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* In the pagus Marstem, J^Iarshem, Marsem (close to the Wcser, near
Marklu), reg. Sarachonis 42, 727.

202 zio.

the genitive ending -s which is preserved in Ziestac, and I have not
been so fortunate as to hunt up an Erestac^ in the older records of
the 13-14th centuries ; nevertheless the coincidence of the double
names for the day and for the rune should be conclusive here, and
we must suppose an OHG. Erestac, to match the Eresberg. One
might be led to imagine that in Ertag the Earth (Erde according
to the forms given at the beginning of ch. XIII) was meant. But
the ancient way of thinking placed the earth in the centre of the
world, not among the planets ; she cannot therefore have given
name to a day of the week, and there is no such day found in any
nation, unless we turn Venus and Freyja into the earth. — To bear
this Ertag company, there is that name of a place Eersel, quoted
p. 154 from Gramaye, in which neither era honor, nor its personifi-
cation Era (ch. XVI, XXIX) is to be thought of, but solely a god
of the week. It is worth noticing, that Ertac and Erdag occur as
men's names ; also, that the Taxandrian Eersel was but a little way
off the Tisberg or Fanmars in Hainault (see Suppl.). — Xow comes
something far more important. As Zio is identical with Zeus as
director of wars, we see at a glance that Eor, Er, Ear, is one with
"'Apr)<i the son of Zeus ; and as the Germans had given the rank of
Zeus to their Wuotan, Tyr and consequently Eor appears as the son
of the highest god. Have we any means now left of getting at the
sense of this obscure root Eor ?

The description of the rune in the AS. poem gives only a slight
hint, it runs thus :

Ear biS egle eorla gehwilcum,

]?onne feestlice flsesc onginneS

hrsew colian, hrusan ceosan

blac to gebeddan. blseda gedreosaS,

wynna gewitaS, wera geswicaS ;
i.e., Ear fit importunus hominum cuicumque, quum caro incipit
refrigescere, pallidumque corpus terram eligere conjugem. tunc
enim gloriae dilabuntur, gaudia evanescunt, foedera cessant. The
description is of death coming on, and earthly joys dropping off;
but who can that be, that at such a time is burdensome (egle, ail-some)
to men ? The ordinary meaning of car, spica, arista, can be of no use
here ; I suppose that approaching dissolution, a personified death

^ In a passage from Keisersberg quoted by Schm. 1, 97, it is spelt Eristag,
apparently to favour tlie derivation from * dies aeris.'


is to be understood, from whicli a transition to the destructive god
of battles, the ^poTo\ot'y6<;, fiLai(})6vo<; "Apr]<; is easy to conceive.^
"Apr]'i itself is used abstractly by the Greeks for destruction, murder,
pestilence, just as our Wuotan is for furor and belli impetus,^ and
the Latin Mars for bellum, exitus pugnae, furor bellicus, conf. ']\Iars
=cafeht,' gcfecht, fight, in Gl. Hrab. 969'^; as conversely the OHG.
wij pugna, bellum (Graff 1, 740) seems occasionally to denote the
personal god of war. * Wicgch quoque Mars est ' says Ermoldus
Nigellus (Pertz 2, 468), and he is said to farneman, AS. forniman,
carry off, as Hild (Bellona) does elsewhere : dat inan wic fornam,
Hildebr. lied ; in AS. : wig ealle fornam, Beow. 2155 ; wig fornom.
Cod. exon. 291, 11. Do we not still say, war or battle snatched
them all away ? A remarkable gloss in the old Cod. sangall. 913,
p. 193, has 'turbines = ziu ' (we have no business to write zui), which
may mean the storm of war, the IMars trux, saevus, or possibly the
literal whirlwind, on which mythical names are sometimes bestowed;
so it is either Zio himself, or a synonymous female personification
Ziu, bearing tlie same relation to Zio as diu (ancilla) to dio

Here comes in another string of explanations, overbold as some
of them may seem. As Eresburg is just as often spelt Hcrcsburg
by the Frankish annalists, we may fairly bring in the Goth, hairus,
AS. heor, OS. heru, ON. Morr, ensis, cardo, although the names of
the rune and the day of the week always appear without the
aspirate. For in Greek we already have the two unaspirated words
''ApT]<i and aop, sword, weapon, to compare with one another, and
these point to a god of the sword. Then again the famous Abre-
nuntiatio names three heathen gods, Thunar, Woden, Saxnot, of
whom the third can have been but little inferior to the other two
in power and holiness. Sahsnot is word for word gladii consors,
ensifer [Germ, genoss, sharer] ; who else but Zio or Uor and the
Greek Ai'tsP The AS. genealogies preserve the name of Saxnedt

^ Or, without the need of any transition, Ear might at once be Ares : * war
is burdensome in old age'. — Transl.

- The notions of raving (wiitcn) and insanire are suitable to the blustering
stormful god of war. Homer calls Ares 0ovpns the wild, and ("tcj)p(cv the
insensate, 6y nvriva oi'Sf depia-ra, II. 5, 761. But naiverai is said of other gods
too, particularly Zeus (8, .300) and Dionysos or Bacchus (6, l;-i2).

^ One might think of Fro, Freyr (ch. X), but of course glittering swords
were attributed to more than one god ; thus Poseidon (Ke])tune) wields a Sfivov
aop, II. 14, 38 j, and Apollo is called xpvo-<iopos, 5, 5(J9. Id, 250.

204 zio.

as the son of Woden, and it is in perfect accordance with it, that
Tyr was the son of O'Sinn, and Ares the son of Zeus (see SuppL).
But further, as the Saxons were so called, either because they
wielded the sword of stone (saxum), or placed this god at the head
of their race, so I think the Chcruscans of Tacitus, a people
synonymous, nay identical with them, were named after Chcru,
Hcru = Eor, from whom their name can be derived.^ After this
weighty consonance of facts, which opens to us the meaning of the
old national name, and at the same time teaches that ' heru ' was
first of all pronounced ' cheru,' and last of all ' eru, er,' I think we
may also bring in the Gallic war-god Hesus or Esiis (Lucan 1, 440),
and state, that the metal iron is indicated by the planetary sign of
Mars, the AS. ' tires tacen,' and consequently that the rune of Zio
and Eor may be the picture of a sword with its handle, or of a
spear.2 The Scythian and Alanic legends dwell still more emphati-
cally on the god's sword, and their agreement with Teutonic ways
of thinking may safely be assumed, as Mars was equally prominent
in the faith of the Scythians and that of the Goths.

The impressive personification of the sword matches well with
that of the hammer, and to my thinking each confirms the other.
Both idea and name of two of the greatest gods pass over into the
instrument by which they display their might.

Herodotus 4, 62 informs us, that the Scythians worshipped
Ares under the semblance or symbol of an ancient iron sword
{aKLvuKT)^), which was elevated on an enormous stack of brushwood
[' three furlongs in length and breadth, but less in height '] : eVl
TOVTOV Orj Tov ojKOV u K t V d K r] <} (J ihr) fjeo<i I'Bpvrac dp-)(abo<i
eKciaTOLao- Kol tovt'' earc tov "A prjos to ajakixa. Ammianus
Marcellinus 31, 2 says of the Alani : Nee templum apud eos visitur
aut delubrura, ne tugurium quidem culmo tectum cerni usquam
potest, sed glacUus barharico ritu huvii figitur nudus, eumque ut
Martem, regionum quas circumcircant praesulem, verecundius
colunt. And he had previously asserted of the Quadi also, a
decidedly German people, 17, 12 (a.d. 358): Eductis mucroniUts,quos
fro numiwibus co/^w^i{, juravere se permansuros in fide. Perhaps all

1 The suffix -Rk would hardly fit with the material sense of heru, far better
with a personal Heru.

2 Does the author overlook, or deliberately reject, the ON. or, Ren. orrar,
AS. arwi^ arrow % Among the forms for Tuesday occur Erigtag, Ergetag ; erge
is to arwe, as serge to sorwe, morgen to niorwen, &c. — Trans.

zio. 205

tlie Teutonic nations swore by their weapons, with a touching of
the weapon/ just as the Scythians and Eomans did per Martis
frameam, Juvenal 13, 79. So Arnobius 6, 11 : Ridetis temporibus
priscis coluisse acinacem Scythiae nationes, . . . pro Marte
Iiomanos hastam, ut Varronis indicant Musae ; this franaea and
hasta of the Eomans is altogether like the Scythian sword.^
Jornandes, following Priscus 201, 17, tells of the Scythian sword,
liow it came into the hands of Attila, cap. 35 : Qui (Attila),
quamvis hujus esset naturae ut semper confideret, addebat ei tamen
confidentiam gladius Martis inventus, apud Scytharum reges semper
habitus. Quern Priscus historicus tali refert occasione detectum,
quum pastor, inquiens, quidam gregis unam buculam conspiceret
claudicantem (noticed one heifer walking lame), nee causam tanti
vulneris iuveniret, sollicitus vestigia cruoris insequitur, tandemque
venit ad gladiura, quern depascens herbas bucula incaute calcaverat,
elfossumque protinus ad Attilam defert. Quo ille munere gratu-
latus, ut erat magnanimus, arbitratur se totius mundi principem
constitutum, et per Martis gladiuvi potestatem sibi concessam esse
liellorum. — But the sword degenerated into an unlucky one, like
some far-famed northern swords. Lambert relates, that a queen,
Solomon of Hungary's mother, made a present of it to Otto, duke
of Bavaria, that from this Otto's hands it came by way of loan to
the younger Dedi, margrave Dedi's son, then to Henry IV., and lastly
to Lupoid of Mersburg, who, being thrown by his horse, and by
the same sword transpierced, w^as buried at Mertenefeld. It is a
question whether these local names Mersburg and Mertenefeld can
liave any reference to the sword of Mars. A great while after, the
duke of Alba is said to have dug it out of the earth again after the
battle of Mtihlberg (Deutsche heldensage p. 311). We see through
what lengthened periods popular tradition could go on nourishing
itself on this world-old worship (see Suppl.).

With the word "ApT)<i the Lat. Mars appears to have nothing to
do, being a contraction of Mavors, and the indispensable initial
being even reduplicated in Mamers ; so the fancied connexion
between Eresburg and Marsberg will not hold.

In the Old Eomau worship of ]\Iars a prominent place is given

1 Conf. RA. 896 ; and so late as Wigal. G517 : ' Swert, uf dinem knopfe ich
des swer,' Sword, on thy poiiuuel I swear it.

- Juro per Dianam et Martem, Plaut. Mil. glor. 5, 21.



to the legend of Pious, a son of Saturn, a wood-spirit who helped
to nurse the babes Eemus and Romulus ; certain features in our
antiquities seem to recall him, as will be shown later. Eomulus
consecrated the third month of the year to Mars, his progenitor ;
our ancestors also named it after a deity who may perhaps be
identified with Mars. That is to say, the Anglo-Saxons called
March Hreffcmonad', which Beda without hesitation traces to a
goddess HreSe; possibly other races might explain it by a god
Hre&uJ. These names would come from hroS gloria, fama, OX.
hroSr, OHG. hruod, OFrank. chrod, which helped to form many
ancient words, e.g. OHG. Hruodgang, Hruodhilt, OFrank. Chrodo-
gang, Chrodhild ; did Hruodo, Chrodo express to certain races the
shining god of fame V- The Edda knows of no such epithet for Tyr
as HroSr or HroeSi (see Suppl.).

To these discoveries or conjectures we have been guided simply
by the several surviving names of one of the greatest gods of our
olden time, to whose attributes and surroundings we have scarcely
any other clue left. But now we may fairly apply to him in tlie
main, wliat the poetry of other nations supplies. Zio is sure to
have been valiant and fond of war, like Ares, lavish of glory, but
stern and bloodthirsty {aiixaroQ aaai ^'Aprja, II. 5, 289. 20, 78. 22,
267); he raves and rages like Zeus and Wuotan, he is that 'old
blood-shedder ' of the Servian song, he gladdens the hearts of
ravens and wolves, who follow him to fields of battle, although
these creatures again must be assigned more to Wuotan (p. 147); the
Greek phrase makes them oIwvol and Kvves, (birds and dogs), and

^ In this connexion one mitjht try to rescue the suspicious and discredited
legend of a b^axon divinity Krodo ; tliere is authority for it in the 15th century,
none whatever in the earlier Mid. Ages. Bothe's Sassenchronik (Leibn. 3, 286)
relates under the year 780, that King Charles, during his conquest of the East
Saxons, overthrew on the Hartesburg an idol similar to Saturn, which the
people called Krodo. If such an event had really happened, it would most
likely have been mentioned by the annalists, like the overthrow of the
Irniansul. For all that, the tradition need not be groundless, if other things
would only correspond. Unfortunately the form Crodo for Chrodo, Hrodo,
Rodo [like Catti, alterw. Chatti, Hatti, Hessen] is rather too ancient, and I can
find no support for it in the Saxon speech. A doc. of 1284 (Langs reg. 4, 247)
has_ a Walt herus dictus Krode, and a song in Nithart's MsH. 3, 208'' a Krotolf,
which however has no business to remind us of Hruodolf, Ruodolf, being not
a proper name, but a nickname, and so to be derived from krote, a toad, to
which must be referred many names of places, Krotenpful, &c., which have
been mistakenly ascribed to the idol. The true form for Upper Germany
would not tolerate a Kr, but only Hr or R (see Suppl.).

zio. 207

the fields of the slain, where the hounds hold revel, are called kvvwv
fieXir-ndpa, II. 13, 233. 17, 255. 18, 179. Battle-songs were also
sure to be tuned to the praises of Zio, and perhaps war-dances
executed (fieXirea-daL "Aprj'i, II. 7, 241), from which I derive the
persistent and widely prevalent custom of the solemn sword-dance,
exactly the thing for the god of the sword. The Edda nowhere
lays particular stress on the sword of war, it knows nothing of
Sahsnot, indeed its sverSas is another god, HeiniSallr -^ but it sets
Tyr before us as onc-handcd, because the wolf, within whose jaws
he laid his right hand as a pledge, bit it off at the joint, whence
the wrist was called iiltliSr, wolf-lith, Sa^m. 65^ Sn. 35-6. This
incident must have been well-known and characteristic of him, for
the OlSr. exposition of runes likewise says, under letter T : Tyr er
einhendr Asa ; conf. Sn. 105. The rest of Teutonic legend has no
trace of it,^ unless we are to look for it in AValther's onehandcdness,
and find in his name the mighty ' wielder of hosts '. I prefer to
adopt the happy explanation,^ that the reason why Tyr appears
onc-handcd is, because he can only give victory to one part of the
combatants, as Iladu, another god who dispenses the fortune of
war, and Plutos and Eortuna among the Greeks and Eomans, are
painted blind, because they deal out their gifts at random (see
Suppl.). Now, as victory was esteemed the highest of all fortune,
the god of victory shares to the full the prominent characteristics
of luck in general, partiality and fickleness. And a remoter period
of our nation may have used names which bore upon this.^

Amongst the train of Ares and Mars there appear certain
mythic beings who personify the notions of fear and horror. Ae2/jL0<;
and ^6l3o^ (II. 4, 440. 11, 317. 15, 119) answer to the Latin Fallor

^ Conf. Apollo xp^t^aopos above, p. 203, note.

2 Cod. pal. 361, 65'* tells of Julian, that he was forced to piit his hand
into the mouth of Mercury's statue : Die hant stiez er im in den niuiit
dar, darinne uobte sich der valant (devil), er clemniete im die hant, und
gehabete sie im so vaste, daz er sich niht irlosen mohte (could not get loose).
Besides, the wolfs limb has a likeness to the Wuotan's limb, Woens-let, p. 160.

^ Wackernagel's, in the Schweiz. mus. 1, 107.

* The Greek epos expresses the changei'ulness of victory {v'lkt] eTepaXKrjs, II.
8, 171. 16, 362 ; vUrj eVajueijSfrai ai/S/KK, 6, 339) by an epithet of Arcs,
"AX\o7rp6aa\\os 5, 831. 88!). A certain many-shaped and all-transionning
being, with a name almost exactly the same, Vilandcrs (Ls. 1, 369-92), Bald-
andcrst, Jlaldander (H. Sachs 1, 537. Simpliciss. bk 6, c. 9), has indeed no visil)le
connexion with the god of war, but it may have been the name of a god. The
similarity of this Vilandcrs to the name of a place in the Tyrol, Villandera
near lirixen (Velunutris, Vuluuuturusa, ucc. to Steub. p. 79. 178) Ls merely

208 zio.

and Favor ; it is the two former that harness the steeds of Ares,
'^o^os is called his son (13, 299), and in Aeschylus he is provided
with a dwelling (/xeXadpov tectum), out of which he suddenly leaps.
So in the old Bohemian songs, Tras (tremor) and Strakh (terror)
burst out of forest shades on the enemy's bands, chase them, press
on their necks and squeeze out of their throats a loud cry (Kouiginh.
hs. 84. 104) ; they are ghostly and spectral. This borders upon
Voma, Om.i and Yggr (pp. 119, 120), terms which designate the
.god himself, not his companions, sons or servants, yet they again
bear witness to the community there was between Wuotan and
Zio. Thorr was called 6tti iotna, terror gigantum. When in our
modern phraseology fear 'surprises, seizes, shakes, deprives of sense,'
personification is not far off; in the Iliad also 17, 67 ■)(\wpov ceo'i
(neut.) aipel, pale fear seizes ; but masculine embodiments like
Be2/io<;, (f)6/3o<;, pallor, pavor, tras, strakh, bring it more vividly before
us, and pavor was weakened by passing into the fem. paura, peur
of the Eomance. AS. Ipn, hine se broga ongeat (terror eum invasit),
Beow. 2583. OHG. forhta cham mih ana, N. ps. 54, 5 ; forhta
anafiel ubar inan, T. 2, 4 ; conf. MHG. diu sorge im was so verre
entriten, sie mohte erreichen niht ein sper, fear was fled so far from
him, a spear could not reach it, Wh. 280, 10 (see Suppl.). But
further on, we shall get acquainted with a female Ililta, comparable
to the Lat. Bellona and the Gr. Enyo and Eris, who is really one
with war and the war-god.

Tyr is described in Sn. 105 as a son of OSinn, but in the
HymisqviSa as a kinsman of the giants. His mother, whose name
is not found, but whose beauty is indicated by the epithet all-gullin,
all-golden, Ssera. 53% must have been a giant's daughter, who bore
to OSinn this immortal son (see Suppl.).



The god that stands next in power and glory, is in the Norse
mythology Frcijr (Landn. 4, 7) ; with the Swedes he seems even to
have occupied the third place. His name of itself proclaims how
widely his worship prevailed among the other Teutonic races, a
name sacred enough to he given to the Supreme Being even in christ-
ian times. There must have been a broad pregnant sense underlying
the word, which made it equally fit for the individuality of one
god, and for the comprehensive notion of dominion, whether sacred
or secular : to some nations it signified the particular god, to others
the soverain deity in general, pretty much as we found, connected
with the proper names Zio, Zeus, the more general term deus, 6eo<i.
While the names of other heathen gods became an abomination to
the christians, and a Gothic Vodans or Thunrs would have grated
harshly on the ear; this one expression, like the primitive guj? itself,
could remain yet a long time without offence, and signify by turns
the heavenly lord and an earthly one.

It is true, the names do not correspond quite exactly. The ON.
Freyr gen. Freys, which Saxo gives quite correctly in its Danish
form as Fro gen. Fros (whence Froso, Fro's island), the Swed. like-
wise Fro, ought to be in Gothic Fraus or Fravis,^ instead of which,
every page of Ulphilas shows /raiya gen. fniujins, translating KvpLo^;
on the other hand, the ON. dialect lacks both the weak form (Freyi,
Freyja), and the meaning of lord. The remaining languages all
huld with the Gothic. In OHG. the full form frouwo was already
lost, the writers preferring truhtin; it is only in the form of address
'fro min ! ' (0. i. 5, o5. ii. 14, 27. v. 7, 35. Ludw. bed) that the

^ Frey = Fravi, as liey — luivi (hay), mey = inavi (maid), ey = avi (isle),


210 FRO.

word for a divine or earthly lord was preserved, just as that antique
sihora and sire (p. 27) lasted longest in addresses. In the Heliand
too, when the word is used in addressing, it is always in the short-
ened form fro min ! 123, 13. 140, 23. fr6 min the godo ! 131, 6.
134, 15. 138, 1. 7. waldand fro min ! 153, 8. drohtin fro min !
15, 3 ; but in other cases we do find the complete />'d/io gen. frohon
3, 24 ; frdho 119, 14, gen. frahon 122, 9, fraon 3, 24. 5, 23 ; froio
93, 1, 107, 21. Still the OS. poet uses the word seldomer than the
synonyms drohtin and herro, and he always puts a possessive with
it, never an adjective (lilce mari drohtin, riki drohtin, craftag drohtin,
liob herro), still less does he make compounds with it (like sigi-
drohtin) : all symptoms that the word was freezing up. The AS.
fredj gen. frean (for freaan, freawan) has a wider sweep, it not only
admits adjectives (frea ?elmihtig, Csedm. 1, 9. 10, 1), but also forms
compounds: agendfrea, Csedm. 135, 4. aldorfreii 218, 29. folcfrea
111, 7 ; and even combines with dryhten : freadryhten, Crodm. 54,
29, gen. freahdrihtnes, Beow. 1585, dat. freodryhtne 5150. — But
now by the side of our OHG. fro there is found a rigid (indecl.)
frono, which, placed before or after substantives, imparts the notion
of lordly, high and holy ; out of this was gradually developed a
more flexible adj. of like meaning /ro?i, and again an adj. fronisc
(pulcher, mundus, inclytus, arcanus), OS. fronish, frdnish. In
MHG. and even modern German we have a good many compounds
witli vron, as also the adj. in the above sense, while/ro7t7zc?i,/rd'A?ie?i is
to do service to one's lord, to dedicate. The Frisian dialect contri-
butes difrdn, dominions, and/rawa, minister publicus. The added
-n in all these derivatives can be explained by the Gothio, frdujlnon
dorninari, though there was probably no Gothic fraujinisks, as
fronisc seems not to have been formed till after the contraction fro
and frono had set in.

But even the Gothic frduja does not present to us the simple
stem, I look for it in a lost adj. fravis (like navis v€Kp6<i, Eom. 7, 2),
the same as the OHG. /ro gen. frouwes, OS. /ra gen. fralies, MHG.
vro, and our froh [frohlich, frolic, &c.], and signifying mitis, laetus,
blandus ; whence the same dialects derive frouwi, gaudium, frouwan,
laetum reddere, frouwida, laetitia, &c. (see Suppl.).

I do not mean to assert that a god Frauja, Frouwo, Fraho was
as distinctly worshipped by the Goths, Alamanns, Franks and
Saxons in the first centuries of our era, as Freyr was long after in

FRO. 211

Scandinavia, it is even possible that the form frauja already
harboured a generalization of the more vividly concrete Travis =
Freyr, and therefore seemed less offensive to the christians. But
in both words, the reference to a higher being is unmistakable, and
in the Mid. ages there still seems to hang about the compounds
with won something weird, unearthly, a sense of old sacredness; this
may account for the rare occurrence and the early disappearance
of the OHCt. fro, and even for the grammatical immobility of
frono ; it is as though an echo of heathenism could be still detected
in them.

A worship of Fro may be inferred even from the use of certain
proper names and poetic epithets, especially by the Anglo-Saxons.
The Goths even of later times use Frduja as a man's name, to which
we can hardly attribute the sense of lord simply : an envoy from
king Hadafus to Charles the Great is called Froia (Pertz 1, 184.
2, 223), perhaps Froila (Fraujila) ; an OHG. Frcvnlo occurs in a
document in Neugart no. 162. The AS. genealogies contain
WlXscfred; the name is often found elsewhere (Beda 138, 19. 153,
5), and seems suitable to Woden the god or lord of wishing (p. 144).
Equally to the point is the poetic fredivine (fredwine folca) in
Beow. 4708. 4853. 4871, where it is a mere epithet of divine or god-
loved heroes and kings. But the Wessex pedigree can produce its
Fred2cine, whom Saxo Gram, calls Frowinus (better Frowinus) ;
OHG. documents likewise have the proper name Froivin (Trad.
juvav. p. 302, Cod. lauresh. 712, but Frioivini 722), and in several
noble families, e.rj., the distinguished one of the Von Huttens, it has
been kej)t up till modern times. What is remarkable, the Edda
uses of a hero Freys vinr (Saera. 219^), like the AS. fredwine, only
uncompounded : SigurSr is Frey's friend and protege, or perhaps
his votary and servant, in the way shown on p. 93. Here again fred,
fro, freyr, cannot have merely the general meaning of lord, any lord.
The Swedish heroes in the Bravalla fight, who boast their descent
from Fro, are in Saxo, p. 144, called Fro dei necessarii, which is
exactly our Freys vinar. In the same way the AS. and ON. poetries,

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