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the ON. writings allude to this herb, its name must be a remnant
of the Saxon people's own mythology. In OHG. the giant may
have been called Firnez, and the plant Firnezes folma. We
remember how, in Beow. 1662, Grendel has torn off the hand of a
water-sprite, and presents it as tacen of his victory, just as Tristan
chops off the giant Urgan's hand, and takes it with him to certify
the deed, 16055-65-85. The amputation of the huge giant-hand
seems therefore part of an ancient myth, and to have been fitly



LOKI, GRENDEL, SATURN'. 241

retained in the name of a broad-leaved vegetable ; there is also a
plant called deviVs-liancl, and in more than one legend the Evil one
leaves the print of his hand on rocks and walls.

If these last allusions have led us away from the beneficent
deities rather to hurtful demons and malignant spirits, we have here
an easy transit to the only god whom the teaching of the Edda repre-
sents as wicked and malevolent, though it still reckons him among
the Ases.

5. (LoKi, Grendel), Saturn.

Lofji, as we have seen, was a second son of Forniotr, and the
three brothers Hler, Logi, Kari on the whole seem to represent
water, fire and air as elements. N"ow a striking narrative (Sn. 54.
GO) places Logi by the side of Lohi, a being from the giant province
beside a kinsman and companion of the gods. This is no mere play
upon words, the two really signify the same tiling from different
points of view , Logi the natural force of fire, and Loki, with a
shifting of the sound, a shifting of the sense : of the burly giant
has been made a sly seducing villain. The two may be compared
to the Prometheus and the Hephajstus (Vulcan) of the Greeks ;
Okeanos was a friend and kinsman of the former. But the two get
mixed up. In Loki, sa er flestu iUu raeSr (Sn. 4G), who devises the
most of ill, we see also the giant demon who, like Hephaestus, sets
the gods a-laughing ; his limping reminds us of Hephsestus and the
lame fire (N". Cap. 76), his chaining of Prometheus's, for Loki is put
in chains like his son Fenrir. As Hephaestus forges the net for
Ares and Aphrodite, Loki too prepares a net (Sn. 69), in which he
is caught himself. Most salient of all is the analogy betw^een
Hephaestus being hurled down from Olympus by Zeus (II. 1, 591-3)
and the devil being cast out of heaven into hell by God (ch. XXXIII,
Devil), though the Edda neither relates such a fall of Loki, nor sets
him forth as a cunning smith and master of dwarfs , probably the
stories of Loki and Logi were much fuller once. Loki's former
fellowship with OSinn is clearly seen, both from Srem. 61^ and
from the juxtaposition of three creative deities on their travels,
Ocfinn, Hcenir, Locfr, Ssem. 3% instead of which w^e have also Offhm,
Hmnir, Lohi, Sasm. 180, or in a different order O&inn, Loki, Hcenir,
Sn. 80. 135 (conf. supra, p. 162). Tliis trilogy I do not venture to
identify with that of Hler, Logi, Kari above, strikingly as OSinn
corresponds to the U avi/ioio ; and though from the creating OSinn

16



242 OTHER GODS.

proceed breath and spirit (ond), as from Lod'r (blaze, glow) come
blood and colour (la ok litr), the connexion of Hoenir, who imparts
sense (6S), with water is not so clear: this Hcenir is one of the
most unmanageable phenomena of the Norse mythology, and with
lis in Germany he has vanished without leaving a trace. But the
fire-god too, who according to that gradation of sounds ought
either to be in Goth. Lauha and OHG. Loho, or in Goth. Luka and
OHG. Locho, seems with the loss of his name to have come up
again purely in the character of the later devil. He lasted longer
in Scandinavia, and myths everywhere show how nearly Loki the
^s approaches Logi the giant. Thorlacius (spec. 7, 43) has proved
that in the phrase ' Loki fer yfir akra ' (passes over the fields), and
in the Danish ' Locke dricker vand ' (drinks water), fire and the
burning sun are meant, just as we say the sun is drawing water,
when he shines through in bright streaks between two clouds.
Loka daun (Lokii odor) is Icelandic for the ignis fatuus exhaling
brimstone (ibid. 44) ; Lokah^enna (Lokii incendium) for Sirius ;
Loka spcenir are chips for firing. In the north of Jutland, a weed
very noxious to cattle (polytrichum comm.) is called Lokkens havre,
and there is a proverb ' Nu saaer Lokken sin havre,' now Locke
sows his oats, i.e., the devil his tares ; the Danish lexicon translates
Lokeshavre avena fatua, others make it the rhinanthus crista galli.
When the fire crackles, they say ' Lokje smacks his children,' Faye
p. 6. Molbech's Dial. lex. p. 330 says, the Jutland phrase ' Lokke
saaer havre idag (to-day),' or what is equivalent ' Lokke driver idag
med sine geder (drives out his goats),' is spoken of vapours that
hang about the ground in the heat of the sun. When birds drop
their feathers in moulting time, people say they ' gaae i Lokkis arri
(pass under L.'s harrow ?) ' ; 'at hore paa Lockens eventyr
(adventures) ' means to listen to lies or idle tales (P. Syv's gamle
danske ordsprog 2, 72), According to Sjoborg's Nomenklatur, there
is in Yestergotland a giant's grave named Lokchall. All of them
conceptions well deserving notice, which linger to this day among
the common people, and in which Loki is by turns taken for a bene-
ficent and for a hurtful being, for sun, fire, giant or devil. Exactly
the same sort of harm is in Germany ascribed to the devil, and the
kindly god of light is thought of as a devastating flame (see Suppl.).

On this identity between Logi and Lold rests another vestige



LOKI, GKEXDEL, SxVTUKN. 243

of tlie Xorse da?mon, which is found among the other Teutonic
races. If Logi comes from liuhan ^hicere), Loki will apparently
fall to the root lukan (claudere, conf. claudus lame) ; the ON", lok
means finis, consummatio, and loka repagulum, because a bolt or
bar closes. In Beowulf we come upon an odious devilish spirit, a
thyrs (Beow. 846) named Grcndel, and his mother, Grendeles modor
(4232-74), a veritable devil's mother and giant's mother. An AS.
document of 931 in Kemble 2, 172 mentions a place called
Grcndlcs mere (Grendeli palus). Now the AS. grindel, OHG.
h'intil, MHG. grintcl is precisely repagulum, pessulus ; so the name
Grendel seems related to grindel (obex) in the same way as Loki to
loka ; the ON. grind is a grating, which shuts one in like bolt and
bar. Gervase of Tilbury (in Leibn. 1, 980) tells of an English fire-
demon named Grant. It is very remarkable, that we Germans have
still in use a third synonymous expression for a diabolic being, its
meaning heightened no doubt by composition with' hell'; hdllric(jel
vectis infernalis, hell-bar, a hell-brand, devil or the devil's own ; a
shrewish old hag is styled hollriegel or the devil's grandmother ;
and Hugo von Langenstein (Martina 4^^) already used this hcUcrigd
as a term of abuse. Now hell was imagined as being tightly bolted
and barred ; when Christ, says Fundgr. 1, 178, went down to Hades
in the strength of a lion, he made ' die grintcl brechen'. Lastly,
we may even connect the OHG. drcmil (pessulus, Graff 5, 531) with
the ON. trami or tremill, which mean both cacodaemon and also, it
seems, clathri, cancelli : ' tramar gneypa J?ik skulo ! ' Stem. 85°' ;
and in tlie Swedish song of Torkar, troUtram is an epitliet of the
devil who stole the hanmier. As this is the Thrymr of the Edda,
one might guess that trami stands for jn-ami, with which our dremil
would more exactly accord. Thus from several sides we see the
mythical notions that prevailed on this subject joining hands, and
the merging of Logi into Loki must be of high antiquity. Foersom
(on Jutl. superstit. p. 32) alleges, that the devil is conceived of in
the form of a liissetra, i.e., the pole with which a load is tied down.
Beside Loki the as, Snorri sets another before ns in the Edda,
UtfjarffaloJci, as a king whose arts and power deceive even godlike
Thorr ; it was one of his household that outdid the other
Loki himself, Sn. 54 seq.^ Saxo, who in the whole of his work

1 ' Tliorlacius's theory, of an older nature-worsliip supplanted by the Aso:=i,
rests mainly on the antithesis of an Okul^urr to Asaf^orr, of Lo^'i to Loki, and
probably of Hler to Oegir, each pair respectively standing for thunder, tire,



244 OTHEE GODS.

never once names the Eddie Lold, tells wonderful things of this
' Ugarthilocus,' pp. 163-6 : he .paints him as a gigantic semi-divine
monster, who dwells in a distant land, is invoked in a storm like
other gods, and grants his aid. A valiant hero, named Thorkill,
brooks the adventurous journey to Ugarthilocus : all this is but
legendary variation of the visit which, in Snorri, Thorr pays to
UtgarSaloki. Still it is worth noticing, that Thorkill plucks out one
of Ugarthilocus's huge spear-like hairs, and takes it home with him
(Saxo 165-6). The titgarcPar were the uttermost borders of the
habitable world, where antiquity fixed the abode of giants and
monsters, i.e., hell ; and here also may have been present that
notion of the bar, closing up as it were the entrance to that
inaccessiljle region of ghosts and demons.

Whether in very early times there was also a Saxon Loico and
an Alamannic Lohlio, or only a Grcndil and Krentil ; what is of
capital importance is the agreement in tlie myths themselves. To
what was cited above, I will here add something more. Our
nursery -tales have made us familiar with the incident of the haii
plucked off the devil as he lay asleep in his grandmother's lap
(Kinderm. 29). The corresponding Norwegian tale makes three
feathers be pulled out of the dragon's tail, not while he sleeps, but
after he is dead.

Loki, in punishment of his misdeeds, is put in chains, like
Prometheus who brought fire to men; but he is to be released
again at the end of the world. One of his children, Fcnrir} i.e.,
himself in a second birth, pursues the moon in the shape of a ivolf,
and threatens to swallow her. According to Sn, 12. 13, an old
giantess in the forest gave birth to these giants in wolfskin girdles,
the miglitiest of them being Mdnagarmr (lunae canis) who is to
devour the moon ; but in another place, while Skoll chases the sun,
Hati, Ilru&vitnis sonr (Stem. 45^^) dogs the moon. Probably tliere
were fuller legends about them all, which were never written
down ; an old Scotch story is still remembered about ' the tayl of

water. To the elder series must be added Sif= earth, and the mi'(5garL>sormr
(world-snake). But what natiire-god can OiSiin have taken the phxce of?
None? And was his being not one of the primeval ones 1 ' &c. [Quoted from
Suppl., vol. iii.]

^ Goth. Fanareis ? OHG. Fanari, Feniri ? can it be our fahnentrager,
pannifer '? But the early Norse does not seem to have the word answering to
the Cloth, fana, OHG. fano (flag). [Has the fox holding up his tail as a
standard, in the unrighteous war of beasts against birds, anything to do with

this?] ° o . . o



LOKI, GRENDEL, SA-TURN. 245

the wolfe and the warldis end' (see Suppl.). But the popular
belief seems to have extended generally, and that from the earliest
times, all over Germany, and beyond it. We still say, when
baneful and perilous disturbances arise, ' the devil is broke loose/ as
in the North they used to say ' Lohi er or bondum ' (ch. XXIII). In
the Life of Goz von Berlichingen, p. 201 : ' the devil was every-
where at large ' ; in Detmar's chronik 1, 298 : ' do was de duvcl los
geworden,' i.e., disorder and violence prevailed. Of any one who
threatened from a safe distance, the folk in Burgundy used the
ironical phrase : ' Dieu garde la lune des loups ! '^ meaning, such
threats would not be fulfilled till the end of the world ; in the same
way the French popular song on Henry IV. expresses the far end
of the future as the time when the wolf's teeth shall get at the
moon : jusqu' a ce que Ton j:>?"c?i?ic la lune avec les dcnts.^ Fischart
in several places speaks of this ' ivoJ/ dcs mons,' and most fully in
his Aller practik grossmutter : ' derhalben dorft ihr nicht mehr fiir
ihn betten, dass ihn Gott vor den vMfcn wolle hchutcn, denn sie
werden ihn diss jahr nicht erhaschen ' (need not pray for the moon,
they won't get her this year). ^ In several places there circulate
among the people rhymes about the twelve hours, the last two
being thus distinguished : ' um elfe kommen die ^volfc, um zwolfe
bricht das gcivolhe' at 11 come the wolves, at 12 bursts the vault,
i.e., death out of the vault. Can there be an echo in this of the old
behef in the appearing of the wolf or wolves at the destruction of
the world and the bursting of heaven's vault ? In a lighted candle,
if a piece of the wick gets half detached and makes it burn away
too fast, they say * a wolf (as well as thief) is in the candle ; ' this
too is like the wolf devouring the sun or moon. Eclipses of sun or
moon have been a terror to many heathen nations ; the incipient
and increasing obscuration of the luminous orb marks for them the
moment when the gaping jaws of the wolf threaten to devour it,
and they think by loud cries to bring it succour (ch. XXII, Eclipses).
The breaking loose of the wolf and the ultimate enlargement o(
Loki from his chains, who at the time of the Ragnarokr will war
against and overcome the gods, is in striking accord with the release
of the chained Prometheus, by whom Zeus is then to be overthrown.

1 Lanionnaye, glossaire to the noei bourguignon, Dijon 1776, p. 242.

2 Conf. Ps. 72, 7 : donee auferetur luna.

3 May we in this connexion think of the fable of the wo^f who goes down
the well to eat up the moon, which he takes fur a cheese I



246 OTHER GODS.

The formula, ' iinz Loki ver&'r lauss ' (=imz riufaz regin, till the gods
be destroyed), answers exactly to the Greek irplv av eV heafiwv
XaX-ciadr] UpofiT^devq (Aesch. Prom. 176. 770. 991) ; the writhings of
the fettered Loki make the earth to quake (Siem. 69. Sn. 70), just
as ')(9(siv a-ea-aXevrai in the case of Prometheus (Aesch. 1081).
Only the Greek Titan excites our noblest sympathy, while the
Edda presents Loki as a hateful monster.

Loki was fair in form, evil in disposition ; his father, a giant,
was named Farhauti (boatman ?), his mother Lcmfey (]eaf-ea) and
Ndl (needle ; thin and insinuating, mio ok auSJjreiflig, 355), all of
them words easy to translate into OHG. as Farpozo (remex),
Loupouwa, Nadala, though such names are nowhere found. He is
never called Farbauta sonr, but always after his mother, Loki
Laufeyjar sonr (Sffim. 07'' 72^ 73^), which had its origin in
alliteration, but held its ground even in prose (Sn. 64) and in the
Locke Loje, Loke Lovmand, Loke Lejemand of the later folk-songs.
This Laufey (Swed. Lofo) is first of all the name of a place, which
was personified, and here again there is doubtless reference to an
element. By his wife Slgyn Loki had a son Nari or Narvi, and by
a giantess Angrloda three children, the aforesaid Fcnrir, the serpent
Idrm.unrjandr and a daughter Hd. It is worthy of notice, that he
himself is also called Loirir (aiirius), and one of his brothers Hel-
hlindi, which is likewise a name of 05inn. I just throw out these
names, mostly foreign to our German mythology, in the hope of
enlisting for them future inquiry.

Once again we must turn our attention to a name already
brought forward among the gods of the week (pp. 125-6), for which
a rare concurrence of isolated facts seems almost to secure a place
in our native antiquities. The High German week leaves two days,
one in the middle and one at the end, not named after gods. But
sambaztag for Saturday, as well as mittwoch for Wuotanstag, was a
sheer innovation, wdiich the church had achieved or gladly accepted
for those two days at all events. The first six days were called after
the sun, the moon, Zio, Wuotan, Donar and Fria : what god was
entitled to have the naming of the seventh day ? Four German
deities were available for Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, but how
was Saturn to be put into German ? The Mid. Ages wxnt on
explaining the seventh day by the Poman god : our Kaiserchronik,



LOKI, GRENDEL, SATUEN. 247

which even for the third, fourth, fifth and sixth days names no
German gods, but only Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, expresses
itself thus clumsily :

An dem sameztage sa Tlien on the Saturday

eiuez heizet rotunda, Is a thing named rotunda

daz was ein herez betehus, That was a lofty temple,

der got hiez Saturmls, The god was named Saturnus,

darnach was iz aller tiuvel §re. Thereafter was it to all devils'

honour.

Here the worship of Saturn is connected with the pantheon built
in honour of all the gods or devils, which Boniface converted into
a church of St. Mary. The Anglo-Saxons, English, Frisians, Dutch
and Low Saxons have left to the 'dies Saturni ' the god's very
name: Scvtcresday or Saiernesdieg, Saturday, Saterdei, Saterdnch,
Satersdag, and even the Irish have adopted dia Satuirn or Satarn ;
whereas the French samedi. Span, sabado, Ital. sabato, agrees with
our High Germ, samstag. Here is identity, not only of idea, as in
the case of the other gods, but of name, and the absence of conson-
ant-change seems to betray downright borrowing: or may the
resemblance have been accidental, and a genuine German name
have been modified in imitation of the foreign one ? In OHG
neither a Satarnes- nor a Sazarnestac can be found ; but in AS.
sadere means insidiator (OHG. sazari, conf. saza, MHG. saze insidiae,
a sitting in wait, as laga, lage is lying in wait) ; and M'hat is still
more remarkable, a document of Edward the Confessor (chart,
antiq. rot. M. no. 1. Kemble 4, 157) supplies us with the name of
a place Scctercsbijrig, quite on a par with Woduesbyrig ; further, the
plant gallicrus, our hahnenfuss, Engl, crowfoot, was in AS. sdtorld(Te
Saturni taedium as it were (-loathing, ON. leiSi, OHG. leidi).^ I
call to mind, that even the ancient Franks spoke of Saturnus (p. 88)
as a heathen god, and of Saturni dolium, though that may have
referred to the mere planetary god (see Suppl.).

The last name for the ' sabbath ' brings us to the ON", laugar-

1 In the AS. are preserved various dialogues between Saturn and Solomon,
similar to those between Solomon and Marculf in continental Germany, but
more anticiue and, apart from their cliristian setting or dressing up, not unlike
the questions and discourses carried on in the Edda between Oi^'inn and Vafl'ruS-
nir, between Vingj'orr and Alviss, between Har and Gangleri. Here also the
name Saturn seems to make for my point, and to designate a god of Teutonic
paganism.



248 OTHER GODS.

dagr, Swed. logerdag, Dan. loverdag, by wliicli in later times no
doubt washing or bathing day was meant, as the equivalent
Jjvottdagr shows; but originally Zo^adagr, LoJcadagv may have
been in use/ and Logi, Loki might answer to the Latin Saturnus,^ as
the idea of devil which lay in Loki was popularly transferred to the
Jewish Satan and [what seemed to be the same thing] the heathen
Saturn, and Locki in ON", is likewise seducer, tempter, trapper.
We might even take into consideration a by-name of OSinn in
Sa3m. 46% Sa&r or perhaps SaSr, though I prefer to take the first
form as equivalent to Sannr (true) and Sanngetall,

But that AS. Scetcrcshjrig from the middle of the 11th century
irresistibly recalls the ' burg ' on the Harz mts, built (according to
our hitherto despised accounts of the 15th century in Bothe's
Sachsenchronik) to the idol Saturn, which Saturn, it is added, the
common people called Krodo ; to this we may add the name
touched upon in p. 206 (HreSe, HreSemonaS), for which an
older Hruodo, Chrodo was conjectured.^ We are told of an image
of this Saturn or Krodo, which represented the idol as a man
standing on a great fish, holding a pot of flowers in his right hand,
and a wheel erect in his left; the Eoman Saturn was furnished
with the sickle, not a wheel (see Suppl.).*

Here some Slav conceptions appear to overlap. Widukind
(Pertz 5, 463) mentions a brazen simidacrum Saturni among the
Slavs of the tenth century, without at all describing it ; but Old
Bohemian glosses in Hanka 14*^ and 17^ .carry us farther. In the
first, Mercurius is called ' Eadihost vnuk Kirtov ' (Eadigast grand-
son of Kirt), in the second, Picus Saturni filius is glossed ' ztracec

1 Conf. Finn Magniisen, lex. pp. 1041-2, dagens tider p. 7.

2 I suppose the author had in his mind Homer's constant ejDithet, Kpovos
dyKv\ofj.T]Tr]s wily, crooked-counselled Kronos. — TBAJfs.

3 To Hrudo might now be referred those names Boysel (later spelling
Reusel) and Koydach in Gramaye, who understands them of Mars ; ancient
documents must first place it beyond doubt, which day of the week is meant.
There is an actual Hruodtac, a man's name in OHG. (Graff 5, 362), and an OS.
Hroddag is found in Trad. corb. § 424, ed. Wigand ; these may be related to
Hruodo, Hrodo as Baldag to Balder, and the contraction Roydag, Rodag would
be like Roswith for Hrodsuith. If Roydag should turn out to be the seventli
day of the week, it would be a strong testimony to the worship of Chrodo ; i^'
it remain the third, we have to add, that the third month also was sacred to
Mars, and was called Hre S'emona^ by the Anglo-Saxons.

* ' The Kaiserchr. 3750 says, to Saturn we offer quicksilver ; whereas now
Saturn's symbol signifies lead. In J\Iegenberi:j, Saturn is called Satjdr. The
Saxon Saturn is supported by Hengest's reference to that god '. (Extracted
from Suppl., vol. iii.)



LOKI, GEENDEL, SATUKX. - 249

Sitivratov zin' (woodi^ecker, Sitivrat's son); and in a third 20^ Saturn
is again called Sitivrat. Who does not see that Sitivrat is the
Slavic name for Saturn, which leads us at the first glance to sit =
satur ? Eadigast= Mercury (p. loOn.) is the son of Stracec=ricus ;
and in fact Greek myths treat Picus (ZTt/fo?) as Zeus, making him
give up the kingdom to his son Hermes. Picus is Jupiter, son of
Saturn ; but beside Sitivrat we have learnt another name for
Saturn, namely Kirt, which certainly seems to be our Krodo and
Hruodo. Sitivrat and Kirt confirm Saturn and Krodo ; I do not
know whether the Slavic word is to be connected with the Boh.
krt, Pol. kret, Euss. krot, i.e., the mole.^ I should prefer to put
into the other name Sitivrat the subordinate meaning of sito-vrat,
sieve-turner, so that it would be almost the same as kolo-vrat,
wheel-turner, and afford a solution of that wheel in Krodo's hand ;
both wheel (kolo) and sieve (sito) move round, and an ancient spell
rested on sieve-turning. Slav mythologists have identified Sitivrat
with the Hindu Sati/dvrata, who in a great deluge is saved by
Vishnu in the form of a fish, Krodo stands on a fish ; and Vishnu
is represented wearing wreaths of flowers about his neck, and hold-
ing a wheel (chakra) in his fourth hand.^ All these coincidences
are still meagre and insecure ; but they suffice to establish the
high antiquity of a Slavo-Teutonic myth, which starts up thus
from more than one quarter.

^ Hardly with Crete, where Kronos ruled and Zeus was born.

2 Edw. Moore's Hindu Pantheon, Lend. 1810, tab. I'd and 23.— * Sitivrat,
who corresponds to Saturn, is the Indian Satyavrata, i.e., accordintj to Kulin,
he that hath veracious (fulfilled) vows; so Dhritavrata, he that hath kept-vows
= Varuuas, Ouranos.' (Quoted from Suppl., vol. ill.)



CHAPTEE XIII.
GODDESSES.

In treating of gods, the course of our inquiry could aim at
separating the several i^ersonalities ; the goddesses ^ it seems
advisable to take by themselves and all at one view, because there
is a common idea underlying them, which will come out more
clearly by that method. They are thought of chiefly as divine
mothers who travel round and visit houses, from whom the human
race learns the occupations and arts of housekeeping and husbandry:
spinning, weaving, tending the hearth, sowing and reaping. These
labours bring with them peace and quiet in the land, and the
memory of them abides in charming traditions even more lastingly
than that of wars and battles, from which most goddesses as well
as women hold themselves aloof.

But as some goddesses also take kindly to war, so do gods on the
other hand favour peace and agriculture ; and there arises an inter-
change of names or offices between the sexes.

1. Erda, iSTiRDU, Gaue, Firgunia, Hluodana.
In almost all languages the Earth is regarded as female, and
(in contrast to the father sky encirling her) as the breeding, teem-
ing fruit-bearing mother: Goth, airpa, OHG. erada, erda, AS. eor&e,
ON. iord", Gr. epa (inferred from epa^e) ; Lat. terra, tcllus, hitmus
= Slav, zeme, ziemia, zemlia, Lith. zieme, Gr. %a/A^ (? whence



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