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answers to the Goth. bal];s and OHG. paid. Add to this, that the
AS. genealogies call Woden's son not Bealdor, Baldor, but Bceldceg,
Beldcg, which would lead us to expect an OHG. Paltac, a form that
I confess I have nowhere read. But both dialects have plenty of
other proper names compounded with da,'g and tac : OHG, Adaltac,

1 Balilr.^, Paltar, must be kept distinct from the compound Baldhcri
(Scliannat no. 420. 448 j, Faldheri (Trad, patav. no. 35), AS. Baldhere. This
Paldheri is the same as Paldachar (Trad, patav. no. 18).

^ Goth. kalds ) ( vilJKds hull:)S gi-d}?.

ON. kaldr }- but -J villr hollr guU.

OHG. chalt j ( wikli h.dd kokk

3 Conf. Gothic al]->an and a^rs aklis, also aldrs ; Goth, faljmn and OHG.
faklan, afterwards faltan. As k def,'ent'rates into d, and d into t, any d put for
k, or t for d, mai'ks a kiter form : the Goth, fadr stands for fakr, as we see by-
pater [the AS. ' fieder, modor,' after a usur2)ation of 1000 years, must have
given jdace to the truer ' father, mother' again]. In the ON. vakki pret. oUi,
we must regard tlie 11 as older than tlie Id, in spite of tke Goth, valdan and
OHG. waltan [soTne would prefer to call valda an archaism].
■* Ualdr may be related to bal]?, as tir to ty, ajid zior to no.



222 PALTAR.

Alptac, Ingatac, Kertac, Helmtac, Hruodtac, Eegintac, Sigitac ;
OS. Alacdag, Alfdag (Albdag, Pertz 1, 286), Hildidag, Liuddag,
Osdag, Wulfdag ; AS. Wegdieg, Swefdieg ; even the ON", has the
name Svipdagr. Now, either Bteldseg simply stands for Bealdor,
and is synonymous with it (as e.^r., Eegintac with Eeginari, Sigitac
with Sigar, Sigheri)^ ; or else we must recognise in the word dcc(j,
dag, tac itself a personification, such as we found another root
undergoing (p. 1 94-5) in the words div, divan, dina, dies ; and both
alike would express a shining one, a white one, a god. Prefixing to
this the Slavic Uel, hel, we have no need to take Bsldeeg as standing
for Bealdor or anything else, Bcd-dmg itself is white-god, light-god,
he that shines as sky and light and day, the kindly BiUhogh, Bel-
hogh of the Slav system (see SuppL). It is in perfect accord with
this explanation of Bsel-dseg, that the AS. tale of ancestry assigns
to him a son Brond, of whom the Edda is silent, brond, brand, ON.
brandr, signifying jubar, fax, titio. Bcneldteg therefore, as regards
his name, would agree with Berhta, the bright goddess.

We have to consider a few more circumstances bearing on this
point. Baldr's beauty is thus described in Sn. 26: ' Hann ersva /a-^rr
&,litum ok hiartr svd at lysir af homwi, oc eittgras er sva hvitt, at
iafnat er til Baldrs hrdr, ]7at er allra grasa hvitast oc ];ar eptir mattu
marka bans fegurS ba38i a hari ok liki ' ; he is so fair of countenance
and bright that he shines of himself, there is a grass so white that it
is evened with Baldr's brows, it is of all grasses whitest, and thereby
mayest thou mark his fairness both in hair and body. This
plant, named Baldrsbrd after the god's white eyebrow,^ is either the
anthemis cotula, still called Barhro in Sweden, Balsenshro, Ballensbm
in Schonen, and Barhrogras in Denmark, or the matricaria maritima
inodora, whi^h retains the original name in Iceland (see Suppl.).^
In Skane there is a Baldursbcrg, in the Ottingen country a
Balder7i, and in the Vorarlberg, east of Bregenz, Baldcrschivang ;
such names of places demand caution, as they may be taken from
men, Baldar or Baldheri, I therefore withhold the mention of
several more. But the heavenly abode of the god was called
Brei&ablih, nom. pi. (Sa^m. 41'', Sn. 21-7), i.e. broad splendors,

1 The cases are hardly analogous : Bseld-opr/ and Regin-frtc. — Trans.

2 Homer emphasizes the dark brows ot Zeus and Hera, ocfipus Kvavia.
Conf. XevKocppvt and Artemis XevKo(f)pvvT], white-browed Diana.

' Germ, names of the camomile : kuhauge, rindsauge, ochsenauge (ox-eye).
Dalecarl. hvitet-oja (white eye), in Buhuslan hvita-piga (white girl).



HADU. 223

which may have reference to tlie streaks of the milky way ; a place
near Letlira, not far from Eoeskild, is said to have borne the name
of Brcdehlick} This very expression re-appears in a poem of the
twelfth century, though not in reference to a dwelling-place, but to
a host of snow-white steeds and heroes advancing over the battle-
field : Do brahte Pietheriches vane zvencik dusint lossam in
hreither Uiclcin uber lant, Eoth. 2635. In Wh. 381, 16 : ' daz
bluot liber die Uiclce floz, si \vurdn almeistic rotgevar,' did the
blood flow over the paths of the field, or over the shining silks ?

If BaMa-g and Brond reveal to us that the worship of Balder
had a definite form of its own even outside of Scandinavia, we
may conclude from the general diffusion of all the most essential
proper names entering into the main plot of the myth there, that
this myth as a whole was known to all Teutons. The goddess lid,
as will be more fully shown in ch. XIII, answers to the Gothic im-
personal noun halja, OHG. hella. Hoffr (ace. Ho(5, gen. HaSar, dat.
HeSi), pictured as a blind god of tremendous strength (Sn. 31),
who without malice discharges the fatal arrow at Baldr, is called
Hotherus in Saxo, and implies a Goth. Hapus, AS. Hcaffo, OHG.
Hadu, OFrank. Chado, of which we have still undoubted traces in
proper names and poetic compounds. OHG. Hadupraht, Hadufuns,
Hadupald, Hadufrid, Hadumar, Hadupurc, Hadulint, Haduwic
(Hedwig), &c., forms which abut close on the Catumerus in Tacitus
(Hadumar, Hadamar). In AS. poetry are still found the terms
heaSorinc (vir egregius, nobilis), Credm. 103, 4 Beow. 737. 4927 ;
heaSowelm (belli impetus, fervor), Coedm. 21, 14. 147, 8. Beow. 164.
5633; heaSoswat (sudor bellicus), Beow. 2919. 3211. 3334; heaSowa^d
(vestis bellica), Beow. 78 ; heaSubyrne (lorica bellica), Cod. exon.
297, 7 ; heaSosigel and heaSogleam (egregium jubar). Cod. exon.
486, 17 and 438, 6; heaSolac (pugnae Indus), Beow. 1862.
3943 ; heaSogrim (atrocissimus), Beow. 1090. 5378 ; heaSosioc
(pugna vulneratus), Beow. 5504 ; heaSosteap (celsus), Beow. 2490.
4301. In these words, except where the meaning is merely intensi-
fied, the prevailing idea is plainly that of battle and strife, and tlie
god or hero must have been thought of and honoured as a warrior.
Therefore Ilapus, Hoffr, as well as Wuotan and Zio, expressed
phenomena of war ; and he was imagined blind, because he dealt
out at random good hap and ill (p. 207). — Then, beside Ho5r, we

» Suhm. crit. lii.st. 2, 63,



224 PALTAR.

have Hcrmodr interweaving himself in the thread of Balder's
history ; he is dispatched to Hel, to demand his beloved brother
back from the underworld. In Saxo he is already forgotten ; the
AS. genealogy places its Hereinod' among Woden's ancestors, and
names as his son either Sceldwa or the Sceaf renowned in story,
whereas in the North he and Balder alike are the offspring of 06inn ;
in the same way we saw (p. 219) Freyr taken for the father as well
as the son of XiorSr. A later Heremod appears in Beow. 1795.
3417, but still in kinship with the old races ; he is perhaps that
hero, named by the side of Sigmundr in Ssem. 113=^, to whom OSinn
lends helm and hauberk. AS. title-deeds also contain the name;
Kemb. 1, 232. 141 ; and in OHG. Hcrimuot, Hcrimaot, occurs very
often (Graff 2, 699 anno 782, from MB. 7, 373. Neugart no.
170. 214. 244. 260. annis 809-22-30-34. Eied. no. 21 anno
821), but neither song nor story has a tale to tell of him (see
Suppl.).

So much the more valuable are the revelations of the ilerseburg
discovery ; not only are we fully assured now of a divine Balder in
Germany, but there emerges again a long-forgotten mythus, and
with it a new name unknown even to the North.

When, says the lay, Phol (Balder) and Wodan were one day
ridino- in the forest, one foot of Balder's foal, ' demo Balderes volon,'
was wrenched out of joint, whereupon the heavenly habitants
bestowed their best pains on setting it right again, but neither
Sinngund and Sunna, nor yet Frua and Folia could do any good,
only Wodan the wizard himself could conjure and heal the limb
(see Suppl.).

The whole incident is as little known to the Edda as to other
Norse legends. Yet what was told in a heathen spell in Thuringia
before the tenth century is still in its substance found lurking
in conjuring formulas known to the country folk of Scotland
and Denmark (conf. ch. XXXIII, Dislocation), except that they
apply to Jesus what the heathen believed of Balder and Wodan.
It is somewhat odd, that Cato (Dere rust. 160) should give, likewise
for a dislocated limb, an Old Eoman or perhaps Sabine form of
spell which is unintelligible to us, but in which a god is evidently
invoked: Luxum si quod est, hac cantione sanum fiet. Harundinem
prende tibi viridem pedes IV aut V longam, mediam diffinde, et
duo homines teneant ad coxendices. Incipe cantare in alio S.F.



IIERIMUOT. PHOL. 225

motas vaeta claries dardaries astataries Dissunapiter ! usque duiii
coeant. "What follows is nothing to our purpose.

The horse of Balder, lamed and checked on his journey, acquires
a full meaning the moment we think of him as the god of light or
day, whose stoppage and detention must give rise to serious mis-
chief on the earth. Probably the story in its context could have
informed us of this ; it was foreign to the jjurpose of the conjuring-
spell.

The names of the four goddesses will be discussed in their
proj)er place ; what concerns us here is, that Balder is called by a
second and hitherto unheard-of name, Phol. The eye for our
antiquities often merely wants opening: a noticing of the unnoticed
has resulted in clear footprints of such a god being brought to oar
hand, in several names of places.

In Bavaria there was a PJiolesamva, Fholesouioa, ten or twelve
miles from Passau, which the Traditiones patavienses first mention
in a document drawn up between 774 and 788 (MB. vol. 28, pars
2, p. 21, no. 2.3), and afterwards many later ones of the same district:
it is the present village of Pfalsau. Its composition with anc quite
fits in with the supposition of an old heathen worship. The gods were
W'orsliipped not only on mountains, but on ' eas' inclosed by brooks
and rivers, where fertile meadows yielded pasture, and forests shade.
Such was the castum nemus of Nerthus in an msitZa Oceani, . such
Fosetesland .with its willows and well-springs, of which more
presently. • Baldrshagi (Balderi pascuum), mentioned in the FriS-
J?iofssaga, was an enclosed sanctuary (griSastaSr), which none might
damage. I find also that convents, for which time-hallowed vener-
able sites were preferred, were often situated in * eas ' ; and of one
nunnery the very word is used : ' in der megde ouioe^ in the maids'
ea (Diut. 1, 357).^ The ON. mythology supplies us with several eas
named after the loftiest gods : OSinsey (Odensee) in Fiineu, another
O'Sinsc// (Onsoe) in Norway, Fornm. sog. 12, 33, and Thorse?/, 7, 234.
9, 17 ; Hlessc?/ (Lassoe) in the Kattegat, &c., &c. We do not know
any OIIG. AVuotanesouwa, Donaresouwa, but Pholesouwa is equally
to the point.

Very similar must have been PJiolcsjnant (MB. 9, 404 circ. 1138.

1 So tlie Old Bavarian convent of Chienisee was called ounu (]MB. 28% lO.'J
an. 890), and afterwards the monastery there 'der herren wcrd,' and the nunnery
'der nunnen loerd'. Stat ' zo gottes ouwe' in Lisch. mekl. jb. 7, 227, from a
fragment belonging to Bertholds Crane. Demantin 242.

15



226 PALTAR.

Pfalspiunt, 5, 399 anno 1290), now Pfalzpoint on the Altmiihl,
between Eichstadt and Kipfenberg, in a considerable forest. Piunt
means an enclosed field or garden ;^ and if an ea could be conse-
crated to a god, so could a field. Graff 3, 342 has a place called
Yra-wimpiunt, which, to judge by the circumstances, may with like
reason be assigned to the goddess Frouwa; no doubt it also belongs
to Bavaria (see Suppl.).

In the Fulda Traditions (Schannat p. 291, no. 85) occurs this
remarkable passage : Widerolt comes tradidit sancto Bonifacio
quicquid proprietatis habuit in Pholesbrunnen in provincia Thur-
ingiae. To this Pholesbrunno, the village of Plmlsborn has the first
claun, lymg not far from the Saale, equidistant from the towns
Apolda, Dornburg and Suiza, and spelt in Mid. Age documents
Phulsborn and Pfolczborn ; there is however another village, Fals-
hrunn or Falsbronn, on the Ptauhe Eberach in the Franconian
Steigerwald. Now Ffoleshrunno all the more plainly suggests a
divinity (and that, Balder), as there are also Baldersbrunnen : a
Baldebrunno has been produced from the Eifel mts, and from the
PJiine Palatinate,^ and it has been shown that the form ought to be
corrected into Baldershrunno as well as the modern Baldenhain to
Baldershain (Zeitschr. f. d. alt. 2, 256) ; and Bellstadt in the Klingen
district of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was formerly Baldersteti,
Schannat dioec. Fuld. p. 244, anno 977 (see Suppl.). From the
Norse mythus of Balder, as given by Saxo, we learn that Balder in
the heat of battle opened a fountain for his languishing army :
Victor Balderus, ut afflictum siti militem opportuni liquoris beneficio
recrearet, novos humi laticcs terram altius rimatus aperuit, quorum
erumpentes scatebras sitibundum agmen hianti passim ore captabat.
Eorundem vestigia sempiterna firmata vocabulo, quamquam pristina
admodum scaturigo desierit, nondum prorsus exolevisse creduntur.
This spot is the present Baldershrdnd near Eoeskild (note to JMiiller's
Saxo, p. 120). But the legend may be the same as old German
legends, which at a later time placed to king Charles's account (p.
117, and infra, Furious host) that which heathendom had told of

1 A Salzburg doc. of the tenth cent., in Kleinniayrn p. 196 : Curtilem
locum cum duobus pratis, quod piimti dicimus.

2 Conf. Schopflin's Alsat. dipl. no. 748, anno 1285 : in villa Baldeburne.
A Westphal. doc. of 1203 (Falke trad. corb. p. 566) names a place Balderbroc,
which might mean palus, campus Balderi.



PHOL. 227

Balder ; in that case the still surviving name has itself proved a
fountain, whence the myth of Balder emerges anew.^

But the name of Phol is established more firmly still. A
Heinricus de Flioling frequently appears in the Altacli records of
the 13th century, MB. part 11, a Eapoto de PhoUngcn, Fhaling, in
MB. 12, 56. GO ; this place is on the left bank of the Danube below
Straubingen, between the two convents of Altacli. I doubt if the
Polling in other records (and there are several Pollings in the
Ammer country) can be the same word, as the aspirate is wanting
and the liquid doubled. Pfullendorf or Follendorf near Gotha is
in docs, of the 14th century Phulsdorf. A Pholcnheim in Schannat,
Vind. lit. coll. 1, 48. 53. Not far from Scharzfeld, between the
Harz mts and Thuringia, is an old village named Folde, called in
early records and writings Polldi, Palidi, PalitJii, Pholidi (Gramm.
2, 248), the seat of a well-known convent, which again may have
been founded on the site of a heathen sanctuary. If a connexion
with the god can be established in this case, we at the same time
gather from it the true value of the varying consonant in his name.

Of Phol so many interpretations crowd upon us, that we should
be puzzled if they could all be made good. The Chaldaic hd or hcd
seems to have been a mere title pertaining to several gods : bel:=
Uranus, bel=Jupiter, bel=rMars. The Finnish palo means fire, the
ON. hdl, AS. hael rogus, and the Slav, ydliti to burn, with which
connect Lat. Pales and the Palilia. Of 2J^iaUus we have already
spoken. We must first make sure of the sounds in our native
names for a divinity of whom as yet we know nothing but the
bare name (see Suppl.). On the question as to the sense of the word
itself, I set aside the notion one might stumble on, that it is merely
a fondling form of Paltar, Balder, for sucli forms invariably preserve
the initial of the complete name ; we should expect Palzo, Balzo,
but not Phol.2 Nor does the OHG. Ph seem here to be equivalent

1 Greek tradition tells of Herakles and Zeus : (jyaa-l rhv 'UpaKXea 8i\l/(i nore
Karaxivra ev^aadai to Au irarpX 67rtSel|at aiir^ fiiKpav \ifiaba. 6 be fii] 6e\av
avTuv KnTaTpv^eadaL, pl'^as Kepavvov avibu>K€ fiiKpav \i[3uba, fjv 6ea(Tdp(vos 6
HpaKXfjs KOL o"Ka\//'as els to ifkovaiuiTepov iivoirjcTe (fiepeadai (Scholia in 11. 20, 74).
This sprin,^' was Scamander, and the Xt/Sa? 'HpaKXijos may be si-t ]>y the side of
Pf(jlesljruniio as well as Pt'olesouwa, Xi[:in8tou bcinj,' both mead and ea ; and
does not the Grecian deniirjod's pyre kindled on Oeta snjrgcst that of Balder ?

- So I explain the proper name Folz from Folbreht, Folrat, Folmar, and
the like ; it therefore stands apart from Phol. [The Suppl. ([tialities the sweep-
injT assertion in the text ; it also takes notice of several other solutions, as
ApoUu, PuUux, foal, &c.]



228 PALTAR.

to the ordinary F which corresponds to the Saxon F, but rather to
he an aspirate which, answering to the Saxon tenuis P, represents
an Old-Aryan media B. But we know that a Saxon initial P=:OHG.
Ph is found almost exclusively in foreign words^ (porta, phorta ;
putti, phuzi ; peda, pheit) ; it follows that for Phol, in case tlie Sax.
form Pol is really made out, we must either look for such a foreign
P, or as a rare exception, in which the law of consonant-change
does assert itself, an Old- Aryan B. I incline to this last hypothesis,
and connect Phol and Pol (wdiose o may very well have sprung
from a) with the Celtic Bcal, Beul, Bel, Bdcnus, a divinity of light
or fire, the Slav. BiUhogh, Belhogh (white-god), the adj. biel, bel
(albus), Lith. baltas, which last with its extension T makes it pro-
bable that Baeldseg and Baldr are of the same root, but have not
undergone consonant-change. Phol and Paltar therefore are in their
beginning one, but reveal to us two divergent historical develop-
ments of the same. word, and a not unimportant difference in the
mythology of the several Teutonic races.^

So far as we can see, the god was worshipped under the name
of Phol chiefly by the Thuringians and Bavarians, i.e. according to
ancient nomenclature the Hermunduri and Marcoriianni, yet they
seem to have also known his other name Pultar or Balder, while

1 That is, really horrowed words, as port, paternal, palace, in which the Low
Germ, makes no change (like that in tirth, father), anil therefore the High
Germ, stands only one stage instead of two in advance oi Latin : I'forte, Pfalz,
&c. Such words stand outside the rule of consonant-change. — Trans.

^ I have thus far gone on the assumption that Phol and Balder in the
Merseberg spell designate one and the same divine being, which is strongly
supported by the anak\gy I have pointed out between Pholesouwa and Baldishagi,
Pholesbrunno and Baldrsbrunnr ; and his cultiis must have been very familiar
to the people, for the ])oem to be able to name him by different names in suc-
cession, without fear of being misunderstood. Else one might suppose by the
names, that Phol and Balder were two different gods, and there would be
plenty of room left for the question, who can possibly be meant by Phol ? If
PH could here represent V = VV^, which is contrary to all analogy, and is almost
put out of court by the persistent PH, PF in all those names of places ; then
we might try the ON. Ullr, Ollerus in Saxo, p. 45, which (like nil, OHG. wolla,
wool) would be in OHG. J-FoZ, so that ' Wol endi Wodan (UUr ok Ooinnj'
made a perfect alliteration. And Ullr was connected with Baldr, who in Stem.
93* is called ' Ullar seti,' sib to U., Ulli cognatus (see SuppL). But the gen.
would have to be Wolles, and that is contradicted by the invariably single L
in Pholes. The same reason is conclusive against Wackernagel's proposal to
take Fol for the god of fulness and plenty, by the side of the goddess Folia ; I
think the weak form Folio would be demanded for it by an OHG. Pilnitis ; v.
Haupts zeitschr. 2, 190. Still more does the internal consistency of the song
itself require the identity of Phol and Balder ; it would be odd for Phol to be
named at the beginning, and no further notice to be taken of liim.



rosiTE. 229

Baldaj, Bccldwg prevailed among the Saxons and "Westphalian.s,
and the AS. bealdor had passed into a common noun. Now as tlie
Bavarian p]or stood opposed to the Alamannic Zio, we ouglit to find
out whether Phol was in like manner unknown to the Alamanns
and the races most akin to them.^

Lastly, from eastern Germany we are transported to the north-
west by a name appertaining closely to the Balder cultus, and again
linking itself with the Edda. The Edda cites among the Ases a
son of Baldr and Nanna, Forscti, who like his father dwelt in a
shining hall Glitnir (glit, nitor, splendor, OHG. kliz) built of gold
and silver, and who (as Baldr himself had been called the wisest,
most eloquent and mildest god, whose verdicts are final, Sn. 27)
passed among gods and men for tlie wisest of judges; he settled all
disputed matters (Stem. 42^ Sn. 31. 103), and we are told no more
about him (see Suppl.).

This Forseti is well entitled to be compared with the Frisian
god Fosite, concerning whom some biographies composed in the
ninth century gives us valuable information. The vita sancti
Wilibrordi (f 739), written by the famous Alcuin (f 804), relates
as follows, cap. 10 : Cum ergo plus verbi Dei praedicator iter agebat,
pervenit in confinio Fresonum et Danorum ad quamdam insulam,
quae a quodam deo suo Fosite ab accolis terrae Fositesland appella-
tur, quia in ea ejusdem dei fana fuere constructa. qui locus a
paganis in tanta veneratione habebatur, ut nil in ea, vel animalium
ibi pascentium, vel aliarum quarumlibet rerum, gentilium quiscpunu
tangcre audebat, nee etiam el f ante qui ibi ebulliebat aquam hauriic
nisi taccns praesumebat. Quo cum vir Dei tempestate jactatus est,
mansit ibidem aliquot dies, quousque sepositis tempestatibus
opportunum navigandi tempus adveniret. sed parvipendens stultam

1 The inquiry, how far these names reach back into antiquity, is far from
exhausted yet. 1 have called attention to the P/'oZgraben (-ditch), the P/((/liecke
(-hedge, -fence), for which devil's dyke is elsewhere used ; then the raising of
the whirlwind is ascribed in some parts to the devil, in others to Ilerodias
[meaning H.'s daughter the dancer], in others again to Pfol. Eastern Hesse
on the "\Verra has a ' very queer' name for the whirlwind, beginning with BuU-
or Boil- ; and in the neighbouring Eichsleld Pulhineke is pronounced with
shyness and reluctance (Miinchner gel. anz. 1842, p. 7Gli). A Kidduwitz
ortlinance of the same district (."3, 327) contains the family name L'o///,sperg
(Polesberc 0, Pfoylsperg. The spelling Pull, Boil, would agree witli the con-
jecture hazarded "above, but I do not connect with this the idol Bid in the
Harz, for Bielstein leads back to bilstein, i.e. beilstein. Scliniid's westerw. id.
145 hixa 'polkcktr, holkcker for spectre, bugbear (see Suppl.).



230 PALTAR.

loci illius religionem, vel fcrocissimurn regis animiim, qui violatores
sacrorum illius atrocissima morte damnare solebat ; tres homines
in eo fonte cum invocatione sanctae Trinitatis baptizavit. sed et
animalia in ea terra pascentia in cibaria suis mactare praecepit.
Quod pagani intuentes, arbitrabantur eos vel in furorem verti, vel
ctiam veloci morte perire ; quos cum nil mali cernebant pati,
stupore perterriti, regi tamen Eadbodo quod viderant factum
retulerunt. Qui nimio furore succensus in sacerdotem Dei vivi
siiorum injurias clcorum ulcisci cogitabat, et per tres dies semper
tribus vicihus sortcs suo more mittehat, et nunquam damnatorum
sors, Deo vero defendente suos, super servum Dei aut aliquem ex
suis cadere potuit ; nee nisi unus tantum ex sociis sorte monstratus
martyrio coronatus est.— Eadbod feared king Pippin the Frank,
and let the evangelist go unhurt.^ What Wilibrord had left
unfinished, was accomplished some time after by another priest,
as the vita sancti Liudgeri, composed by Altfrid (-f- 849), tells of
the year 785 : Ipse vero (Liudgerus) .... studuit/a?ia destruere,
et omnes erroris pristini abluere sordes. curavit quoque ulterius
doctrinae derivare flumina, et consilio ab imperatore accepto, trans-
fretavit in confinio Fresonum atque Danorum ad quandam insulam,
quae a nomine dei sui falsi Fosde Fosctcslant est appellata ....
Pervenientes autem ad eandem insulam, destruxerunt omnia ejus-
dem Fosetis fana, quae illic fuere constructa, et pro eis Christi
fabricaverunt ecclesias, cumque habitatores terrae illius fide Christi
imbueret, baptizavit eos cum invocatione sanctae Trinitatis in fonte,
qui ibi ebulliebat, in quo sanctus Willibrordus prius homines tres



Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 24 of 46)