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that strikes with the hanuner. In tlie same way : ' dat is en
Ha7ner, en hamerskcn kerl,' a rascally impudent cheats de Hamcr
kennt se all ! the devil may know them all, Schiitze 2, 96. Hem-
merlein, meister Hdmmerkin, signified the evil spirit. Consider also
the curses which couple the two names ; donner und teujd ! both
of which stood for the ancient god. By gammel Tlwr, old Thor, the
common people in Denmark mean the devil; in Sweden they long
protested by Thore gud. The Lithuanians worshipped an enormous
hammer, Seb. Frankes weltbuch 55^ (see SuppL).

It must have been at an earlier stage that certain attributes
and titles of the Saviour, and some Judeo-christian legends, were
transferred to the heathen god, and particularly the myth of Leviathan
to lornmngandr. As Christ by his death overmastered the monster
serpent (Barl. 78, 39 to 79, 14), so Thorr overcomes the miGgarSs-
orni (-worm, snake that encircles the world), and similar epithets
are given to both.'^ Taking into account the resemblance between
the sign of the cross and that of the hammer, it need not seem
surprising that the newly converted Germans should under the
name of Christ still have the lord of thunder and the giver of rain
present to their minds ; and so a connexion with Mary the Mother
of God (p. 174) could be the more easily established. The earliest
troubadour (Diez p. 15. Raynouard 4, 83) actually names Christ
still as the lord of thunder, Jliesus del tro.

A Neapolitan fairy-tale in the Pentamerone 5, 4 personifies
thunder and lightning {truone e lampe) as a beautiful youth, brother
of seven spinning virgins, and son of a wicked old mother who
knows no higher oath than ' pe truone e lampe '. Without assert-
ing any external connexion between this tradition and the German

1 Brem. wtb. 2, 575. dat di de hamer sla ! Strodtm. p. 80, conf. Schm. 2, 192.
the hammer, or a great hammer strike you ! Abeles kihistl. imordn. 4, 3. Ge-
richtsh. 1, 673. 2, 79. 299. 382. verhamert diir, kolt, Schiitze 2, 96 = verdonnert,
verteufelt, bksted, cursed, &c. How deeply the worship of the god had taken
root among the people, is proved by these abnost ineradicable curses, once
solemn protestations : donner ! donnerwetter ! heiliges gewitter (holy thunder-
storm) ! And, adding the christian symbol : kreuz donnerwetter ! Then,
euphemistically disguised : bim (by the) dummer, potz dummer ! dummer
auch ! Slutz 1,123. 2, 161-2. 3, 56. bim dummer hammer 3, 51. bim dumstig,
dunnstig ! as in Hesse : donnerstag ! bim /tamer .' In Flanders : bi Vids morkel
hamer! Willem's vloeken, p. 12.

2 Finn Magnusen lex. 48 4-5.


one,^ we discover in it the same idea of a kind and beneficent, not
a hostile and fiendish god of thunder.

The large beetle, which we call stag-beetle or fire-beetle, lucanus
cervus, taurus (ch. XXI, beetles), is in some districts of South Ger-
many named don7ier<jue(j, donncrgu(/c, donnerpuiype (gueg, guegi,
beetle), perhaps because he likes to live in oak-trees, the tree sacred
to thunder. For he also bears the name eichochs, Swed. ekoxe (oak-
ox); but then again feuerschroter, iurbuter (fire-beeter, -z'.e. kindler),^
borner or haus-brenner (-burner), whicli indicates his relation to
thunder and lightning. It is a saying, that on his horns he carries
redhot coals into a roof, and sets it alight; more definite is the
belief mentioned in Aberglaube, p. xcvi, that lightning will strike a
house into which this beetle is carried. In Swed. a beetle is still
named horntroll (see Suppl.).

Among herbs and plants, the following are to be specially noted :
the donnerbart, stonecrop or houseleek, sempervivum tectoruni,
which, planted on the roof, protects from the lightning's stroke^ :
harba Jovis vulgari more vocatur (Macer Floridus 741), Fr. Joubarbc
(conf. Append, p. Iviii); — the donnerbescn (-besom), a shaggy tangled
nest-like growth on boughs, of which superstition ascribes the gen-
eration to lightning ; otherwise called alpruthe ; — the donnerJcraut,
sedum; — the donncrjhifj, fumaria bulbosa; — the donncrdistd, eryng-
ium campestre; — the Dan. tordcnskreppe, burdock. — The South Slavs
caU the iris perunik, Perun's flower, while the Lettons call our

^ How comes the Ital. to have a trono (Neap, truono, Span, trueno) by the
side of tuono l and the Provenral a Irons with the same meaning % Has the R
.sliptin from our donar, or still better from the Goth, drunjus, sonus, Rom. 10,
18 (conf. dronen, 'cymbal's droning sound' of Dryden) ] or did the Lat. thronva
pass into the sense of sky and thunder? ' forclist nicht, wanns tonnert, eiu
tron werd vom himmel fallen ? ' Garg. 181'^. The troubadour's ' Jhesus del tro '
might then simply mean lord of the tirmament.

- * I wol dou sacritice, and lyres beete,' Chaucer. Hence beetle itself ] AS.
bytel. — Trans.

3 A Provencal troubadour, quoted by Raynouard sub v. barbajol, says : e da-
quel erba tenon pro li vilan sobra lur maiso. Beside this hauswurz (hauswurzcl,
Superst. 60), the hatdhorn, albaspina, is a safeguard against lightning (Mem.
del' acad. celt. 2, 212), as the laurel was among the ancient Romans, or the
tohite vine planted round a house; conf. brennessel (Superst. 3;3()) ; ^palni hranchc^
laid upon coals, lighted candles, a tire made on the hearth, are good ibr a
thunderstorm,' Braunschw. anz. 17G0, p. 1392. The crossbill too is a protector
(Superst. 335) ; because his beak forms the sign of the cross or hammer ] but
the nest-making redbreast or redstart appears to attract lightning (ch. XXI,
redbreast ; Superst. 629. 704) ; was he, because of his red plumage, sacred to
the redbearded god 1 (see Suppl.).


hedericli (ground-ivy? hedge-mustard?) pehrJcones; Perunika is also,
like Iris, a woman's name. The oak above all trees was dedicated
to the Thunderer (pp. 67, 72): quercics Jovi placuit, Phaedr. 3, 17 ;
magna Jovis antiquo robore quercus, Virg. Georg. 3, 332. At
Dodona stood the Spv^ v^lkoixo^ J/.o?, Od. 14, 327. 19, 297, but at
Troy the lieech often named in the Iliad: ^7770? v-\lr7]\7] zJto? alyio-x^oco,
5, 693. 7, 60. A particular kind of oak is in Servian grm, and
grmik is quercetum, no doubt in close connexion wdth groin
(tonitrus), grmiti or grmlieti (tonare). The acorn is spoken of
above, p. 177.

Apparently some names of the snipe (scolopax gallinago) have
to do with this subject : donncrziegc (-goat), donnerstagspfcrd
(Thursday horse), himmelsziege (capella coelestis) ; because he seems
to bleat or whinny in the sky ? But he is also the ivcathcrhird,
stormbird, rainbird, and his flight betokens an approaching thunder-
storm. Dan. myreliest, Swed. horsgjok, Icel. hrossagaukr, horsegowk
or cuckoo, from his neighing; the first time he is heard in the year,
he prognosticates to men their fate (Biorn sub v.) ; evidently
superstitious fancies cling to the bird. His Lettish name pehrhona
kasa, pehrhona ahsis (thunder's she-goat and he-goat) agrees exactly
with the German. In Lithuanian too, Mielcke 1, 294. 2, 271
gives Perhuno ozhys as heaven's goat, for which another name is
tikkutis. — Kannes, pantheum p. 439, thinks the name donners-
tagspfcrd belongs to the goat itself, not to the bird ; this would be
welcome, if it can be made good. Some confirmation is found in
the AS. firgengcct (ibex, rupicapra, chamois), and firginhucca (capri-
cornus), to which would correspond an OHG. virgungeiz, virgun-
pocch ; so that in these the analogy of fairguni to Donar holds
good. The wild creature that leaps over rocks would better become
the god of rocks than the tame goat. In the Edda, Thorr has
he-goats yoked to his thunder-car : between these, and the weather-
fowl described by turns as goat and horse (always a car-drawing
beast), there might exist some half-obscured link of connexion (see
Suppl.). It is significant also, that the devil, the modern repre-
sentative of the thunder god, has the credit of having created goats,
both he and she ; and as Thorr puts away the bones of his goats
after they have been picked, that he may bring them to life again
(Sn. 49. 50),i so the Swiss shepherds believe that the goat has
1 The myth of the slaughtered goats brought to life again by hammer-coiise-

THUNAT?. 185

something of the devil in her, she was made by him, and her feet
especially smack of their origin, and are not eaten, Tobler 214^
Did the German tlmndergod in particular have hc-goats arid she-
f/oats sacrificed to him (supra, p. 52) ? The Old Roman or Etruscan
hidental (from bidens, lamb) signifies the place where lightning had
struck and killed a man : there a lamb had to be sacrificed to
Jupiter, and the man's body was not burned, but buried (Plin. 2,
54). If the Ossetes and Circassians in exactly the same way offer
a goat over the body killed by lightning, and elevate the hide on a
pole (supra, p. 174), it becomes the more likely by a great deal that
the goat-offering of the Langobards was intended for no other than
Donar. For hanging tip hides was a Langobardish rite, and was
practised on other occasions also, as will presently be shown. In
Carinthia, cattle struck by lightning are considered sacred to God ;
no one, not even the poorest, dares to eat of them (Sartoris reise 2,

Other names of places compounded with that of the thundergod,
besides the numerous Donnersbergs already cited, are forthcoming
in Germany. Near Oldenburg lies a village named Donnerschwee,

oration, and of tlie hoar Ssehrimnir (Sn. 42) being boiled and eaten every day
and coming whole again every evening, seems to re-appear in more than one
shape. In Wolf's Wodana, p. xxviii, the following passage on witches in
Ferrara is quoted from Barthol. de Spina (t 1546), quaestio de strigibus :
Dicunt etiam, quod postquam comederunt aliquem pinguem bovem vel aliquam
vegetem, vino vel arcani seu cophinuin panibus evacuarunt et consunipserunt
ea vorantes, doniina \\\v\ iiercutit aurea virga quam manugestat ea vasavel locu,
et statim ut prius plena sunt vini vel panis ac si nihil iude fuisset assumptum.
Similiter congeri jubet ossa morttii bovis su-per corixmi ejus extensnm, ipsumque per
quatuor partes super ossa revolvens virgaque percutierts, vivuni bovem reddit ut
prius, ac reducendum jubet ad locum suum. The diabolical witches' meal
very well matches that of the thundergod. But we are also told in legends,
that the saint, after eating up a cock, reanimated it out of the bones ; and so
early as parson Amis, we find the belief made use of in playing-off a deception
(1. 969 seq.). Folk-tales relate how a magician, after a Jisli had been eaten, threw
the bones into water, and the fish came alive again. As with these eatable
creatures, so in other tales there occurs the reanimation of persons who have
been cut to pieces : in the marchen vom Machandelbom (juniper-tree) ; in the
myth of Zeus and Tantalus, where tlie shoulder of Pelops being devoured by
Demeter (Ovid 6, 406) reminds us of the he-goat's leg-bone being split for the
marrow, and remaining lame after he came to life again ; in the myth of Osiris
and St Adalljert (Temme p. 3;J) ; conf. 1)S. no. 62, and Ezekiel .37. Then in
the eighth Finnish rune, Lemminkaimen's mother gathei-s all the limbs of his
dismembered body, and makes them live again. "The fastening of heads that
have been chopped off to their trunks, in Waltharius 11 f)? (conf. p. 93) seems
to imply a belief in their reanimation, and agrees with a circumstance in
Morske eventyr pp. 199, 201.


formerly Donerswe,^ Donnerswehe, Donnerswede (Kohli handb. von
Oldenb. 2, 55), which reminds us of OSinsve, Wodeneswege (p. 151),
and leaves us equally in doubt whether to understand wih a
temple, or weg a way. The Norwegian folk-tale tells us of an
actual Thors vej (way, Faye p. 5). A village Donnersrcut is to be
found in Franconia towards Bohemia, a Donnersted in Theding-
hausen bailiwick, Brunswick, a Thunresfeld [Tliurfield] in AS.
documents, Kemble 2, 115. 195, 272, &c. &c.— Many in Scan-
dinavia, e.g., in Denmark, Torslunde (Thors lundr, grove), Tosingo
(Thors engi, ing) f several in Sweden, Tors mase (gurges) in a
boundary-deed of Ostergotland, Broocman 1, 15, TJiorshorg in Goth-
land, Gutalag p. 107. 260. Thorsbiorg (mountain) and Thorshofn
(haven) in Norway, Fornm. sog. 4, 12. 843 ; Thorsmork (wood, a
holy one ? ), Nialss. cap. 149. 150.^ Thors ncs (nose, cape), Sreni.
155^ and Eyrb. saga cap. 4 (see Suppl.). Thors bra (Thors brii,
bridge) in Schonen, like the Norwegian Thor's-way, leads us to
that prevalent belief in devil's bridges and other buildings, which
is the popular way of accounting for peculiarly shaped rocks,
precipices and steep mountain paths : only God or the devil could
have burst them so.

As a man's name, Donar in its simple form is rarely found ; one
noble family on the Ehine was named Bonner von Lorheim, Sieb-
mach. 5, 144. Its derivatives and compounds are not common in
any High Germ, dialect ; a Carolingian doc. in the Cod. lauresh.
no. 464 has Donarad, which I take to be the ON. Thorffr ; and the
Trad. fuld. 2, 23 AlUhonar, which is the ON. Thordlfr inverted.
Such name-formations are far more frequent in the North, where
the service of the god prevailed so long : Thorarr (OHG.
Donarari ? ), Thorir, Thord'r, Thorhallr, Thordlfr (OS. Thunerulf in
Calend. merseb. Septemb.), Thoroddr, and the feminines Thorn,
Thorun, Thorarna (formed like diorna, Gramm. 2, 336), Thorhxtla,
IVidi'hildr, Thordis, &c. I cannot see why the editors of the Forn-
manna sogur deprive such proper names as Thorgeirr, Thorhiorn,

^ ' to Donersice, dar heft cle herscup den tegeiiden (teind, tithe),' Land-
register of 1428.

^ Others specified in Suhm, krit. hist. 2, 651.

^ The settlers in Iceland, when they consecrated a district to Thorr, named
it Thorsmork, Landn. 5, 2. ed. nova p. 343. From Donnersmark (Zschotcir
tokely) in the Hungarian county of Zips, comes the Silesian family of Henkel
von Donnersmark. Walacli. manura : die Donnersmarkf.


Thorsieinn, Tlioihdill, Thorvaldr, Thorfinnr, Thorgcrff)', &c. of tlieir
l()ii<^ vowel ; it is not the abstract J^or, audacia, that they are com-
pounded witli, and the Nialssaga, e.g. cap. 65, spells IVw/'geiiT,
^/idrkatla. — The frequent name Thorketill, abbrev. Thorkell, Dan,
Torkild, AS. Turketulus, Thurkytel (Kemble 2, 286, 349. v. suprn,
\>. 63), if it signifies a kettle, a vessel, of the thundergod, resembles
Wuotan's sacrificial cauldron (p. 56). The HymisqviSa sings of
Thorr fetching a huge cauldron for the ases to brew ale with, and
wearing it on his head, Saem. 57 ; which is very like the strong
man Hans (ans, as ? ) in the nursery-tale clapping the church bell
on his head for a cap. — The coupling of Alp (elf) with Donar in
Albthonar and Thoralfr is worthy of notice, for alpgcschoss (elf-shot)
is a synonym for the thunderbolt, and Alpruthe (elf-rod) for the
donnerkraut [donnerbesen ? see p. 183]. An intimate relation must
subsist between the gods and the elves (p. 180), though on the part
of the latter a subordinate one (see Suppl.).^

It is observable that in different lays of the Edda Thorr goes
by different names. In Lokaglepsa and HarbardslioS he is ' Thorr,
Asa]?6rr,' but in Hamarsheimt ' Vingjwrr, HlorriSi' (yet Thorr as well),
in Alvismtll always ' Ving};6rr,' in HymisqviSa 'Veorr, HlorriSi,' not
to mention the periphrases vagna verr (curruum dominus), Sifjar verr,
OSins sonr. Illorriffl was touched upon in p. 167, note. Vingthurr
they derive from Vfengr, ala ; as if Wing-thunder, the winged one.
aiira quatiens ? This appears to be far from certain, as he is else-
where called fostri Vingnis, Sn. 101, and in the genealogies this
Vingnir appears by the side of him. Especially important is
Veorr, which outside of HymisqviSa is only found once, Sa3m. 9^,
and never except in the nom. sing. ; it belongs doubtless to ve,
wih, and so betokens a holy consecrated being, distinct from the
Ve, gen. Vea on p. 163 ; the OHG. form must have been Wihor,
Wihar ? (see Suppl.).

As OSinn was represented journeying abroad, to the Eastern land
(p. 163), so is Thorr engaged in eastward travels : Thorr var i
austrvegi, Saem. 59, a austrvega 68* ; for or austrvegi, 75 ; ec var
austr, 78*'^ ; anstrforom Jjinom scaltu aldregi segja seggjom fra, 68*.
In these journeys he fought with and slew the giants : var haim

1 To the Bori;\t Mongols beyond L. Baikal, fairy-rings in f^rass are "where
the sons of tlie Ivjldninfj have danced." — Trans.


f((rinn i anstcrvcg at berja troll, Sn. 46. And tliis again points to
the ancient and at that time still unforgotten connexion of the
Teutonic nations with Asia ; this ' faring east-ways ' is told of
other heroes too, Sn. 190. 363 ; e.g., the race of the Skilfingar is
expressly placed in that eastern region (sii kynsloS er i austrve-
gum), Sn. 193 ; and lotunheim, the world of the giants, was there

Tlwrr was considered, next to OSinn, the mightiest and strongest
of all the gods ; the Edda makes him OSin's son, therein differing
entirely from the Eoman view, which takes Jupiter to be Mercury's
father ; in pedigrees, it is true, Thorr does appear as an ancestor of
OSinn. Thorr is usually named immediately after OSinn, some-
times before him, possibly he was feared more than OSinn (see
SuppL). In ^axo Gramm., Eegner confesses : Se, Thor deo excepto,
nullam monstrigenae virtutis potentiam expavere, cujus (sc. Thor)
virium magnitudini nihil humanarum divinarumque rerum digna
possit aequalitate conferri. He is the true national god of the
Norwegians, landds (patrium numen), Egilss. p. 365-6, and when
ass stands alone, it means especially him, e.g., Saem. 70=^, as indeed
the very meaning of ans (jugum mentis) agrees with that of Fair-
guneis. His temples and statues were the most numerous in
Norway and Sweden, and dsmcgin, divine strength, is understood
chiefly of him. Hence the heathen religion in general is so
frequently expressed by the simple Thor biota, Srem. 113^, het
(called) d Thor, Landn. 1,12, truffi (believed) d Thor, Landn. 2, 12.
He assigns to emigrants their new place of abode : Thorr visaffb
honum (shewed him), Landn. 3, 7 3, 12. From the Landnamabok
we could quote many things about the worship of Thorr: ]?ar
stendr enn Thors steinn, 2, 12. ganga til fretta viS Thor, 3, 12.
Thorr is worshipped most, and Freyr next, which agrees with the
names Thorvi&r and Freyvi&r occurring in one family line 2, 6 ;
viSr is wood, does it here mean tree, and imply a priestly function?
OSinviSr does not occur, but Tyvi&r is the name of a plant, ch.
XXXVII. It is Thor's hammer that hallows a mark, a marriage,
and the runes, as we find plainly stated on the stones. I show in
ch. XXXIII how Thorr under various aspects passed into the
devil of the christians, and it is not surprising if he acquired
some of the clumsy boorish nature of the giant in the process, for
the giants likewise were turned into fiends. The foe and pursuer


of all giants in the time of the Ases, he himself appeared a lubber
to the christians ; he throws stones for a wager with giants (conf.
eh. XVIII). But even in the Eddie ThrymsqviSa, he eats and
drinks immoderately like a giant, and the Norwegian folk-tale
makes him take up cask after cask of ale at the wedding, Fay e p. 4;
conf. the proverb : mundi enginn Asathor afdrecka (outdrink).
Conversely, the good-natured old giant Thrymr is by his very name
a Donar (conf. ch. XVIII). The delightful story of the hobergs-
gubbe (old man of the mountain, giant) was known far and wide in
the North : a poor man invites him to stand godfather to his child,
but he refuses to come on hearing that TJwr or Tordenveir is also a
bidden guest (conf. ch. XVIII) ; he sends however a handsome
present (conf. Afzelius 2, 1 58. JMolbech's eventyr no. 62, F. Magn.
p. 935). In spite of all divergences, there appears in the structure
of this fable a certain similarity to that of Gossip Death, ch. XXVII,
for death also is a devil, and consequently a giant ; conf. Miillen-
hoff, schl. hoist, p. 289. That is why some of the old tales which
still stood their ground in the christian times try to saddle him
with all that is odious, and to make him out a diabolic being of a
M'orse kind than OGinn; conf, Gautrekssaga p. 13. Finnr drags
the statue of Thorr to King Olafr, splits and burns it up, then
mixes the ashes in furmety and gives it to dogs to devour ; * 'tis
meet that hounds eat Thorr, who his own sons did eat,' Fornm. sog.
2, 163. This is a calumny, the Edda knows of no sucli thing, it
relates on the contrary that M65i and Magni outlived their father
(see Suppl.), Several revived sagas, like that of the creation of
wolves and goats, transform Wuotan into the good God, and Donar
into the devil

From the time they became acquainted with the Homan
theogony, the writers identify the German thundergod with
Jupiter. Not only is dies Jovis called in AS. Thunresd?eg, but
Latona Jovis mater is Thunrcs modur , and capitoliuni is trans-
lated Thorshoi by the Icelanders. Conversely, Saxo Gram. p. 23()
means by his 'Jupiter ' the Teutonic Thor, the Jupiter ardens above
(p. 110) ; did that mean Donar "^ As for that Thorr devouring his
children, it seems [a mere importation, aggravated by] a down-
riglit confusion of Jupiter with his fatlier Saturn, just as the Norse
genealogy made Thorr an ancestor of OSinn. Tlie ' presbyter Jovi


mactans/ and the ' sacra ' and ' feriae Jovis ' (in Indicul. pagan,)
have been dealt with above, p. 121.

Letzner (hist. Caroli magni, Hildesh. 1G03, cap. 18 end) relates:
The Saturday after Laetare, year by year, cometh to the little
cathedral-close of Hildesheim a farmer thereunto specially ap-
pointed, and bringeth hco logs of a fathom long, and therewith two
lesser logs pointed in the manner of skittles. The two greater he
planteth in the ground one against the other, and a-top of them
the skittles. Soon there come hastily together aU manner of lads
and youth of the meaner sort, and with stones or staves do pelt the
skittles down from the logs ; other do set the same up again, and
the pelting beginneth a-new, By these skittles are to be under-
stood the devilish gods of the heathen, that were thrown down by
the Saxon-folk when they became christian.

Here the names of the gods are suppressed,^ but one of them
must have been Jupiter then, as we find it was afterwards.^ Among
the farmer's dues at Hildesheim there occurs down to our own
times a Jupitergeld. Under this name the village of Grossen-
Algermissen had to pay 12 g. grosch. 4 pfen. yearly to the sexton
of the cathedral •, an Algermissen farmer had every year to bring to
the cathedral close an eight-cornered log, a foot thick and four
feet long, hidden in a sack. The schoolboys dressed it in a cloak
and crown, and attacked the Japitcr as they then called it, by
throwing stones first from one side, then from the other, and at
last they burnt it. This popular festivity was often attended with
disorder, and was more than once interdicted, pickets were set to
carry the prohibition into effect; at length the royal treasury
remitted the Jupiter's geld. Possibly the village of Algermissen
had incurred the penalty of the due at the introduction of Christi-
anity, by its attachment to the old religion.^ Was the pelting of

1 In the Corbel chron., Hamb. 1590, cap. 18, Letzner thinks it was the god
of the Irmensul. He refers to MS. accounts by Con. Foutanus, a Helmers-
haus Benedictine of the 13th century.

^ A Hiklesheim register di-awn up at the end of the 14th century or
beginn. of the 15th cent, says : ' De abgotter (idols), so sunnabends vor laetare
(Letzn. ' sonnab. imch laet.') von einem hausniann von Algermissen gesetzet,
davor (for which) ihm eine hofe (hufe, hide) landes gehort zur sankmeisterie
(chantry ?), iind wie solches von dem hausmann nicht gesetzt worden, gehort
Cantori de liove landes.' Hannoversche landesblatter 1833, p. 30.

3 Liintzel on farmers' burdens in Hildesheim 1830, p. 205. Hannov. mag.
1833, p. 693. Protocols of 1742-3 in an article ' On the Stoning of Jupiter,'
Hannov. landesbl., ubi supra.


the logs to express contempt ? In Swit;^erland the well-known
throwing of stones on the water is called Heidcn werfen, heathen-
pelting ; otherwise : ' den Herrgott losen, vater nnd mutter losen,'
releasing, ransoming ? Tobler 174*^ (see Suppl.).

I do not pretend to think it at all established, that this Jupiter
can be traced back to the TImnar of the Old Saxons. The custom is
only vouched for by protocols of the last century, and clear evidence

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