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of it before that time is not forthcoming; but even Letzner's account,
differing as it does, suggests a very primitive practice of the people,
which is worth noting, even if Jupiter has nothing to do with it.
The definite date ' laetare ' reminds one of the custom universal in
Germany of 'driving out Death,' of which I shall treat hereafter,
and in which Death is likewise set up to be pelted. Did the
skittle represent the sacred hammer ?

An unmistakable relic of the worship paid to the thunder-god
is the special observance of Thursday, which was not extinct
among the people till quite recent times. It is spoken of in quite
early documents of the Mid. Ages : ' nuUus diem Jovis in otio
observet,' Aberglaube p. xxx. 'de feriis quae faciunt Jovi vel
Mercurio,' p. xxxii. quintam feriam in honorem Jovis honorasti,
p. xxxvii. On Thursday evening one must neither spin nor hew ;
Superst., Swed. 55. 110. and Germ. 517. 703. The Esthonians
think Thursday holier than Sunday.^ What punishment overtook
the transgressor, may be gathered from another superstition, which,
it is true, substituted the hallowed day of Christ for that of Donar :
He that shall work on Trinity Sunday (the next after Pentecost),
or shall wear anything sewed or knitted (on that day), shall be
stricken by thunder ; Scheffer's Haltaus, p. 225 (see Suppl.).

If Jupiter had these lionours paid him in the 8tli century, if
the Capitulare of 743 thought it needful expressly to enjoin an ' ec
forsacho Thunarc,' and much that related to his service remained
uneradicated a long time after ; it cannot well be doubted, that at
a still earlier time he was held by our forefathers to be a real god,
and one of their greatest.

If we compare him with Wuotan, though the latter is more
intellectual and elevated, Donar has the advantage of a sturdy
material strength, which was the very thing to recommend him to

^ Etwas iibcr die Elisten, pp. 13-4.


the peculiar veneration of certain races ; prayers, oaths, curses
retained his memory oftener and longer than that of any other
god. But only a part of the Greek Zeus is included in him.


The ON", name for dies Martis, Tysdagr, has the name of tlie
Eddie god Tyr (gen. Tys, ace. Tj) to account for it. The AS.
Tiwesdseg and OHG. Ziestac scarcely have the simple name of the
god left to keep them company, but it may be safely inferred from
them : it must have been in AS. Tiio} in OHG. Zio. The runic
letter Tl, ZiiL, will be discussed further on. The Gothic name for the
day of the week is nowhere to be found ; according to all analogy
it would be Tivisdags, and then the god himself can only have been
called Tilts. These forms, Tiu-s, Tiw, Trj-r, Zio make a series like
the similar J?iu-s, J?eow (]?iw), ]?y-r, dio = puer, servus.

If the idea of our thundergod had somewhat narrow limits, that
of Zio lands us in a measureless expanse. The non-Teutonic
cognate [Aryan] languages confront us with a multitude of terms
belonging to the root div, which, while enabling us to make up
a fuller formula div, tiv, zio, yield the meanings ' brightness, sky,
day, god '. Of Sanskrit words, dyaus (coelum) stands the closest
to the Greek and German gods' names Zeu?, Tins.

Greek. Gothic.

Zev<i Tius

Zev Tiu

Alfa, Ala Tiu

Aif6<;, Aio<; Tivis

AlFi., All Tiva

To the digammated and older form of the Greek oblique cases
there corresponds also the Latin Jovcm, Jovis, Jovi, for which we

^ It might have been TeoAV, from the analogy of l^eow to ]j<!t. Lye quotes,
without references : ?'«>/, Mars, Tiiges- vel Tiis-daeg, dies Martis. The Epinal
glosses lironght to light l)y ]\Ione actually furnish, no. 520 (Anzeiger 18.38, p.
145), Tiirj, Mars ; also Oeliler p. 351 . The change of letters is like that of briig,
jnsculuni, for briw ; and we may at least infer from it, that the vowel is long,













194 zio.

must assume a nom. Ju, Jus, though it has survived only in the
compound Jupiter = Jus pater, Zeu9 irarrip. For, the initial in
Jus, Jovis [pronounce j as y] seems to be a mere softening of the
fuller dj in Djus, Djovis, wliich has preserved itself in Dijovis, just
as Zeu9 presupposes an older Jey? which was actually preserved in
the ^olic dialect. These Greek and Latin words likewise contain
the idea of the heavenly god, i.e., a personification of the sky.
Dium, divum is the vault of heaven, and Zeus is the son of heaven,
Ovpavov vio^, ovpduio<;, Zev<; aWepi vaiwv (see Suppl.).

But apart from 'dyaus, Zeus and Jupiter,' the three common nouns
devas (Sansk.), 6e6<i and deus express the general notion of a
divinity ; they are related to the first three, yet distinct from them.
The Lat, deus might seem to come nearest to our Tins, Zio ; but
its u, like the o in 6e6<;, belongs to the flexion, not to the root, and
therefore answers to the a in devas.^ Nevertheless deus too must
have sprung from devus, and 6e6<i from 6eF6<i, because the very 6
instead of S in the Greek word is accounted for by the reaction of
the digamma on the initial. In the shortness of their e they both
differ from devas, whose e (=ai) grew by guna out of i, so that the
Lith. dievas comes nearer to it.^ But the adjectives 8409 (not from
S/io?, but rather for Sifo?) and divus correspond to devas as dives
divitis (p. 20) to devatas (deus). This approximation between divus
and deus serves to confirm the origin of deus out of devus or divus
with short i (see Suppl.)^, Still more helpful to us is the fact that
the Edda has a plur. tivar meaning gods or heroes. Stem. 30^ 41^ ;
rikir tivar (conf. rich god, p. 20), Sam. 72^ Qo'^ ; valtivar, 52=^ ;
sigtivar, 189* 248=^ ; the sing, is not in use. This tivar, though not
immediately related to Tyr, yet seems related to it as Sto?, 6e6<i,
Oelo'i are to Zeu? ; its i is established by the fact that the ON.
dialect contracts a short iv into y ; thus we obtain by the side of
tiv a tiv, in Sanskrit by the side of div a dev, and in Latin by the
side of deus a divus, these being strengthened or guna forms of the

1 Kiilin, in Zeitschr. f. cl. alt. 2, 231, has rightly pointed out, that Zio can
be immediately related only to dyaus and Zevs, not to deus and deos ; but he
ought to have admitted that mediately it must be related to these last also.
That div was the root of Zeus, had aheady been shown by 0. Miiiler in Gott.
anz. 1834, pp. 79o-6.

^ Conf. piemu iroifiriv, and kiemas ku/xtj haims.

3 If, as hinted on p. 26, 8'ios deus were conn, with Se'co, the notion of bind-
ing must have arisen hrst out of the divine band, which is hardly conceivable.

zio. 195

root div, tiv (splendcre).'^ If the earthborn Tuisco, the ancestral
god of our nation, stands (as Zeuss p. 72 has acutely suggested) for
Tivisco, Tiusco, it shews on its very face the meaning of a divine
heavenly being, leaving it an open question whether we will choose
to understand it of Wuotan or any other god, barring always Tius
himself, from whom it is derived (see Suppl.).

The light of day is a notion that borders on that of heaven, and
it was likewise honoured with personification as a god : Lucetiuni
Jovem appellabant, quod eum lucis esse causam credebant ; Festus
sub V. To begin with, dies (conf. interdiu, dio) is itself connected
with deus and divus ; Jupiter was called Diespiter, ic.,diei pater,
for the old gen. was dies. Then the word in the sing, fluctuates
between the masc. and fem. genders; and as the masc. Ju, Dju with
the suffix n, is shaped into the fem. forms Juno for Jovino, Djovino,
and Diana, just so the Lith. name for day, diena, is fem., while the
Slav, den, dzien, dan, is masc. The Teutonic tongues have no word
for sky or day taken from this root, but we can point to one in
Crreek : Creteuses Aia ttjv rj^iepav vocant (call the day Zeus), ipsi
quoque Eomani Diespitrem appellant, ut diei patreni ; Macrob.
Sat. 1, 15. The poetic and Doric forms Zrjva, Zrjvoq, Zrjvi, and
Zava, Zav6<;, Zavl, for Aia, Ato^, Au, correspond to the above
formations f and the Etruscans called Jupiter Tina, i.e. Dina ; 0.
Miiller 2, 43 (see Suppl.).

A derivative from the same root with another suffix seems to
present itself in the ON. tivor (deus ? ),^ Ssem. 6^, AS. tir, gen. tires
(tiir. Cod. exon. 331, 18 gloria, splendor), and OS. tir, gen. tiras, tireas;
with which I connect the OHG. ziori, ziari, zieri (splendiilus), and
the Lat. dccus, decor, decorus. The AS. poets use the wcfrd tir only
to intensify other words : tirmetod (deus gloriae, summus deus),
Ciedm. 143, 7 ; aisctir wera (hasta gloriosa virorum), 124, 27 ; jcsca
tir, 127, 10 ; tirwine, Boiith. metr. 25, 41 ; tirfruma, Cod. exon. 13,
21 ; tirmeahtig (potentissimus), 72, 1 ; tireadig (felicissimus),
Ccedm. 189, 13. 192, 16; tirfa^st (firmissimus), 64, 2. 189, 19;

1 Somelimcp!, thoiigh rarely, we find another ON. dlar, S;eni. 91'». Sn. 17G.
Yngl. saga cap. 2 ; it agrees with 6e6i more than with 5Ior.

^ We know to what shifts Socrates is driven in trying to explain the forms
Z^i/a and At'a (Plato's Cratylus p. 29, Bekker) ; 6e6s he derives from dtlv,
currere (p. 32).

* Or must wc read it tivor, and connect it with the AS. tifer, tiber, OHG.
7X'par ]

196 zio.

much in the same way as the AS. eormen, OIIG. irman is prefixed.
Now when a similar prefix t'§ meets us in the OaST. writings, e.g.
tyhraustr (fortissimus), tyspakr (sapientissimus), Sn. 29, it confirms
the afiinity between tir and Ty-r.

These intricate etymologies were not to be avoided : they
entitle us to claim a sphere for the Teutonic god Zio, Tiw, Tyr,
which places him on a level with the loftiest deities of antiquity.
Eepresented in the Edda as Oc5in's son, he may seem inferior to
him in power and moment ; but the two really fall into one, inas-
much as both are directors of war and battle, and the fame of
victory proceeds from each of them alike. For the olden time
resolved all glory into military glory, and not content with Wuotan
and Zio, it felt the need of a third war-god Hadu ; the finer distinc-
tions in their cultus are hidden from us now. — It is not to be over-
looked, that OSinn is often named Sigtyr, Hroptatyr, Gautatyr,
haugatyr, farmatyr (Seem. 30. 47. 248^ Sn. 94-6), bodvartyr, quasi
pugnae deus, geirtyr (Fornm. sog. 9, 515-8) ; and that even Thorr,
to whom Jupiter's lightning has been handed over, appears as
EeiGartyr, Eeidityr (Sn. 94), i.e. god of the waggon.^ In all these
poetical terms, we see that iyr bears that more general sense which
makes it suitable for all divinities, especially the higher ones. Tyr
has a perfect right to a name identical with Zeus. Add moreover,
that the epithet of father was in a special degree accorded, not
only to Jupiter, Diespiter, but to victory's patron MarspitcrP-

Further, this lofty position is claimed for Zio by the oldest
accounts that have reached us. 3Iars is singled out as a chief god

^ I do not reckon Angant^r among this set of words. It occurs frequently,
both in the Hervararsaga and in Sajm. 114* 119'' 9^; this last passage calls
0'5'inn ' Priggjar angantf r '. The true form is douLtless Anganjrtjr, as appears
from the OHG. Angandeo (Trad. fuld. 1, 67), and the AS. Ongenpeow, OngenJ^io
(Beow. 4770. 4945-67. 5843-97. 5917-67) ; -tyr would have been in AS. -teow, in
OHG. -zio. Graff gives an Agandeo 1, 132. 5, 87, which seems to be a mis-
.spelling, though the Trad, wizenb. no. 20 have a woman's name Agathiu (for
Anganthiu), to which add the ace. Agathien, Agacien (Walthar. 629). The
meaning of angan, ongen, is doubtful; ' angan illrar brudhar' is said to be
' deliciae malae mulieris,' but Biurn interprets it pedisequa, and O'Sinn might
fitly be called Friggae pedisequus. That some proper names in the Edda are
corrupt, is plain from Hamdir, wliich ought everywhere to be Hamjiyr, OHG.
llamadio, Hamideo (Schaunat no. 576. Cod. huiresh. 2529), MHG. Hamdie
(MsH 3, 213''). This much I am sure of, that neither Anganj^^^r nor Hamjnr
can contain a tCr, which is almost always compounded with genitives in a
figurative sense.

2 Gellius 5, 12.

zio. 107

of all tlie Germanic nations, and mentioned side by side with Mer-
cury. The evidence is collected on p. 44.^ Tacitus, in Hist. 4, 64,
makes the Tencteri say right out : Communibus deis, et prac-
cipuo deorum Marti grates agimus ; we have no occasion to apply
the passage to Wuotan, to whom the highest place usually belongs,
as particular races may have assigned that to Zio. The still clearer
testimony of Procopius 12, 15 to the worship of Ares among the
dwellers in the North,^ wliich says expressly : eVct 6eov avrov
vofil^ovan fieyiaTov elvai, ought to be compared with the statements
of Jornandes on the Gothic Mars ; in both places human sacrifices
are the subject, and therefore Zeuss, p. 22, is for understanding it
of Wuotan again, because to him Tacitus says that men were
sacrificed ; but he does not say to him alone, — on the contrary,
anent the Hermundurian offering, Ann, V6, 57, where ' viri ' were
also slain, Mars stands mentioned before Llercury. And Jornandes,
who identifies the ' Gradivus pater ' of the Getae in Virg. Aen. 3,
35 with the Mars of the Goths, must have been thinking of the
special god of war, not of a higher and more general one, intimately
as they interpenetrate one another in name and nature. All in
favour of this view are the Scythian and Alanic legends of the
war-sword, which will be examined by and by : if the Getic,
Scythian and Gothic traditions meet anywhere, it is on this of
il/ars- worship. Neither can we disregard Widukind's representa-
tion at a later time (Pertz 5, 423) of the Saxon Mars set up on
high. Donar and Wuotan, with whom at other times he is combined
in a significant trilogy, appear, like Jupiter and Mercury, to retire
before him. But it is quite conceivable how the glossist quoted on
p. 133 could render Wuotan by Mars, and Widukind glide easily
from Mars to Hermes, i.e., Wodan, particularly if he had in his
mind the analogy of those prefixes irman- (of wliich he is speaking)
and tir-. The OlST. writers, while they recognise OSin's influence
on war and victory, speak no less distinctly of Ttjr, who is em-

1 A passaj,'e in Floras 2, 4: 'nlox Ariovisto duce vovere de nostronuu mili-
tum pnieda Marti suo toniuem : intercepit Jupiter votuiii, nam dc torquilius
eoruni uureum tiopaeum Jovi Flaminius erexit,' speaks of the hisubiian Gaids,
who were beaten in the consulship of Flaminius B.C. 225. But these CJalli
are both in other respects very like Germani, and the name of their leader is
that of the kSuevic (Swabian) king in Caesar.

- eovAtrat (men of Thule) is their generic name, but he expressly includes
among them the Tavrol, whom he rightly regards as a dilierent people from the
TotSoi, conf. Gott. auz. 1828, p. 553.

198 zio.

phatically their Vigagucf (deus proeliorum), Sn. 105, and again :
hann er diarfastr ok best liugaSr, ok lianu rcecfr niioc sigri i orostom,
Sn. 29 (see Suppl.).

No doubt there were mountains hallowed to Zio, as well as to
Wuotan and Donar ; the only difficulty is, to know which god,
Wuotan or Zio, was meant by a particular name. May we place
to his credit the name of the abbey of Siegburg in the Lower
Ehine, which was founded in 1064 on a mountain where the
ancient assize of the people was held? From that time the moun-
tain was to have been called Mons sancti Michaelis after the
christian conqueror, but the \\&Bi\i&i\Sigebcrg could not be dislodged,
it was only distorted into Siegburg •} or are we to explain the name
by the river Sieg, which flows through the district ? The ON.
Sigtysberg (OS. Sigu-tiwis-berag ?), Saem. 348^ might belong to OSinn
or to Tyr. The Weimar map has in section 38 a Tisdorf, and in
section 48 a Zieshcrg, both in Lower Saxon districts on the Elbe.
A place in Zealand, about which there are folk-tales, is Tyhierg
(Thiele 2, 20) ; also in Zealand are Tisvdde (Ti's well), Tysting ; in
Jutland, Tystathe, Tiislunde. In Sweden : Tistad, Tishy, Tisjo,
Tyved. Zierberg in Bavaria (Cirberg, Zirberc, MB. 11, 71-3-5-6)
and Zierenberg in Lower Hesse may be derived from the collateral
form (see Suppl.). The mons Martis at Paris (Montmartre), of
which even Abbo de bell. Par. 2, 196 makes mention, has to do
with the Gallic Mars, whom some take to be Belus, others Hesus.
With far better right than the Parisian mons Martis (yet conf. Waitz's
Salic law, p. 52), we may assign to Zio the fanum Martis, now
Famars in Hainault (p. 84), according to Herm. Mliller the Old
Frankish ' Dishargum (or Disbargus) in termino Toringorum ' of
Greg. tur. 2, 9, Chlodio's castellum. Dis- would be a Latinized form
of Tis = Tives, perhaps recalling Dispiter, Diespiter ; there is no
Gallic word like it looking towards Mars, and the district is thor-
ouglily Prankish, with Liphtinae close by, where we have Saxnot
named by the side of Thunar and Wodan. As for Eresberg and
Mersberg (3 or 4 pp. on), I have compared the oldest documents in
Seibertz: no. 11 (anno 962) gives us Eresburg; no. 25 (1030) already
Mersburg ; 1, 98 (1043) mons Eresburg; no. 51 (1150) mons Eres-
berg; no. 70 (1176) mons Eresberch ; no. 85 (1184) Heresburg ;

1 Dociim. in Lacomblet, no. 203-4.

zio. 199

no. 115 (1201) mons Martis; no. 153 (1219 Mersberch ; no. 167
(1222) Eresberch; no. 179 (1228) mons Martis; no. 186 (1229)
mons Heresberg; no. 189 (1230) mons Martis and Mersberg.
Mons Martis was the learned name, Mersberg the popular, and
Eresberg the oldest. As mons and castellum are used by turns,
berg and burg are equally right. Widukind 2, 11 and Dietmar 2, 1
spell Hercshurg and Eresburch, when they describe the taking of
the place in 938. According to the Ann. Corb. (Pertz 5, 8), they
are sacred to both Ares and Hermes (]\Iars and Mercury).

The names of plants also confess the god : ON. Tyfifiola, I dare-
say after the Lat. viola Martis, march-violet; Tyrhialm (aconitum),
otherwise Thorhialm, Thorhat (helmet, hat), conf. Germ, sturmhut,
eisenhut, Dan. troldhat, a herb endowed with magic power, whose
helmet-like shape might suggest either of those warlike gods Tyr and
Thorr; Tyvi&r,Tf& wood, Dan. Tyvcd, Tysvccl (daphne mezereum),
in the Helsing. dial, tis, tisthast, the mezereon, a beautiful poison-
flower (see Suppl.).

While these names of places and plants sufficiently vouch for
the wide-spread worship of the god, we must lay particular stress
on one thing, that the name for the third day of the week, which
is what we started with, bears living witness to him at this moment,
not only in Scandinavia and England (ON". Tysdagr, Swed. Tisdag,
Dan. Tirsdag, AS. Tiwesdseg), but among the common people in
Swabia and Switzerland (Ziestag, Tiestag, diestik, beside our uni-
versal Dienstag); Schm. 4, 214 brings all the forms together. And
there is yet one more testimony to the high antiquity of Zio- worship
in Swabia, which we may gather from an old "Wessobrunn gloss
' Cyuvari = Suapa,' MB. 7, 375 and Diut. 2, 370 ; which I take to
be not Teutonoari, as Zeuss does, pp. 146-9, but Zioivari ]\Iartem
colentes, warian expressing, like Lat. colore, both habitare and
depairevetv, so that the Suevi are OepdirovTe'i "Apr]o<i.

But that is not all : further and weighty disclosures on the
name and nature of the war-god await us at the hands of the Pauiic

It is known that each separate rune has a name to itself, and
these names vary more or less according to the nations that use them,
but they are mostly very ancient words. The OHG. runes having
to bestow the name dorn on D, and tac on T, require for their
aspirate Z which closes the alphabet the name of Zio. In the ON.

200 zio.

and AS. alphabets, dag stood for D, T/jr and Tito for T, ]7orn for ]>,
being the same three words, only in different places ; occasionally
the Anglo-Saxons wrote Tir or Tis. Whenever a list of runes
keeps thorn for Th, and dag for D, it is sure to have Ti for T (as
the Cod. Isidori paris. and bruxell.) ; so it is in the St Gall cod.
260 and the Brussels 9565, except that dorn is improperly put for
thorn, and tag for dag, but Ti stands correctly opposite T. The
Paris cod. 5239 has dhron (dhorn), tac, Ziu, that of Salzburg dhorn,
Ti, daeg : everywhere the form Ziu shows the High Germ, accepta-
'tion, and the form Ti (once, in Cod. vatic. Christinae 338, spelt Tu,
perh, Tii) the Low Germ., the Saxon. The u in Ziu seems to be
more archaic than the o of Zio, which has kept pace with the
regular progress of the OHG. dialect, and follows the analogy of
dio, servus ; this relation between u and o may perhaps be seen
still more in its true light, as we go on. But what is very remark-
able, is that in the Vienna cod. 140 the name Tyz is given to T in
an alphabet which uses the Gothic letters, for Tyz comes very near
to our conjectural Goth. Tins. As well the retention as the unavoid-
able alterations of this divine name in the runes of the various races,
may be taken as proofs of the antiquity and extent of Zio-worship.
How comes it that no rune has taken its name from Wuotan or
OSinn, the inventor of writing itself ? ' K = reiS, rad,' i.e., waggon,
may indirectly at least be referred to the god of the Thunder-car ;
and F according to one interpretation signifies Freyr. Anyhow,
'T=Tyr' appears to have been a supremely honoured symbol, and
the name of this god to have been specially sacred : in scratching
the runes of victory on the sword, the name of Tyr had to be twice
inserted, Ssem. 194^ The shape of the rune ^ has an obvious
resemblance to the old-established symbol of the planet Mars when
set upright '^, and an AS. poem on the runes expressly says : tir
biS idcna sum (tir is one of the tokens, is a certain sign) ; where
again the derivative form tir is employed to explain the the simple
Tiw or Ti. Occasionally the poets speak of ' tire tacnian,' to mark
with tir (El, 753. Jud. 137, 18), and 'tires to tacne,' as mark of tir
(Beow. 3306) ; we may expound it as ' gloria, decore insignire, in
gloriae signum,' and still think of the heathen symbol of the god,
pretty much as we saw it done at the solemn blessing of the ale-
cups (see Suppl.).^

1 Conf. note to Elene 155-6.

EOR. 201

Thus far we have dealt with tlie runic name Tyr, Tiw, Zio, and
no otlier. But here the same alphabets come out with a sharp dis-
tinction between two names of the selfsame god. First, in the AS.
lists, in addition to ^ Tir, we come upon a similar arrow with two
barbs added ^ and the name Ear attached to it.^ Then the OHG.
alphabets, after using ^ for tac, find a use for that very symbol ^^
to which some of them give the name Zio, others again Uo, Uor,
Aer. And there are AS. alphabets that actually set down by ^
the two names Tir and Ear, though Tir had already been given to ^ .
It is evident then, that Tir and Ear — Zio and Eo, Ear — were two
names for one god, and both must have been current among the
several races, both Low German and High.

Evidence as regards Low Germany is found both in the rune
Ear occurring in Anglo-Saxon, and in the remarkable name of
Ereshurg, Aereshurg being given to a notable seat of pagan worship
in a district of Westphalia, in the immediate neighbourhood of the
Irmansul (v. supra, p. 116). That it was strictly EresScr^ (as Sieg-
burg was originally Sigberg, p. 198), follows both from the Latin
rendering vions Martis, and from its later name Mersberg^ whose
initial M could be explained by the contraction of the words ' in
dem Eresberge, Aresberge,'^ or it may be an imitation of the Latin
name. There was a downright Marsherg in another district of West-
phalia.* This Eresberc then is a Ziesherc, a Sig-tiwes-berg, and yet
more closely an Areopagus, Mars' hill, Apeioira'yo^, irerpa irdyo'i t'
'Apeco<i (Aeschyl. Eum. 690).

Still more plainly are High German races, especially the
Bavarian (jMarcomannic) pointed to by that singular name for the
third day of the week, Ertag, lertag, Irtag, Eritag, Ercldag, Erichtag,
which answers to the rune Eor, and up to this moment lives to part
off the Bavarians, Austrians and Tyrolese from the Swabians and
Swiss (who, as former Ziowari, stick to Ziestag); along the boundary-
line of these races must also have run formerly the frontier between
Eor-worship and Zio-worship. True, the compound Ertac lacks

1 In one poem, Cod. exon. 481, 18, the rune contains simply the vowel
sound ea.

2 This Eresburg or Mersberg stands in the pagus Hessi saxonicus (registr.
Sarachonis p. 42, 735) ; conf. Wigands archiv I. 1, 36-7. II. 143. 268.

3 So : Motgers = in dem Otgers hove [and, the nonce = then once, &c.].

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