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and consequently the myths, have in common the expression
fred Ingwina (gen. pi.), Beow. 2638, Ingvinar (gen. sing.) freyr,
Ingunnar /?'cyr, Ssem, 65^ Ingifreyr (Thorlac. obs. bor. spec. 6, p. 43),
by which is to be understood a hero or god, not ' juiiior dominus,'
as Thorlacius, p. 68, supposes. Yngvi/rt-y?- is called OSin's son, Sn.

212 FRO.

211=*. I shall come back to this mysterious combination of two
mythical names, when I come to speak of the hero Ingo. The ON.
skalds append this freyr to other names and to common nouns, e.g.,
in Kormakssaga, pp. 104 122, ' fiornis freyr, myv^\freyr' mean no
more than hero or man in the heightened general sense which we
noticed in the words irmin, tir and t^r. In the same way the fern.
freyja means frau, woman, lady, Kormakss. p. 317.

All that I have made out thus far on the name and idea of the
o-od, will receive new light and confirmation when we come to ex-
amine his divine sister Freyja. The brother and sister are made
alike in all their attributes, and each can stand for the other.

Fro does not appear in the series of gods of the week, because
there was no room for him there ; if we must translate him by a
Eoman name, it can scarcely be any other than that of Liher, whose
association with Libera is extremely like that of Fro with Frowa
(Freyr with Freyja). As Liber and Libera are devoted to the
service of Ceres or Demeter, Fro and Frowa stand in close union
with Nerthus, Fro's godhead seems to hold a middle place between
the notion of the supreme lord and that of a being who brings about
love and fruitfulness. He has Wuotan's creative quality, but
performs no deeds of war ; horse and sword he gives away, when
consumed with longing for the fair GerSr, as is sung in one of the
most glorious lays of the Edda. Snorri says, rain and sunsliine are
in the gift of Freyr (as elsewhere of AVuotan and Donar, pp. 157.
175) ; he is invoked for fertility of the soil and iov peace {til drs oc
fricfar, Sn. 28 ; conf. Yngl. saga cap. 12). The Swedes revered
him as one of their chief gods, and Adam of Bremen says that at
Upsal his statue stood by those of Thor and Wodan (see SuppL).
Also in Stem. 85^ he is named next to OSinn and Thorr (asabragr)
as the third god. Adam calls him Fricco^ which is precisely parallel
to the frequent confusion of the two goddesses- Freyja and Frigg,
which I shall deal with at a future time. But he paints him as a
o^od of peace and love: Tertius est Fricco, pacem voluptatemque
largiens mortalibus, cujus etiam simulaclnaim fingunt inycnti

1 Which occurs elsewhere as a man's name, e.g., Friccheo in Schannat, Trad.
fiUd. 386.

FRO. 213

priajjo ;^ si niiptiae celebrandae sunt, (sacrificia offcrunt) Fricconi.
Then there is the story, harmonizing with this, though related from
the christian point of view and to the heathen god's detriment, of
Freys statue being carried round the country in a waf/r/on, and of
his beautiful young priestess, Fornm. sog. 2, 73-8. This progress
takes place, ' ]?a er hann skal gera monnum drbot' when he shall
make for men year's boot ; the people flock to meet the car, and
bring their offerings, then the weather clears up and men look
for a fruitful year. The offerings are those which Saxo,p. 15, names
Frohlut ; live animals w^ere presented, particularly oxen (Vigagl.
saga, p. 56. Islend. sog. 2, 348), which seems to explain why
Freyr is reckoned among the poetic names for an ox, Sn. 221^; in
like manner, horses w^ere consecrated to him, such a one was
called Frcyfaxi and accounted holy, Vatnsd. p. 140 ; and human
victims fell to him in Sweden, Saxo Gram. 42. Freyr possessed
a hoar named Gulliribursti, whose ' golden bristles ' lighted up
the night like day, who ran with the speed of a horse and drew the
deity's car, Sn 66. 132. It is therefore in Frey's worship that the
atonevient-boar is sacrificed (p. 51) f in Sweden cakes in the shape
of a hoar are baked on Yule-eve. — And here we come upon a good
many relics of the service once done to the god, even outside of
Scandinavia. We hear of the clean gold-liog {-ferch, whence dimin.
farrow) in the popular customs of the Wetterau and Thuringia
(p. 51). In the Mid. Dutch poem of Lantslot ende Sandrin, v.
374, a knight says to his maiden : ' ic heb u liever dan en everswtn,
al waert van Jlnen goude glicwraclitl I hold you dearer than a boar-
swine, all were it of fine gold y- wrought ; were they still in the
habit of making gold jewels in the shape of boars ? at least the
remembrance of such a thing was not yet lost. Fro and his boar
may also have had a hand in a superstition of Gelderland, which
however puts a famous hero in the place of the god : Derh met den

1 With priapns TTpiairos I would identify the ON. friof semen, friofr
foecimdus ; conf. (Jotli. fraiv, seed. The stutement of Aduimis Bremensis hmks
better, since Wolf in Ids Wodana xxi. xxii. xxiii brought to light the festivals
and images of Priapns or Ters at a late period in the Netherlands. This ters
is the AS. tmrs, OHG. zers, and Herbort 4054 is shy of uttering the name
Xerses. Phallus-worship, so widely spread among tlie nations of anti([uity,
must have arisen out of an innocent veneration of the generative i)rinciph',
which a later age, conscious of its sins, prudishly avoided. After all is said,
there is an inkling of the same in Phol too and the avoidance of his name
(ch. XI), though I do not venture exactly to identify him with (fxiWos.

^ Not only Demeter, but Zeus received loar-ojj'erings, II, 19, 197. '2ol.

214 FRO.

leer (Theoderic, Derrick with the boar) goes his round on Christmas-
eve night, and people are careful to get all implements of Imsbandry
within doors, else the boar will trample them about, and make
them unfit for use.^ In the same Christmas season, dame Holda or
Berhta sallied out, and looked after the ploiiffhs and spindles,
motherly goddesses instead of the god, Frouwa instead of Fro.
With this again are connected the formae aprorum worn as charms
by the remote Aestyans, who yet have the ' ritus habitusque
Suevorum'. Tacitus Germ. 45 says, these figures represent the
worship of the 'mater deum,' of a female Fro, i.e.,oi Freyja ; and,
what is conclusive on this point, the Edda (Sajm. 114=^) assigns the
Gullinlursti to Freyja, though elsewhere he belongs to Freyr (see
Suppl.). — Anglo-Saxon poetry, above all, makes mention of these
hoar-hadges, these gold swine. When Constantine sees a vision in
his sleep, he is said to be eoforcumUe bejjeaht (apri signo tectus),
El. 76 ; it must have been fastened as an auspicious omen over the
head of the bed. Afterwards again, in the description of Elenc's
stately progress to the east : >a3r wa?s on eorle eSgesyne grimhelm
manig, cenlic eoforcumbul (tunc in duce apparuit horrida cassis, ex-
cellens apri forma). El. 260. The poet is describing a decoration of
the old heathen time, cumbul is the helmet's crest, and the king's
helmet appears to be adorned with the image of a boar. Several
passages in Beowulf place the matter beyond a doubt: eoforlic
scionon ofer hleor beran gehroden golde, fah and fyrheard ferhwearde
heold (apri formam videbantur supra genas gerere auro comptam,
quae varia igneque durata vitam tuebatur), 605 ; het ])& inberan
eofor hedfodsegn, heaSosteapne helm (jussit afferri aprum, capitis
signum, galeam in pugna prominentem), 4300 ; swin ofer helme
(sus supra galea), 2574; swin ealgylden, eofor irenheard (sus aureus,
aper instar ferri durus), 2216, i.e., a helmet placed on the funeral
pile as a costly jewel ; helm befongen Fredwrdsomm (= OHG. Fro-
reisanum), swa hine fyrndagum worhte wsepna smiS, besette s%oi7i-
licum, Jjffit hine siSJ^an no brond ne beadomecas bitan ne meahtan
(galea ornata Frohonis signis, sicut earn olim fabricaverat armorum
•faber, circumdederat earn apri formis, ne gladius ensesve laedere
eam possent), 2905 ; as a sacred divine symbol, it was to protect in

1 Staring, in the journal Mnemosyne, Leyden 1829. 1, 323 ; quoted thence
in Westendorp's Noordsche mythulogie, Dordrecht 1830. p. 495.

FRO. 215

battle and affright the foe.^ The OHG. proper name Epurhelm,
Eimrhelm (eber, eofor, aper), placed by the side of Frohelm (both
occur in the Trad, patav. no. 20; MB. 28^, 18) acquires thus a special
and appro2)riate meaning. Such boar-crests might still serve as
ornaments even to christian heroes, after the memory of Fro was
obliterated, and long continue to be wrought simply as jewels (see
Suppl.). — Some other traces of boar consecration have lasted still
later, especially in England. The custom of the boar-voiv I have
explained in RA. 900-1. As even at the present day on festive
occasions a wild boar's head is seen among the other dishes as a
show-dish, they used in the Mid. Ages to serve it up at banquets,
garnished with laurel and rosemary, to carry it about and play all
manner of pranks with it : ' Where stood a hoars head garnished
With bayes and rosemarye,' says one ballad about Arthur's Table ;
when three strokes have been given with a rod over it, it is only
the knife of a virtuous man that can carve the first slice. At other
times, even a live boar makes its appearance in the hall, and a bold
hero chops its head off. At Oxford they exhibit a hoars head on
Christmas day, carry it solemnly round, singing: Caput apri defero,
Reddens laudes Domino (see Suppl.). Those Aestyans may prove
a link of fellowship between the Germanic nations and the Finnish
and Asiatic ; it is well worth noticing, that the Tcherkass (Circas-
sians) worship a god of woods and hunting, Mesitch by name, who
rides a wild hoar ivith (/olden bristles} To most of the other gods
tame animals are sacred, to Fro the daring dauntless boar, as well
befits a god of the chase. Perhaps also a huge hoar with white
tusks,^ who in Slavic legend rises foaming out of a lake, is that of
a kindred deity.

The Edda attributes to Freyr a sivord of surpassing virtue, which
could put itself into motion against the brood of giants, Stem. 82.
His giving it away when in straits, proved his ruin afterwards ; it
was held to be the cause of his death, when at the Ragnarokr he
had to stand single combat with Surtr (swart), and missed his

» On this point again, the statement of Tacitus about the Aestyans agrees
so exactly, that it seems wortli (juoting in full : Aestyorum gentes. . . .
quibus ritus habitusque Suevorum. . . ]\Iatreni deum venerantur :

insigne superstitionis, formas aprorum gestant ; id pro armis omniumque tutela
securum deae cultorem etiam inter hostes praestut. — Trans.

* Erman's archiv fur wissenschaltl. kunde Kusshxnds 1842, heft 1, p. 118.

3 AfvKov odovra, 11. II, 41G. avs XtvKco uSupti, Od. 19. 405,

216 FRO.

trusty blade. Sn. 73. There appear to have been other traditions
also afloat about this sword f- and it would not seem far-fetched, if
on the strength of it we placed the well-known trilogy of ' Thunar,
Wodan, Saxnot ' beside Adam of Bremen's ' Wodan, Thor and
Fricco ' or the Eddie ' OSinn, Asabragr, Freyr/^ that is to say, if we
took Freyr, Fricco = Fro to be the same as Sahsnot the sword-
possessor. Add to this, tliat the Edda never mentions the sword of
Tyr. Nevertheless there are stronger reasons in favour of Sahsnoz
being Zio : this for one, that he was a son of Wuotan, whereas
Freyr comes of NiorSr, though some genealogies to be presently
mentioned bring him into connexion with Woden.

For the brilliant Freyr, the beneficent son of NiorSr, the
dwarfs had constructed a wonderful ship SkiSblaSnir, which could
fold up like a cloth, Sam. 45^ Sn. 48. Yngl. saga cap. 7 (see

Besides the Swedes, the Thrtendir in Norway were devoted to
Freyr above all other gods, Fornm. sog. 10, 312. Occasionally
priests of his are named, as ThorSr Freys goffi (of the lOtli century),
Landn. 4, 10 and Nialss. cap. 96 ; Flosi appears to have succeeded
his father in the office ; other FreysgycFlingar are cited in Landn.
4, 13. The Vigaglumssaga cap. 19 mentions Freys liof at Upsala,
and cap. 26 his statue at Thvera in Iceland, though only in a night-
vision : he is pictured sitting on a chair, giving short and surly
(stutt ok reiSuliga) answers to his supplicants, so that Glumr, who
in cap. 9 had sacrificed an old ox to him, now on awaking from his
dream neglected his service. In the Landn. 3, 2 and Vatnsd. pp.
44. 50 we are told of a Freyr giorr af silfri (made of silver), which
was used in drawing lots ; conf Verlauffs note, p. 362. In the
Landn. 4, 7 is preserved the usual formula for an oath : Hialpi mer
sva Freyr ok JVidrcFr ok hinn almdttki as (so help me F. and N". and
that almighty as) I by which last is to be understood Thorr rather

^ In old French poetry I find a famous sword wrought by Galant himself
(Wielant, Wayland), and named Froberge or Floberge (Garin ], 263. 2, 30-8) ;
the L^itter reading has no discoverable sense, though onr hiter Fhxmberge seems
to have sprung from it. Froberge niiglit very well be either a mere fro-bergende
(lord-protecting) weapon, or a reminiscence of the god Fro's sword ; conf. the
word-formations quoted in my Gramm. 2, 486. There are townships called in
OHG. Helidberga, Marahaberga (horse-stable). The ON. has no Freybiorg
that I know of, though it has Thorbibrg fem., and Thorbergr niasc.

2 Also in Sn. 131, OiSinn, Thorr, Freyr are speakers of doom.

3 Pliny N. H. 5, 9 mentions Ethiopian ' naves plicatiles humeris translatas.'

KIKDU. 217

tlian OSinn, for in the Egilssaga p. 3G5, Frcijr, Niorffr and the
laiidds ' (Thorr) are likewise mentioned together. In tlie same
Egilss. p. G72, Fi'cyr ok Niordr are again placed side by side. The
story of the Brisinga-men (-monile ; append, to Sn. 354) says, OSinn
had appointed both Freyr and Morcfr to be sacrificial gods. Hall-
frec5r sang (Fornm. sog. 2, 53, conf. 12, 49) :

]\Ier skyli Freyr oc Frcyja, fiarcS loet ek aSul XiarSar,
liknist grom vi5 Grimni gramr ok Thorr enn rammi !

That Freyr in these passages should be brought forward with
Freyja and NiorCr, is easy to understand (see SuppL).

Of Niur&r our German mythology would have nothing to tell,
any more than Saxo Gram, ever mentions him by that name, had
not Tacitus put in for us that happy touch of a goddess jS'eiihns,
whose identity with the god is as obvious as that of Fro with
Frouwa. The Gothic form Nairpus would do for either or
even for both sexes ; possibly Fravija was considered the son
of the goddess NairJ)us, as Freyr is of the god NiorSr, and in
the circuit which the goddess makes in her car, publishing peace
and fertility to mortals, we can recognise that of Freyr or of his
father XiorSr. According to Yngl. saga cap. 11, these very bless-
ings were believed to proceed from NiorSr also : ' auSigT seni
NiorSr ' (rich as N.) was a proverbial saying for a wealtliy man,
Vatnsd. p. 202. Snorri, in Formali 10, identifies him with Saturn,
for he instructed mankind in vine-dressing and husbandry ; it
would be nearer the mark to think of him and Freyr in connexion
with Dionysus or Liber, or even with Noah, if any stress is to be
laid on NiorS's abode being in Noatun. As ' freyr ' was affixed
to other names of heroes (p. 211-2), I find geirniorffr used for a hero
in general, Siem. 266^ ; conf. geirmimir, geirniflungr, &c. The
name itself is hard to explain ; is it akin to north, AS. norS, ON".
norSr, Goth. naur])s ? In Sa3m. 109^ there is niarSlas for sera
firma, or pensilis ? I have met with no Nirdu, Nerd, Nird among
OHG. proper names, nor with a NeorS in the AS. writings.
Irminon's polyptych 22 2** has Narthildis (see Suppl.).

Niorffr appears to have been greatly honoured : hofum oc
horgum hann raiSr hundmorgum, Siem. 30=^ ; esj)ecially, no doubt,
among people that lived on the sea coast. The Edda makes him
rule over wind, sea and fire, he loves waters and lakes, as Nertlius
in Tacitus bathes in the lake (Sn. 27) ; from the mountains of the

218 FRO.

midland he longs to be away where the swans sing on the cool
shore ; a water-plant, the spongia marina, bears the name of Niar&ar
vdttr, NiorS's glove, which elsewhere was very likely passed on to
his daughter Freyja, and so to Mary, for some kinds of orchis
too, from their hand-shaped root, are called Mary's hand, lady-hand,
god's hand (Dan. gudshaand).

As Dionysus stands outside the ring of the twelve Olympian
gods, so MorSr, Freyr and Freyja seem by rights not to have been
reckoned among the Ases, though they are marshalled among
them in Sn. 27-8. They were Vanir, and therefore, according to
the view of the elder Edda, different from Ases ; as these dwelt in
AsgarS, so did the Vanir in Vanaheim, the Alfar in Alfheim, the
lotnar in lotunheim. Freyr is called Vaningi, Sa;m. 86^. The
Vanir were regarded as intelligent and wise, Saim. 36* ; and they
entered into intimate fellowship with the Asen, while the
Alfs and lotuns always remained opposed to them. Some have
fancied that the Alfs and lotuns stand for Celtic races, and the
Vanir for Slav; and building chiefly on an attempt in the Yngl.
saga cap. 1 to find the name of the Tanais in Tanaqvisl (or Vana-
qvisl !), they have drawn by inference an actual boundary-line
between Aesir and Vanir = Germani and Slavi in the regions
formerly occupied by them (see Suppl.). And sure enough a
Eussian is to this day called in Finnish Wenailainen, in Esth.
Wennelane ; even the name of the Wends might be dragged in,
though the Vandili of Tacitus point the other way. Granting that
there may be some foundation for these views, still to my mind
the conceptions of Aesir, Vanir, Alfar in the Edda are sketched on
a ground altogether too mythical for any historical meaning to be
got out of them ; as regards the contrast between Ases and Vanir,
I am aware of no essential difference in the cultus of the several
gods ; and, whatever stress it may be right to lay on the fact that
Froiiwa, Freyja answers to a Slavic goddess Priye, it does not at
all follow that Fro, Frouwa and Nerthus were in a less degree
Germanic deities than the rest. Tacitus is silent on the German
Liber, as he is on our Jupiter, yet we are entitled to assume a
universal veneration of Donar, even though the Gothic fai'rguni is
better represented in Perkunas or Perun ; so also, to judge by what
clues we have, Frauja, Fro, Freyr appears so firmly established,
that, considering the scanty information we have about our

FRO. 219

antiquities, no German race can be denied a sliare in liini, tliougli
some nations may have worshipped liim more than others; and
even that is not easy to ascertain, except in Scandinavia.^

It is worthy of notice, that the AS. and ON. genealogies brino'
Fred into kinship witli Wuden, making Finn the father of a Frealaf
(P'riGleifr), and him again of Woden ; some of them insert two more
links, FriSuwulf and FriSuwald, so that the complete pedigree
stands thus : Finn, Fri&uwulf, Frcdldf, Fri&awald, Wdclen (or, in
the place of Frealaf, our old acquaintance Freawine). Here
evidently FriSuwulf, Frealaf, FriSuwald are all the same thing, a
mere expansion of the simple Fred. This follows even from a quite
different OX. genealogy, Fornald. sog. 2, 12, which makes Burr
(= Finn; conf. Eask, afh. 1, 107-8) the immediate progenitor of
OSinn, and him of Freyr, NiorSr and a second Freyr. The double
Freyr corresponds to the AS. FriSuwulf and FriSuwald, as the
words here expressing glad, free and fair are near of kin to one
another. Lastly, when the same AS. genealogies by turns call
Finn's father Godwulf and Folcimld, this last name is supported by
tlie 'Fin Folcwalding' (-ing = son) of Cod. exon. 320, 10 and of
Beow. 2172, where again the reference must be to Frea and his
race, for the Edda (Siem. 87% conf. 10=^) designates Freyr ' folcvcddi
(al. folcvaldr) goSa'. Now this folkvaldi means no other than
dominator, princeps, i.e. the same as frea, fr6, and seems, like it, to
pass into a proper name. On the linking of Freyr and NiorSr with
OSinn, there will be more to say in ch. XV (see Suppl.). If
Snorri's comparison of NiorSr with Kronos (Saturn) have any
justification, evidently Poseidon (Neptune) the son of Kronos would
come nearer to our Teutonic sea-god; and IloaeiScov might be
referred to iroacs (lord, Lith. pats, Sansk. patis, Gotli. faj^s), which
means the same as Fro. Only then both Fro and Nirdu would
again belong to the eldest race of gods.

> Wh. Miiller, Nibehingensage pp. 136—148, wishes to extend the Vanir
gods only to the Siieves and Goths, not to the western Germans, and to draw a
distinction between the worship of Freyr and tliat of "Wiiotan, wliicli to me
looks very dou\)tful. As little can I give up the point, that Nior^r and Nerthus
were brother and sister, and joint parents of Freyr and Freyja ; this is grounded
not only on a later re])resentuti(jn of Snorri in the Yngl. saga cap. 4, where yet
the female NidrS is nowhere named, as Tacitus conversely knows only a female
Nerthus and no god of that name ; but also on tSu'm. 65» : ' vi(5 svstor thiuni
gaztu slikan niog,' with thy sister begattest thcu such brood, though here again
the sister is left muiamed.



The myth of Balder, one of the most ingenious and beautiful in
the Edda, has happily for us been also handed down in a later
form witli variations : and there is no better example of fluctuations
in a god-myth. The Edda sets forth, how the pure blameless deity
is struck with Mistiltein by the blind HoSr, and must go down to
the nether world, bewailed by all ; nothing can fetch him back, and
Nanna the true wife follows him in death. In Saxo, all is pitched
in a lower key : Balder and Hother are rival suitors, both wooing
Nanna, and Hother the favoured one manages to procure a magic
sword, by which alone his enemy is vulnerable ; when the fortune
of war has wavered Ions; between them, Hother is at last victorious
and slays the demigod, to whom Hel, glad at the near prospect of
possessing him, shews herself beforehand. But here the grand
funeral pile is prepared for Gelder, a companion of Balder, of whom
the account in the Edda knows nothing whatever. The worship of
the god is attested chiefly by the Fri5']?iofssaga, v, Eornald. sog. 2,
63 seq. (see Suppl.).

Baldr, gen. Baldrs, reajDpears in the OHG. proper name Paltar
(in Meichelbeck no. 450. 460. 611) ;^ and in the AS. Icaldor, haldor,
signifying a lord, prince, king, and seemingly used only with a gen.
pi. before it : gumena baldor, Caidm. 163, 4. wigeua baldor, Jud.
132, 47. sinca bealdor, Beow. 4852. winia bealdor 5130. It is
remarkable that in the Cod. exon. 276,18 mtegSa bealdor (virginum
princeps) is said even of a maiden. I know of only a few examples
in the ON. : baldur t brynju, Ssem. 272^ and herbaldr 218'' are
used for a hero in general ; atgeirs baldr (lanceae vir), Fornm. sog.
5, 307. This conversion from a proper name to a noun appellative

1 Graff 1, 432 tliinks this name stands for Paltaro, and is a compoiuul of
aro (aar, aquila), bnt this is nnsujiported by analogy ; in tlie ninth and tenth
centuries, weak forms are not yet curtailed, and we always find Epiu-aro
(.eberaar, boar-eagle), never Epurar.


exactly reminds us of fniuja, iVu, fred, and the OTsT. ty*r. As bealdor
is already extinct in AS. prose, our proper name Paltar seems
likewise to have died out early ; heathen songs in OHG. may have
knuwn a paltar = princeps. Such Gothic forms as Baldrs, gen.
Ualdris, and baldrs (princeps), may fairly be assumed.^

This Baldrs would in strictness appear to have no connexion
with the Goth, bal|7s (bold, audax), nor Paltar with the OHG. paid,
nor Baldr with the ON. ballr. As a rule, the Gothic Id is represented
by ON. Id and OHG. It: the Gothic 1> by ON. 11 and OHG. ld.2
But the OS. and AS. have Id in both cases, and even in Gothic, ON. and
OHG. a root will sometimes appear in both forms in the same lan-
guage;^ so that a close connexion between bal]9s and Baldrs,* paid and
Paltar, is possible after all. On mythological grounds it is even
probable : Balder's wife Nanna is also the bold one, from nenna to
dare ; in Gothic she would have been Nanjjo from nan];jan, in
OHG. Naiuld from gi-nendan. The Baldr of the Edda may not
distinguish himself by bold deeds, but in Saxo he lights most
valiantly ; and neither of these naiTatives pretends to give a
complete account of his life. Perhaps the Gothic Bedtime (Jor-
nandes 5, 29) traced their origin to a divine Bal];s or Baldrs (see

Yet even this meaning of the ' bold ' god or hero migiit be a
later one : the Lith. laltas and Lett, halts signify the white, the
good ; and by the doctrine of consonant-change, baltas exactly

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