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baptizaverat, a quo etiam fonte nemo prius haurire aquam nisi
tacens praesumebat (Pertz 2, 410). — Altfrid evidently had the work
of Alcuin by him. Prom that time the island took the name of
helegland, Helgoland, which it bears to this day; here also the
evangelists were careful to conserve, in the interest of Christianity,
the sense of sacredness already attaching to the fiite. Adam ol
Bremen, in his treatise De situ Daniae (Pertz 9, 3G9), describe,
the island thus : Ordinavit (archiepiscopus episcopum) in Pinni
(Fiihnen) Eilbertum, quem tradunt conversum (1. captum) a piratis
Farriam insulam, quae in ostio fluminis Albiae longo secessu latet
in oceano, primum reperisse constructoque monasterio in ea fecisse
habitabilem. haec insula contra Hadeloam sita est. cujus longi-

^ Acta sanctor. Bene J., sec. 3. pars 1, p. 609.


tudo vix VIII milliaria panditur, latitiido quatuor; liomincs stramine
fragmentisque navium pro igne utuntur. Sermo est piratas, si
quando 2^'>'acdam inch vd minimam tulcrint, aut mox pcrissc nau-
fragio, aut occisos ah aliquo, nullum redisse indcmpnem ; quapropter
Solent hercmitis ibi vivcntihus decimas praedarum offerre ciivi magna
devotione. est enim feracissima frug-iim, ditissima volucrum et
pecudum nutrix, coUem habet unicuin, arborem nullain, scopulis
includitur asperrimis, nullo aditu nisi uno, ubi et aqua dulcis (the
spring whence they drew water in silence), locus vcnerahilis omnibus
nautis, praecipue vero piratis, unde nomen accepit ut Heiligeland
dicatur. hanc in vita sancti Willebrordi Fosetisland appellari
dicimus, quae sita est in confinio Danorum et Fresonum. sunt et
aliae insulae contra Fresiam et Daniam, sed nulla earum tarn memo-
rabilis. — The name Farria, appearing here for the first time, either
arose from confounding the isle of Folir with Helgoland, or we must
emend the passage, and read ' a piratis Farrianis.' By the customs
of these mariners and vikings even of christian times, we may
assure ourselves how holy the place was accounted in the heathen
time (see Suppl.).

In an island lying between Denmark, Friesland and Saxony, we
might expect to find a heathen god who was common to all three.
It would be strange if the Frisian Fusite were unknown to the
Norsemen ; and stranger still if the Eddie Forscti were a totally
different god. It is true, one would have expected a mention of this
deity in particular from Saxo Gram., who is quite silent about it ;
but then he omits many others, and in his day Fosite's name may
have died out amongst the Frisians.

There is some discrepancy between the two names, as was
natural in the case of two nations : ON. Forscti gen. Forscta, Fris.
Fosite gen. Fosites. The simplest supposition is, that from Forsite
arose by assimilation Fossite, Fosite, or that the II dropt out, as in
OHG. mosar for morsar, Low Germ, mosar; so in the Frisian
Angeln, according to Hagerup p. 20, fost, foste = forste, primus.
Besides, there is hardly any other way of explaining Fosite. In
ON. forscti is praeses, princeps, apparently translatable into OHG.
forasizo, a fitting name for the god who presides over judgment, and
arranges all disputes. The Gothic fauragaggja bears almost the
same sense, which I also find, even in much later writings, attached
to our word vorgdnger (now = predecessor). More complete AS.


genealogies would perhaps name a Forscta or Forsete as Baeldseg's

Forseti, Fosite are a proof of the extent of Balder's worship. If
we may infer from Pholesouwa and Baldrshagi that the god loved
isles and ' eas,' Helgoland is a case iu point, where the flocks of his
son grazed ; and so is perhaps the worship of the Hercules-pillars,
which, following Tacitus, we might fix on some other island near it.^

1 Later writers have turned Fosete into a goddess Foseta, Phoseta, Fosta, to
approximate her to the Roman Vesta ; maps of Helgoland, in which are found
marked a ' templum Fostae vel Phosetae ' of tlie year 768, and a ' templuin
Vestae' of 692, were made up in Major's Cimbrien (Plon, 1692), conf. Wiebel's
programm iiber Helgoland, Hanib. 1842. The god Foste and Fosteland could
easily find their way into the spurious Vita Suiberti cap. 7.

2 Another thought has struck my mind about Fosete. In the appendix to
the Heldenbuch, Ecke, Vasat, Abentrot are styled brothers. The form Fasat
instead of the usual Fasolt need not be a mistake ; there are several QHG.
men's names in -at, and OS. in -ad, -id, so that Fasat and Fasolt can hold their
ground side by side. Now Fasolt (conf. ch. XX. Storm) and Ecke were known
as god-giants of wind and water, Abentrot as a da;mon of light. As Ecke-Oegir
was worshipped on the Eider and in Lassoe, so might Fosite be in Helgoland.
The connexion with i'^orse^i must not be let go, l)ut its meaning as For-seti,
Fora-sizo becomes dubious, and I feel inclined to explain it as For.'-eti from
fors [a whirling stream, ' force ' in Cmnbld], Dan. fos, and to assume a daemon of
the whirlpool, a Fossegrimm (conf. ch. XVII. Nichus), with which Fosite' s
sacred spring would tally. Again, the Heldenbuch gives those three brotliers
a father Nentiger (for so we must read for Mentiger) = OHG. Nandgerj and



In addition to the gods treated of thus far, who could with
perfect distinctness be pointed out m all or most of the Teutonic
races, the Norse mythology enumerates a series of others, whose
track will be harder to pursue, if it does not die out altogether. To
a great extent they are those of wliom the North itself has little or
nothin" to tell in later times.

1. (Heimdall.)
Heim&allr, or in the later spelling Heimdallr, though no longer
mentioned in Saxo, is, like Baldr, a bright and gracious god :
hvitastr asa (whitest of ases, Siem. 72^),^ sverSas hvita, Sa?m. 90^
hviti as, Sn. 104 ; he guards the heavenly bridge (the rainbow), and
dwells in Himinhiorj (the heavenly hills). The heim in the first
part of his name agrees in sound with himinn ; ]iallr seems akin to
J^oll, gen. ])allar (pinus), Swed. tall, Swiss dale, Engl, deal (Staid. 1,
259, conf. Sclim. 2, G03-4 on mantala), but ]?oll also means a river,
Sn. 43, and Ereyja bears the by-name of MardoU, gen. Mardallar,
Sn. 37. 154. All this remains dark to us. No proper name in the
other Teutonic tongues answers to HeimSallr; but with Himiii-
hiorg (Sffim. 41^ 92*') or the common noun himinfioll (Soem. 148*
Yngl. saga cap. 39), we can connect the names of other hills : a
Himiliiibcrg (mons coelius) havmted by sj)irits, in the vita S. Galli,
Pertz 2, 10 ; Himclhcrc in Lichtenstein's frauend. 199, 10 ; a Iluni-
h'shcrr/ in the Fulda country, Schannat Buchon. vet. 33 G ; several in

1 When this passaf^e says further, ' vissi hann vol fram, sem Vanir aiyrir,'
liter. ' he Ibreknew well, like other Vanir,' his wisdoni is merely likened to
that of the Vanir (Graium. 4, 456 on ander), it is not meant that he was one of
them, a thin<,' never asserted anywhere [so in Homer, ' Greeks and otiiei- Trojans'
means ' and Trojans as weU']. The Fornald. so^. 1, 373 calls him, I know not
why, ' heimskastr allra asa,' heimskr usually signifying ignorant, a greenhorn,
what the MHG. poets mean by tump.


Ilesse (Kuclienb. anal. 11, 137) near Ibaand Waldkappel (Niederh.
wochenbl. 1834 pp. 106, 2183); a Himmelsherg in Vestgotlaud, and
one, alleged to be Heimdall's, in Halland. At the same time,
Himinvdnrjar, Stem. 150% tlie OS. hebanwang, hebeneswang, a
paradise (v. ch. XXV), tlie AS. Heofcnfcld coelestis campus, Beda
p. 158, and tbe like names, some individual, some general, deserve
to be studied, but yield as yet no safe conclusion about the god.

Other points about him savour almost of the fairy-tale : he is
made out to be the son of nine mothers, giantesses, Seem. 118^■^
Sn. 106. Laxd. p. 392 ; he wants less sleep than a bird, sees a
hundred miles off by night or day, and hears the grass grow on the
ground and the wool on the sheep's back (Sn. 30).^ His horse is
Gulltoppr, gold-tuft, and he himself has golden teeth,^ hence the
by-names Gullintanni and Hallinski&i, * tennur HallinskiSa,'
Fornm. sog. 1, 52. It is worthy of remark, that HallinskiSi and
Heimdali are quoted among the names for the ram, Sn. 221.

As watchman and warder of the gods (vorSr goSa, Ssem. 41),
Heimdali w4nds a powerful horn, Giallarlwrn, which is kept under
a sacred tree, Ssem. 5^ 8^ Sn. 72-3. What the Voluspa imparts,
must be of a high antiquity (see Suppl.).

Now at the very outset of that poem, all created beings great
and small are called mcgir Heim&allar, sons or children of the god ;
he appears therefore to have had a hand in the creation of the
world, and of men, and to have played a more exalted part than is
assigned to him afterwards. As, in addition to Wuotan, Zio pre-
sided over war, and Fro over fruitfulness, so the creative faculty
seems to have been divided between OSinn and HeimSallr.

A song of suggestive design in the Edda makes the first
arrangement of mankind in classes proceed from the same Heim-
ffallr, who traverses the world under the name of Mgr (see Suppl.).
There is a much later German tradition, very prevalent in the last
few centuries, which I have ventured to trace to this heathen one,
its origin being difficult to explain otherwise,^ As for the name Bigr,
it seems to me to have sprung, like dis from idis, by aphseresis
from an older form, which I cannot precisely determine, but would
connect with the MHG. Irinc, as in ON. an n before g or k often

1 Conf. KM. 3, 125.

2 Li diente cV oro, Pentam. 3, 1. Of a certain Haraldr : tennr voru miklor
ok gulls litr a, Fornald. sog. 1, 366.

3 Zeitsclirift f. d. alt. 2, 257—267. Conf. ch. XIX.


drops out (conf. stiiiga stack, ]?acka Jjanki), and, as will be shown
later, Iringes straza, Iringes wee answers to a Swedish Eriksgata.^
The shining galaxy would suit extremely well the god who descends
from heaven to earth, and whose habitation borders on Bifrost.

Norwegian names of places bear witness to his cultus : Hcim-
dallarvattn, a lake in Guldbrandsdalen (GuSbrandsdalr), and
Heimdallslmirj, a hill in Nummedalen (Naumudalr) ; neither is
mentioned in the ON. sagas.

2. (Bragi, Bkego.)

Above any other god, one would like to see a more general
veneration of the ON. Bragi revived, in whom was vested the gift
of poetry and eloquence. He is called the best of all skalds, Soem.
46^ Sn. 45, frumsmiSr bragar (auctor poeseos), and poetry itself is
hragrp' In honour of him the i>Va^afull or hragarivll was given
(p. 60) ; the form appears to waver between bragi gen. braga, and
bragr gen. bragar, at all events the latter stands in the phrase
' hragr karla ' = vir facundus, praestans, in ' asa hragr ' deorum
princeps = Thorr (Stem. 85^ Sn. 21 1% but Bragi 211^), and even
' hragr qvenna ' femina praestantissima (Soem. 218^).^

Then a poet and king of old renown, distinct from the god,
himself bore the name of Bragi hiim gamli, and his descendants
were styled Bragningar. A minstrel was pictured to the mind as
old and long-bearded, siSskeggi and skeggbragi, Sn. 105, which
recalls OSinn with his long beard, the inventor of poetry (p.
146) , and Bragi is even said to be OSin's son, Sn. 105 (see Suppl.).

In the AS. poems there occurs, always in the nom. sing., the
term hrcgo or hrcogo, in the sense of rex or princeps : bregostol in
Beow. 4u87 and Andr. 209 is thronus regius; bregoweard in Cajdm.
140, 26. 166, 13 is princeps.* Now, as gen. plurals are attached to

1 Der ganimel Erih, gamiiiel Erlce (old E.), has now come to mean old Nick
in Swedish ; conf. supra p. 124, on Erchtag.

^ Sa'm. 113'', of Otiiun : gel'r hann brag skaldom (dat carmen poetis).

^ Does not the Engl, hrag, Cierm. 'prahlen (gloriari) explain everything ?
Showy high-llown speech would apply equally to boasting and to poetry.
Then, for the other meaning, ' the boast, glory, master-piece (of men, gods,
women, angels, bears),' we can cither go back to the more primitive sense
(gloria) in prangen, priink, pi-add, bright, or still keep to brag. ' Beauty is
nature's bmg, and must be shewn,' .says Comus.— Trans.

•• In Beda 4, 23 (Stevens, p. 304) a woman's name Bregosiiid, BregoswiS ;
in Kemble 5,48 (anno 749) Bregesici&estdn, and 1, 133-4 (anno 762), 5, 46 (anno
747), 5, 59 (anno 798) a man's name Bregowine. In Beow. 3847 bregorof is


it : brcgo engla, Cifdm. 12, 7. 60, 4. 62, 3 ; brego Dena, Beow.
8i8 ; ho&leSa brego, Beow. 3905 ; gimiena brego, Aiidr. 61 ; beorna
brego, Andr. 305 (conf. brego moncynnes, Cod. exon. 457, 3) ; there
grows up an instructive analogy to the above-mentioned * bragr
karla,' and to the genitives similarly connected with the divine
names Tyr, Fred and Bealdor (pp. 196, 211, 220). The AS. hrego
equally seems to point to a veiled divinity, though the forms and
vowel-relations do not exactly harmonize.^

Their disagi-eement rather provokes one to hunt up the root
under which they could be reconciled : a verb briga brag would
suit the purpose. The Saxon and Frisian languages, but not the
Scandinavian or High German, possess an unexplained term for
cerebrum : AS. bregen (like regen pluvia, therefore better written
so than bra^gen), Engl, brain, Fris. brein. Low Sax. bregen ; I think
it answers to the notions ' understanding, cleverness, eloquence,
imitation,' and is connected with (l>pr']v, (pp€v6<i, -^pcop, -(ppovo<;. Now
the ON. bragr, beside poesis, means also mos, gestus, and ' braga
eftir einum ' referre aliquem gestu, imitari. OIIG. has nothing like
it, nor any such proper name as Prako, Brago, Briigo.

But, as we detected among the Saxons a faint trace of the god
or god's son, we may lay some stress on the fact that in an OS.
document of 1006 Buniackcr occurs as the name of a place, v.
Llinzel's Hildesheim, p. 124, conf. pref. v. (see Suppl.). Now Bragi
and his wife ISunn dwelt in Brunnakr, Sn. 121% and she is called
' Brunnakrs beckjar gei'Sr,' Brunnakerinae sedis ornatrix, as Sk.
Thorlacius interprets it (Spec. 6, pp. 65-6). A well or spring,
for more than one reason, suits a god of poetry ; at the same time a
name like ' springfield ' is so natural that it might arise without any
reference to gods.

Bragi appears to have stood in some pretty close relation to

Ocgir, and if an analogy between them could be established, which

however is unsupported hitherto on other grounds, then by the

side of ' briga brag ' the root ' braga brog ' would present itself, and

the AS. broga (terror), OHG. pruoko, bruogo, be akin to it. The

connexion of Bragi with Oegir may be seen by Bragi appearing

prominently in the poem Oegisdrecka, and by his sitting next to

Oegir in Sn. 80, so that in intimate converse with him he brings

out stories of the gods, which are thence called Bragarwd'ur,

1 The Iri8h breitlieam, brethemb (judex) is said to be pronounced almost
as ' brelion,' Trans, of Irish acad. 14, 1(57.


speeclies of Bragi. It is with great propriety, no dcniht, that tliese
narratives, during which Oegir often interrupts him witli questions
(8n. 93), as Gangleri does Har when holding forth in the first part
of the Edda, were put in the mouth of the patron of poetry.

3. Aki, Uoki (Oegir, Hler). Fifel, Geofon.

This Oegir, an older god of the giant kind, not ranked among
the Ases, but holding peaceable intercourse with them, bears the
name of the terrible, the awful. The root ' aga 6g ' had given birth
to plenty of derivatives in our ancient speech: Goth, agis 06/3o9, 6g
<f)o^eo/j,at, OHG, akiso, egiso, AS. egesa horror, OHG. aki, eki, AS.
ege (ege ? awe) terror, ON", oegja terror! esse, which can only be
spelt with oe, not te. To the proper name Oegir would correspond
a Goth. ()geis, AS. I^ge, OHG. Uogi, instead of which I can only
lay my hand on the weak form Uorjo, Oago. But oegir also signifies
the sea itself : sol gengr i ceginn, the sun goes into the sea, sets ;
cegi-sior pelagus is like the Goth, mari-siiivs ; the AS. eagor and
egor (mare) is related to ege, as sigor to sige. I attach weight to
tlie agreement of the Greek co/ceai/o'?, 'f2Keav6<i and 'fljijv, whence
the Lat. oceanus, Oceanus was borrowed, but aequor (mare placi-
dum) seems not cognate, being related to aequus, not to aqua and
Goth, ahva (see Supi)l.).i

The boisterous element awakened awe, and the sense of a god's
immediate presence. As "Woden was also called "VVoma (p. 144),
and OSinn Orni and Yggr, so the AS. poets use the terms woma,
sweg, bruga and egesa almost synonymously for ghostly and divine
plienomena (Andr. and El. pp. xxx — xxxii). Oegir was therefore a
highly appropriate name, and is in keeping with the notions of fear
and horror developed on p. 207-8.

This interpretation is strikingly confirmed by other mythical
conceptions. The Edda tells us of a fear-inspiring helmet, whose
name is Oegishialmr : er oil qvikvendi brwSast at sia, Sn. 137 ;
such a one did HreiCmar wear, and then Faihir when he lay on the
gold and seemed the more terrible to all that looked upon him,
Seem. 188=^; vera (to be) undir Oegishialmi, bera Oegishialm yUr

1 Oe</\v is also called Gymir, Spem. 59. GUmir, Sn. 125. 183 possilily
epiilator i but I know no other meaning of the ON. .yaunir than ciira, attentio,
thouL^h the OHG. goiinia, OS. goma means both ciua and cpulae, the AS.
gyniing both cura and nuptiae.


einum, means to inspire with fear or reverence, Laxd. saga, p. 130.
Islend. scig. 2, 155 ; ek bar Oegisliialni yfir alia folki, Fornald. sog.
1, 162 ; hafa Oegisliialm i augum, ibid. 1, 406, denotes that terrible
piercing look of the eyes, which others cannot stand, and the
famous basilisk-glance, ormr i anga, was something similar.^ Now
I find a clear trace of this Norse helmet in the OHG. man's name
Egihelm (Trad. fuld. 1, 97 ; in Schannat no. 126, p. 286 Eggihelm),
i.e. Ar/ihelni, identical with the strengthened-vowel form Uogihelm,
which I am unable to produce. But in the Eckenlied itself Ecke's
costly magic helmet, and elsewhere even Ortnit's and Dietrich's,
are called Hildcgrim, Hildcgrin ; and the ON. grima mask or
helmet (in fc'o3m. 51^ a name for night) has now turned up in a
Fulda gloss, Dronke p. 15 : ' scenici = crimiln ' presupposes a sing.
krimd larva, persona, galea ; so we can now understand KHmJiilt
(Gramra. 1, 188) the name of a Walkurie armed with the helmet of
terror, and ailso why ' daemon ' in another gloss is rendered by
cgisgrimolt. The AS. egcsgrime is equally a mask, and in El. 260
the helmet that frightens by its figure of a boar is called a grim-
helm. 1 venture to guess, that the wolf in our ancient apologue
was imagined wearing such a helmet of dread, and hence his name
of Isangrim, iron-mask, Eeinh. ccxlii (see Suppl.). Nor have we
yet come to the end of fancies variously playing into one another :
as the god's or hero's helmet awakened terror, so must his shield
and sword ; and it looks significant, that a terrific sword fashioned
by dwarfs should likewise be named in the two forms, viz. in the
Vilkinasaga Eclcisax, in Veldek's Eneit Uokcsahs (not a letter may
we alter), in the EckenUed Eckcn sahs, as Hildegrin was Ecken
helm, Eckes helm. In the Greek atVtV I do not look for any verbal
affinity, but this shield of Zev^ alymxo^ (H. 15, 310. 17, 593),
wielded at times by Athena (2, 447. 5, 738) and Apollo (15, 229.
318. 361. 24, 20), spreads dismay around, like Oegishialmr,
Hildegrim and Eckisahs ; Pluto's helmet too, which rendered
invisible, may be called to mind, — That ancient god of sea, Oceanus
and Oegir (see Suppl.), whose hall glittered with gold, Saem. 59,^

1 Fornm. sog. 9, 513 : gekk alvaldr unci Ygishiahni. The spelling with y
goes to confirm our cc, and refute fe, as an y can only stand for the former, not
ibr the latter ; conf. mor and the deriv. myri = moeri, Gramm. 1, 473.

- In the great feast which he gave to the gods, the ale came up of itself (sialft
barsc J^ar ol, f^iem. 59), as Hephaistus's tripods ran avrondroi in and out of the
6eiou dycbva, II. 18, 376. Even so Freyr had a sword cr siaJft vegiz (tliat swings
itself), Saan. 82*, and Thor's Miolnir comes back of itself everytime it is thrown.


would of all others wear the glittering helmet which takes its
name from him. From all we can find, his name in OHG. must
have been Aki or Uohi ; and it requires no great boldness to
supi:)Ose that in the Ecke of our heroic legend, a giant all over, we
see a precipitate of the heathen god. Ecke's mythical nature is
confirmed by that of iiis brothers Fasolt and Abentrot, of whom
more hereafter. As the Greek Okeanos has rivers given him for
sons and daughters, the Norse Oegir has by Ean nine daughters,
whose names the Edda apj)lies to waters and waves. We might
expect to find that similar relations to the seagod were of old
ascribed to our own rivers also, most of which were conceived of as
female [and still bear feminine names].

And there is one such local name in which he may be clearly
recognised. The Eider, a river which divides the Saxons from the
Northmen, is called by the Frankish annalists in the eighth and
ninth centuries Egidora, Agadora, Acgidora (Pertz 1, 355-70-86.
2, 620-31) ; -Helmold 1, 12. 50 spells Egdora. The ON. writers
more plainly write Ocgisdyr (Fornm. sog. 11, 28. 31, conf. Geogr. of
a Northman, ed. by Werlauff p. 15), i.e., ocean's door, sea-outlet,
ostium, perhaps even here with a collateral sense of the awful.
Again, a place called Oegisdyr is mentioned in Iceland, Landn. 5,
2, where we also find 3, 1 an Oegissid'a, latus oceani. Further, it
comes out that by the AS. name Fl/cldor in Cod. exon. 321, 8 and
by the Wieglesdor in Dietmar of Merseb. ad.ann. 975, p. 760 is
meant the Eider again, still the aforesaid Oegisdyr ; while a various
reading in Dietmar agrees with the annalist Saxo ad ann. 975 in
giving Heggedor=z'E^^gQ&OT, Egidor. Now, seeing that elsewhere
the AS. poems use Fifelstredm, Fifelwreg (Boeth. 26, 51. El. 237)
for the ocean, and Fifelcynnes card (Beow. 208) for the land of the
ocean-sprites, we may suppose Flfcl and its corruption Wicgcl to be
another and an obsolete name of Oegir.

The same may hold good of the AS. Geofon, OS. Gelan, a being
whose godhead is sufficiently manifest from the ON. Gefjun, who is
reckoned among the Asynior, though she bore sons to a giant.
The Saxon Gehan however was a god ; the Heliand shows only the
compound Gebenesstrom 90, 7. 131, 22, but the AS. poets, in
addition to Geofenes begang, Beow. 721, Geofenes staS, Ca^dm. 215,
8, and the less personal geofonhus (navis), Csedm. 79, 34, geofonflod.
Cod. exon. 193, 21, have also a Geofon standing independently in


the nom., Cfficlm. 206, 6, and gifen geotende, Beow. 3378. An
OHG. Kepan is nowhere found, even in proper names, though
Stiihlin 1, 598 gives a Gebencsvnlare. I know not whether to take
for the root the verb giban to give, in which case Gibika (p. 137)
and Wuotan's relation to Neptune (pp. 122, 148) would come in
here ; or to look away to the Greek %iaji^ fem. Ij^lFoov, hib-ernus ?]
and the notion of snow and ice giants.

And the North itself furnishes some names which are synony-
mous with Oegir. In the Fundinn Noregr (Sn. 369. Fornald. sog.
2, 17) we read : Forniotr fitti 3 syni, hett einn Hler, er vcr kollum
Ocgi (one hight Hler, whom we call Oegir), annarr Logi, Jnidji Kari
(liask, afh. 1, 95 : Kari). Hler, gen. Hies, appears from this to have
been the older name, in use among the giants, by which Oegir is
spoken of in Sn. 79, and after which his dwelling-place was named
Hles-cy (Sicm. 78'^ 159^ 243'^), now Liissoe in the Cattegat.

4. (Forniotr).
Of this Hler I have nothing more to tell (see Suppl.), but his
father Forniotr. has left a notable trace of himself behind ; he
belongs even less than Oegir to the circle of Ases, being one of the
older demonic giants, and proving that even these demigods or
personified powers of nature must also have borne sway among the
Teutonic races outside of Scandinavia. Forniotr is to be explained,
not as for-niutr primus occupans, but rather as forn-iotr, the ancient
lotr (Rask, afhand. 1, 78), a particularly apt expression for those
giants, and closely connected witli iotunn itself, AS. eoton, as will
be shown further on. Now in the AS. Liber medicinalis, from
which Wanley, pp. 176 — 80 gives insufficient extracts, there is
according to Lye's dictionary a plant of healing virtue spoken of
(twice apparently, from the various spelling) by the name of
Forneotcs folnic, Foriictcs folme {i.e. Forneoti manus). As none of

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