, 56. a judicio nostro Thonresberch
(1239), ib. 58. Precisely in the vicinity of this mountain stands the
holy oak mentioned on p. 72-4, just as the roh/r Joris by Geismar
in Hesse is near a Wuotansberg, p. 152. To all appearance the tAvo
deities could be worshipped close to one another. The Kniillge-
birge in Hesse includes a Donnerkaute. In the Bernerland is a
Donnei'buhcl (doc. of 1303, Joh. Miiller 1, 619), called Tonrbiil in
Justingers Berner chron. p. 50. Probably more Donnersbergs are
to be found in other parts of Germany. One in the Eegensburg
country is given in a doc. of 882 under the name of Tuniesberg,
Eied, cod. dipl. num. 60. A Sifridus marschalcus de Donnersperch
is named m a doc. of 1300, MB. 33, pars 1, p. 289 ; an Otto de
Donersperg, MB. 4, 94 (in 1194), but Duonesberc, 4, 528 (in 1153),
and Tunniesberg 11, 432. In the Thiiringer wald, between Steui-

1 This mons Jovis must be distinguished from mons gaudii, by which the
Mid. Ages meant a height near Rome : Otto frising 1. c. 2, 22 ; the Kaiserchr.
88^ translates it verbally mendelberc. In Romance poems of the 12- 13th
centuries, monjoie is the French battle-cry, generally with the addition of St
Denis, e.g. monjoya, monjoya sant Denis ! Ferabras 365. monjoie errseigne S.
Denis ! Garin 108. Ducange in his 11th dissertation on Joinville declares
monjoie inadmissible as a mere diminutive of mont, since in other passages
(Roquefort 2, 207) it denotes any place of joy and bliss, a paradise, so that we
can fairly keep to the literal sense ; and there must have been mountains of
this name in more than one region. It is quite possible that monjoie itself
came from an earlier monjove (mons Jovis), that with the god's hill there
associated itself the idea of a mansion of bliss (see Sup pi.).


bach and Oberhof, at the 'rennsteig' is a Donershauk (see Suppl.).
— A Donarcs eih, a rohur Jovis, was a tree specially sacred to the
god of lightning, and of these there grew an endless abundance in
the German forests.

Neither does Scandinavia lack mountains and rocks bearing the
name of Thorr : Thors Jdint in East Gothland (conf. Wildegren's
Ostergotland 1, 17); Tliorsborg in Gothland, Molbech tidskr. 4, 189.
From Norway, where this god was pre-eminently honoured, I have
nevertheless heard of none. The peasant in Vermland calls the
south-west corner of the sky, whence the summer tempests mostly
rise, Thorshala (-hole, cave, Geijer's Svearikes hafder 1, 268).

And the Thunder-mountains of the Slavs are not to be over-
looked. Near Milleschau in Bohemia stands a Hromolan, from
hrom, thunder, in other dialects grom. One of the steepest moun-
tains in the Styrian Alps (see Suppl.) is Grwiming, i.e., SI. germnik,
OSl. gr"mnik, thunder-hill (Sloven, gr'mi, it thunders, Serv. gi'mi,
Ptuss. grom gremit, quasi ^pojxo^ ^pe/jiet) ; and not far from it is a
rivulet named Donnershach} The Slavs then have two different
words to express the phenomenon and the god: the latter is in OSl.
Penln, Pol. Piorun, Boh. Pcraun f- among the Southern Slavs it
seems to have died out at an earlier time, though it is still found in
derivatives and names of places. Dobrowsky (inst. 289) traces the
word to the verb peru, ferio, quatio [general meaning rather pello,
to push], and this tolerably apt signification may have contributed
to twist the word out of its genuine form.^ I think it has dropt a
k : the Lithuanian, Lettish and OPrussian thundergod is Perkunas,
Pehrhons, Pcrhunos, and a great many names of places are com-
pounded with it. Lith., Perkunas grauja (P. thunders), Perkunas
musza (P. strikes, ferit) ; Lett., Pehrkons sperr (the lightning
strikes, see Suppl.). The Slav, perun is now seldom applied
personally, it is used chiefly of the lightning's flash. Procopius (de
Bello Goth. 3, 14) says of the Sclaveni and Antes: deov fj,ev <yaf}
eva Tov ri]^ aa t p airi] <; Sr]ixLovp<yov airdvTWV Kvpiov /xovov avTov

^ Kindermann, abriss von Steiermark pp. 66, 67, 70, 81.

' The Slovaks say Parom, and ixiromova strela (P.'s bolt) for perunova ;
phrases about Parom, from Kollar, in Hanusuh 259, 260.

3 Mif,'ht perun be connected with Kepawus = irfpawos 1 Still nearer to
Perun would seem to be the Sansk. Farjanyas, a name borne by Indra as
Jupiter pluvius, literally, fertilizing rain, thunder-cloud, thunder. A hymn to
this rain-s^od in Eosen's Vedae specimen p. 23. Coui'. Hitzig PhiUst. 296, and
Holtzmauul, 112, 118.


vo/xi^oucTiv eivaty Kat Ovovaiv avrut ^6a<; re kol lepeca cnrdvra.
Again, the oak was consecrated to Perun, and old documents define
boundaries by it (do perunova duha, as far as P.'s oak) ; and the
Eomans called the the SLCovnjuglans, «.e.j"oviglans, Jovis glans, the
fi'uit of the fatherly god. Lightning is supposed to strike oaks by
preference (see SuppL).

Now PcrJcun suggests that thundergod of the Morduins, Porguini
(p. 27), and, what is more worthy of note, a Gotliic word also,
which (I grant), as used by Ulphilas, was already stript of all per-
sonification. The neut. noun fairguni (Gramm. 2, 175. 453)
means opos, mountain.^ What if it were once especially the
Thunder-mountain, and a lost Fairguns the name of the god (see
Suppl.) ? Or, starting with fairguni with its simple meaning of
mons unaltered, may we not put into that masc. Fairguns or Fai'r-
gimeis, and consequently into Perkunas, the sense of the above-
mentioned uKpio^, he of the mountain top ? a fitting surname for
the thundergod. Fergunna, ending like Patunna, p. 71, signifies
ill the Chron. moissiac. anno 805 (Pettz 1, 308) not any particular
spot, but the metal-mountains (erzgebirge) ; and Virgunnia (Vir-

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