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'XCLfxa^e), ala, "yala, jP] : the ' mother ' subjoined in Arjfnjrrjp, Zema
mate, indicates tlie goddess. The form air]?a, erda (also herda) is
itself a derivative ; the simpler OHG. eov (in the Wessobr. jjrayer :
ero noli ufhimil, earth nor heaven) and hero (in a gloss, for solum,

1 OHG. in Notker lias only the strong form gutin gen. giitinno, MHG.
(jotinne, Trist. 4807. 15812. Earl. 246-7. seklomer giitinne, MS. 2, 65'^ ; AS.
(jyden pi. gydena, but also weak gydene pi. gydenan, Mones gl. 4185 Proser])i-
iiani = to gidenan (1. togydenan, additional goddess) ; ON. gy(^ja (which might
be dea or sacerdos fern.), better tisynja (see Suppl.).



EKDA, NIRDU, GAUE, FIKGUNIA, IILUODAXA. 251

Graff 4, 999) might be masc. (like herd = solum, Graff 4, 102G) or
fern, still.^ The Goth, mukla, OHG. molta, AS. molde, ON. mold,
contain only the material sense of soil, dust ; equally impersonal is
tlie OS. folda, AS. folde, ON. fold, conf. feld, field, i^inn. peldo
(campus), Hung, fold (terra). But the ON. lOrd' appears in the
ilesh, at once wife and daughter of OSinn, and motlier of Thorr
(8n. 11. 39. 123), who is often called larSar burr. Distinct from
her was liindr, another M'ife of OSinn, and mother of Vali (Siem.
91=^ 95^ 97^), called Rinda in Saxo, and more coarsely painted ; her
name is the OHG. rinta, AS. rind = cortex, hence crusta soli vel
terrae, and to crusta the AS. hruse (terra) is closely related. As
this literal sense is not found in the North, neither is the mythical
meaning in Germany (see SuppL).

But neither in lorS nor in Piindr has the Edda brought out in
clear relief her specially maternal character ; nowhere is this more
purely and simply expressed than in the very oldest account we
possess of the goddess. It is not to all the Germani that Tacitus
imputes the worship of Nerthus, only to the Langobardi (?), Reudigni,
Aviones, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and A^uithones (Germ.
40): Nee quicquam notabile in singulis, nisi quod in commune
Nerthum^ id est Terrain matrem colunt, eamque intervenire rebus
hominum, invehi populis, arbitrantur. Est in insula oceani castum
nemus, dicatumque in eo vehiculum, veste contectum, attingere uni
sacerdoti concessum. Is adesse penetrali dcam intelligit, vectamque
hdus feniinis multa cum veneratione prosequitui\ Laeti tunc dies,
festa loca, quaecunque adventu hospitioque dignatur. Non bella
ineunt, non arma sumunt ; clausum omne ferrum : pax et quies
tunc tantuni nota, tunc tantum amata : donee idem sacerdos satia-
tam conversatione mortalium dcam templo reddat. Mox TcMculum
et vestes, et, si credere velis, numcn ijisum sccrcto lacii ahluiinr.
Servi ministrant, quos statim idem lacus haurit.^ Arcanus hinc

1 The two forms ero and hero remind one of the name Eor, Cheru, attri-
buted to Mars (supra, i)p. 203-4).

- The MSS. coUated have this reading, one has nehcrtum (Massmann in
Aufsess and Mones anzeiger, 18.34, p. 216); I sliouUl prefer Nertus to Nerthus,
liecause no other German words in Tacitus have TH, except Gothini and
A'uithones. As for the conjectural Herthus, though tlie asj)irate in herda
might seem to plead for it, tlie termination -us is against it, the Gotliic having
air]ia, not air]nis. Besides, Aventiu ahcady (Frankf. 1.580, p. 19'') S])eIIs Nerth.

^ The lake swall<»\vs the slaves wlio had assisted at the secret bathing.
More than once this incident turns up, of jmtting to death the servants em-
ployed in any secret Avork ; as those who dug the river out of its bed fur



252 GODDESSES.

terror sanctaque ignorantia, quid sit illuJ, quod tanturn perituri
videut (see Suppl.).^

This beautiful description agrees with what we find in other
notices of the worship of a godhead to whom peace and fruitfuhiess
were attributed. In Sweden it was Freyr, son of Niorffr, whose
curtained car went round tire country in spring, with the people
all praying and holding feasts (p. 213); but Freyr is altogether
like his father, and he again like his namesake the goddess Nerthus.
The spring-truces, harvest-truces, plough-truces, fixed for certain
seasons and implements of husbandry, have struck deep roots in
our German law and land-usages. Wuotan and Donar also make
their appearance in their wains, and are invoked for increase to the
crops and kindly rain ; on p. 107, anent the car of a Gothic god
whose name Sozomen withholds, I have hinted at Nerthus.

The interchange of male and female deities is, luckily for us
here, set in a clear light, by the prayers and rhymes to Wuotan as god
of harvest, which we have quoted above (p. 155 seq.), being in other
Low German districts handed over straight to a goddess. When
the cottagers, we are told, are mowing rye, they let some of the
stalks stand, tie flowers among them, and when they have finished
work, assemble round the clump left standing, take hold of the ears
of rye, and shout three times over :

Fni Gaue, haltet ju fauer, Lady Gaue, keep you some fodder,
diit jar up den wagen. This year on the waggon,

dat ander jar up der kare ! ^ Next year on the wheelbarrow.
Wliereas Wode had better fodder promised him for the next year,
Dame Gaue seems to receive notice of a falling off in the quantity
of the gift presented. In both cases I see the shyness of the
christians at retaining a heathen sacrifice : as far as words go, the
old gods are to think no great things of themselves in future.

In the district about Hameln, it was the custom, when a reaper
in binding sheaves passed one over, or left anything standing in the

Alaric's funeral (Jornand. cap. 29), or those who have hidden a treasure, Landn.
5, 12 (.see Suppl.).

1 Speaking of Nerthus, we ought to notice Ptolemy's Nertereans, though he
places them in a very different locality from that occupied by the races who
revere Nerthus in Tacitus.

2 Braunschw. anz. 1751, p. 900. Hannov. gel. anz. 1751, p. 662 [is not
' haltet ' a mistake for ' hal ' and something else '/] In the Altenburg country
they call this harvest-custom building a barn. Arch, des henneb. vereins 2, 91.



ERDA, NIKDU, GAUE, FIRGUNIxV, IILUODANA. 253

field, to jeer at him by calling out: ' sclioll diit del gaucfnie{pT,
defnt Gaucn) hebben (is that for dame G.) ? '^

In the Prignitz they say fru Godc, and call the buncli of ears
left standing in each field vergodendcelsstrxiss, i.e., dame Code's
portion biinch,^ Vcr is a common contraction for frau [as in
jungfer] ; but a dialect which says fauer instead of foer, foder, will
equally liave Gaue for Gode, Guodc. This Guode can be no other
than Gwode, AVode ; and, explaining fru by the older fro, /ro Woden
or fro Gaue (conf. Gaunsdag for Wonsdag, p, 125) will denote a lord
and god, not a goddess, so that the form of prayer completely
coincides with those addressed to "Wuotan, and the fruh Wod sub-
joined in the note on p. 156 (see Suppl.). If one prefer the notion
of a female divinity, which, later at all events, was undoubtedly
attached to the term fru, we miglit perhaps bring in the OK Got
(Sn, 358. Fornald. sog. 2, 17), a mythic maiden, after whom
February was named. The Greek Fala or Fi] is, I consider, out of
tiie question here.

In an AS. formulary for restoring fertility to fields that have
been bewitched, there occur two remarkable addresses ; the first is
' ercc, erce, ercc, corpan modor ! ' by which not the earth herself, but
her mother seems to be meant; however, the expression is still
enigmatical. Can there lie disguised in erce a proper name Ercc gen.
Ercan, connected with the OHC. adj. erchau, simplex, genuinus,
germanus ? it would surely be more correct to write Uorce ? ought
it to suggest the lady Urchc, Hcrkja, Herche, Helche renowned in
our heroic legend ? The distinct traces in Low Saxon districts of a
divine dame, Hcrkc or Harkc by name, are significant. In Jessen,
a little town on the Elster, not far from Wittenberg, they relate of
frau Herke what in other places, as will be shown, holds good of
Freke, Berhta and Holda. In the Mark she is called frau Harkc,
and is said to fly through the country between Christmas and
Twelfth-day, dispensing eartlily goods in abundance ; by Epiphany
the maids have to finish spinning their flax, else frau Harke gives



1 ITannov. ;to1. anz. 1751, p. 72G. j\rore plensing to the par is the short
prayer of the heatlieu Litluiaiiiaiis, to their eartli-gocUIes^s, when in drinking?
lliey spilt some of the ale on the ground : Zcmenyle ziedekle, pukylek niusu
riinku darbus ! blooming Earth, bless the work of our hands.

„-. '/^[^'^^^'- Knhns markische sagen, pp. 337. 372, prof. p. vii. Conf. in ch.
XXII the cry of the dwarfs : ' de gaue fru is uu dot (dead) '.



254 GODDESSES.

tliem a good scratching or soils their distaff (see Suppl.).i In
earlier times a simpler form of the name was current ; we find in
Gobelinus Persona (Meibom 1, 235) the following account, which
therefore reaches back beyond 1418 : Quodautem Hera colebatur a
Saxonibus, videtur ex eo quod quidam vulgares recitant se audivisse
ab antiquis, prout et ego audivi, quod inter festum nativitatis Christ i
ad festum epiphaniae Domini doniina Hera volat per aera, quoniam
apud gentiles Junoni aer deputabatur. Et quod Juno quandoque
Hera appellabatur et depingebatur cum tintinnabulis et alis,
dicebant vulgares praedicto tempore : vrowe Hera sen corrupto
nomine vro Here de vlughet, et credebant illam sibi conferre rerum
temporalium abundantiam. Have we here still extant the old Ero,
"Epa, Hero meaning earth ? and does "Hpa belong to it ? If the
AS. Urce also contains the same, then even the diminutive form
Herke must be of high antiquity.

The second address in the same AS. ritual is a call to the earth :
' hal wes thu /oleic, fira moJor 1 ' hale (whole) be thou earth, mother
of men ; which agrees with the expression terra mater in Tacitus.

The widely extended worship of the teeming nourishing earth
would no doubt give rise to a variety of names among our fore-
fathers, just as the service of Gaia and her daughter Eliea mixed
itself up with that of Ops mater, Ceres and Cybele.^ To me the
resemblance between the cultus of Nerthus and that of the Phrygian
mother of gods appears well worthy of notice. Lucretius 2, 597 —
641 describes the peregrination of the magna deum mater in her
lion-drawn ear through the lands of the earth :

Quo nunc insigni per magnas praedita terras
horrifice fertur divinae matris imago . . .
Ergo quom primum magnas invecta per urbeis
munificat tacita mortaleis muta salute,
aere atque argento sternunt iter omne viarum,
largifica stipe ditantes, ninguntque rosarum
floribus, umbrantes matrem comitumque catervam.
The liomans called the A^I. kal. Apr. lavatio matris deum, and kept
it as a feast, Ovid. fast. 4, 337 :

1 Adalb. Kulm in the Markisclie forscluuigen 1, 123-4, and Mark, sagen
pp. 371-2 ; conf. Singularia magdeburg. 1740. 12, 768.

" Ops mater = terra mater ; Ceres = Geres, quod gerit fruges, antiqnis enim
C quod nunc G ; Varro de ling, lat., ed. 0. Miiller p. 25. Her Greek appella-
tion ATjurjTTjp seems also to lead to yrj ixtjttjp (see Suppl. ).



ERDA, NIRDU, GAUE, FIRGUNIA, ULUODAN.V. 255

Est locus, ill Tiberin qua lubricus influit Alnio,
et nomen magno perdit al) amue minor ;

illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos
Almonis dominam sacraque lavit aquis.
Ammian. Marcell. 23, 3 (Paris 1681, p. 355) : Ad Callinicum, — ubi
ante diem sextum kal. quo Eomae matri deorum pompae celebrantur
annales, et carpentum qvo vchitur simulacrum Almonis undis ablui
perhibetur. Conf. Prudentius, liymn. 10, IS-t :

Nudare plantas ante carpentum scio

proceres togatos matris Idacac sacris.

Lapis nigellus evehendus essedo

muliebris oris clausus argento sedefc,

quem dum ad lavacrum praeeundo ducitis

pedes remotis atterentes calceis

Almonis usque pervenitis rivulum.

Exactly in the same way Nerthus, after she has travelled round the

country, is bathed in the sacred lake in her waggon ; and I find it

noted, that the Indian Bhavani, wife of Shiva, is likewise driven

round on her feast-day, and bathed in a secret lahe by the Brahmans

Csee Suppl.).^

Nerthus's ' island in the ocean ' has been supposed to mean

Eiigen, in the middle of which there is actually a lake, called the

Schwarze see, or Burgsee. What is told as a legend, that there in

ancient times the devil was adored, that a maiden was maintained

in his service, and that when he was weary of her, she was droivncd

^ Gregor. Turon. de glor. conf. cap. 77 compares or confounds with the
Plirygian Ctjhele some Gallic goddess, whose worship he describes as follows : —
' Ferunt etiam in hac iirbe (Augustoduno) simulachruvi fuisse Berecynthiae, sicnt
sancti martyris Symphoriani passionis declarat historia. Hanc cum in
carpento, pro salvatione agrorum et vinearum suarum, misero gentilitatis more
dt'ferrent, adfuit supradictus Simplicius episcopus, hand procul adspiciens
ccmtantes atque psallentes ante hoc dmulachrum, gemitumque pro stultitia plebis
ad Deum emittens ait : illumina quaeso, Domine, oculos hiijus populi, ut
cognoscat, c^uia simulachrum Bereeynthiae nihil est ! et facto signo crucis contra
protinus simulachrum in terram ruit. Ac detixa solo animalia, quae plaustrum
hoc ([uo vehebatur trahebant, moveri non poterant. Stupet vulgus innumerum,
et dcam hwsdm onniis caterva conclamat ; immolantur vidimne, animalia
verl)i'rantur, sed moveri non possunt. Tunc ([uadringenti de ilia stulta
multitudine viri conjuncti simul ajunt ad invicem : si virtus est ulla deitatis,
eiigatur spontc, jubeatque boves, qui telluri sunt stabiliti, pi'ocedere ; certe si
moveri necpiit, nihil est deitatis in ea. Tunc accedentes, et immolantes unum
de pecorihus, cum viderent deam suam nullatenus posse moveri, relicto
gentilitatis errore, inquisitoque antistite loci, conversi ad unitatem ecclesiae,
cognoscentes veri Dei magnitudinem. sancto sunt baptismate consecrati.'
Compare the Legenda aurea cap. 117, v»-here a festuni Veneris is mentioned.



256 GODDESSES.

in the black lake/ must have arisen, gross as the perversion may-
be, out of the account in Tacitus, who makes the goddess, when
satiated with the converse of men, disappear in the lake with her
attendants. But there are no other local features to turn the scale
in its favour f and the Danish islands in the Baltic have at least
as good a claim to have been erewhile the sacred seat of the
goddess.

We have yet more names for the earth-goddess, that demand
investigation : pai-tly Old Norse, partly to be gathered from the
Eomans. In the Skaldskaparmal, p. 178, she is named both
Fiorgyn and Hlod'yn.

Of Fiorgyn I have treated already, p. 172 ; if by the side
of this goddess there could stand a god Fiorgynn and a neuter
common noun fairguni, if the idea of Thor's mother at the same
time passes into that of the thundergod, it exactly parallels and
confirms a female Nertlius (Goth. Nair]?us, gen. Nair]?aus) by the
side of the masculine Nior&r (Nerthus), just as Treyja goes with
Freyr. If it was not wrong to infer from Perkunas a mountain-
god Fairguneis, Lithuanian mythology has equally a goddess
Ferkunatele.

Hlo&yn is derived in the same way as Fiorgyn, so that we may
safely infer a Gotli, Hlopunja and OHO. Hluodunia. In Voluspa
56 Thorr is called ' mogr Hlo&ynjar^ which is son of earth again ;
and Fornald. sog. 1, 469 says : i Hloc^ynjar shaut. In the ON".
lanuuase Mod' is a hearth,^ the goddess's name therefore means
protectress of the fireplace; and our OHG. herd (p. 251), beside solum
or terra, also denotes precisely focus, arula, fornacula, the hearth
being to us the very basis of a human habitation, a paternal Lar, so
to speak, corresponding to the mother earth. The Eomans also
worshipped a goddess of earth and of fire under the common name
of Fornax, dea fornacalis.'^ But what is still more important to us,
there was discovered on Low lihenish ground a stone, first kept at
Cleve and afterwards at Xanten, with the remarkable inscription :

^ Deutf^^c'Iie sngen, num. 132.

^ Of Hertlia a proverb is said to be current in Pomerania : * cle Hertha gift
gras, imd fiillt schiin und fass (barn and vessel),' Hall. allg. lit. z. 1823, p. 375).
But the un-Saxon rhyme of gras with fass (for fat) sufficiently betrays the
workmanship. It is clumsily made up after the well-known rule of the farmer :
' Mai kiihl und nass fiillt scheunen und fass ' (see Suppl.).

3 later, strues, ara, from hlaSan hluS, struere, Gramm. 2, 10, num. 83.

* Ovid. fast. 2, 513.



ISIS. 257

DEAE HLUDANAE SACRVM C. TIBEEIVS VERVS. Hliodana
is neither a lioman nor a Celtic goddess, but her name answers
perfectly to that of the Xorse divinity, and Sk. Thorlacius has the
merit of having recognised and learnedly proved the identity of the
two.^ In this inscription I see striking evidence of the oneness of
Norse and German mythology. Thorlacius, not without reason,
compares tlie name with Arjra) and Latona. Might not Hldrri&i,
an epithet of Thorr the son of II16c5yn, be explained as Hlod'riffi /

2, Tanfana. Neiialennia.

Another goddess stands wrapt in tliicker darkness, whom
Tacitus calls Tanfana, and a stone inscription Tamfana (TAM-
FAXAE SACEUM, p. 80). We are sure of her name, and the
termination -ana is tlie same as in Illudana and other fern, proper
names, Bertana, Eapana, IMadana. The sense of the word, and
with it any sure insight into the significance of her being, are
locked up from us.

We must also allude briefly to the Belgian or Frisian dea
Nehalennia, about whose name several inscriptions of like import*^
remove all doubt ; but the word has also given rise to forced and
unsatisfying interpretations. In other inscriptions found on the
lower part of the Ehine there occur compounds, whose termination
(-nehis, -nchahus, dat. plurals fem.) seems to contain the same word
that forms the first half of Nehalennia ; their plural number
appears to indicate nymphs rather than a goddess, yet there also
hangs about them the notion of a mother [see ch. Xyi, the
Walacliuriun).

3. (Isis).
The account in Tacitus of the goddess Isis carries us much
farther, because it can be linked with living traditions of a cultus
that still lingered in the Mid. Ages. Immediately after mentioning
tlie worship of j\Iercurius, Hercules, and Mars, he adds (cap. 9) :
I'ars Suevorum et Isidi sacrificat. Unde causa et origo peregrine

1 Anti<[. Iior. sjjec. 3, Ilafn. 1782. Coiif. Fiedler, gesch. nndalt. des nnteru
Germanieiis, 1, 'J2(3. 8teiner's cod. inscr. l^heiii no. 632. Gotfr. .'^'chiitze, in his
essay De dea Hludana, Lips. 1748, perceived the value of the stone, but could
not discern the bearings of the matter.

- Montfaucon ant. expl. 2, 443. Vrcdii hist. Flandr. 1, xliv. Mem. de
I'acad. celt. 1, 199—245. Mone, heidenth. 2, 346.

17



258 GODDESSES.

sacro, parum comperi, nisi quod signuin ipsuni, in modnm lihurnae
figuratum, docet advectam religionem. The importation from
abroad can hardly consist in the name Ids, seeing that Mercury,
Mars, Hercules, names that must have sounded equally un-
German, raised no difficulty ; what looked foreign was the symbol,
the figure of a skip, reminding the writer of the Eoman navigium
Isidis.

When spring had set in, and the sea, untraversed during winter,
was once more navigable, the Greeks and Eomans used to hold a
solemn procession, and present a ship to Isis. Tliis was done on
the fifth of March (III non. Mart.), and the day is marked in the
kalendarium rusticum as Isidis navigium} The principal evidence
is found in Apuleius and Lactantius,^ two writers who are later
than Tacitus, but the custom must have reached back to a much
older date. On Alexandrian coins Isis appears walking by the side
of Pharus, unfurling a sail.

Say that from Egypt the worship of Isis had penetrated to
Greece, to Eome, how are we to imagine, tliat in the first century, or
before, it had got itself conveyed to one particular race inhabiting
the heart of Germany ? It must have been a similar cultus, not
the same, and perhaps long established amongst other Germans as
well.

I will here draw attention to a strange custom of a much later
time, which appears to me to be connected with this. About the
year 1133, in a forest near Inda (in Eipuaria), a ship was built, set
upon wheels, and drawn about the country by men who were yoked
to it, first to Aachen (Aix), then to Maestricht, where mast and sail
were added, and up the river to Tongres, Looz and so on, every-
where with crowds of people assembling and escorting it. Where-
ever it halted, there -were joj/ful shouts, songs of triumph and dancing

1 Gesner, script, rei rust., ed. Lips. 1773. 1, 8SG ; so also in tlie Culend.
vallense, and in the C'al. lanibec. (Graevii thes. 8, 98).

- Apiileii met. \\h. 11 (Ruhnken p. 764-5) : Diem, qui dies ex ista nocte
nascetur, aeterna mihi nuncupavit religio ; quo sedatis liibernis tempestatibus
et lenitis maris procellosis lluctibus, navigabili jam pelago rudem dedicantcs
carinam primitias commeatus libant mei sacerdotes. Id sacrum sollicita nee
profana mente debeljis operiri ; nam meo mouitu sacerdos in ipso procinctu
pompae roseam manu de.xtra sistro (Egyptian timbrel) coliaerentem gestabit
coronam. Incontauter ergo dimotis turl)ulis alacer continuare pompam meam,
volentia fretus ; et de proximo dementer velut manum sacerdotis deosculabun-
dus rosis decerptis, pessimae mihique detestabilis dudum belluae istius corio te
protinus exue. Lactantius, instit. 1, 27 : Certus dies habetur in lastis, quo
Iddis naviyium celebratur, quae res docet illam non tranasse, sed navigasse.



ISIS. 250

round the ship kept up till far into the night. The approach of the
ship was notified to the towns, which opened their gates and went
out to meet it.

We have a detailed, yet not complete, report of it in Eodulfi
chronicon abbatiae S. Trudonis, lib. xi., which on account of its
importance I will here insert, from Pertz 12, 309 seq.:

Est genus mercenariorum, quorum officium est ex lino et lana
texere telas, hoc procax et superbum super alios mercenarios vulgo
reputatur, ad quorum procacitatem et superbiam humiliandam et
propriam injuriam de eis ulciscendam pauper quidam rusticus ex
villa nomine Inda^ banc diabolicam excogitavit technam. Accepta
a judicibus fiducia et a levibus hominibus auxilio, qui gaudent jocis
et novitatibus, in proxima silva navem composuit, et earn rotis
supposiiis affi.gens vehihilem super terram effecit, obtinuit quoque a
potestatibus, ut injectis funihus fextorum humeris ex Inda Aquis-
granum traheretur.^ Aquis suscepta cum utriiisque sexiis grandi
hominum processione: nihilominus a textoribus Trajectum [Maes-
tricht] est provecta, ibi emendata, malo veloque insignita Tungris
[Tongres] est inducta, de Tungris Los [Looz]. Audiens abbas
(sancti Trudonis)^ Rodulfus navim illam infausto oviine covipadam
malaque solutam alite cum hvjusmodi gcniilitatis studio nostro
oppido adventare, praesago spiritu hominibus praedicabat, ut ejus
susceptione abstinerent, quia maligni spiritiis sub hac luditicatione
in ea traherentur, in proximoque seditio per earn nioveretur, undo
caedes, incendia rapinaeque fierent, et humanus sanguis multus
funderetur. Quem ista declamantem onmibus diebus, quibus
mcdignorum spirituum illud sinndacrum loci morabatur, oppidani
nostri audire noluerunt, sed eo studio et gaudio excipientes, quo
perituri Trojani fatalem equum in medio fori sui dedicaverunt,
&iTithm[\\Q proscriptionis scvtentinm accipiunt villae textores, qui ad
profanas hujus simulacri excuhias venirent tardiorcs. Pape ! Quia
vidit unquam tantam (ut ita liceat latinisare) in rationalibus
animalibus brutitatem ? quis tantam in renatis in Christo gentdi-

^ Indon in the Jiilich country, afterwards Cornehniunster, not far from
Aix ; conf. Pertz 1, 394. 4SS. 514. 592. 2, 299. 489.

- This of ships l)eing built in a wood and carried on men's shoulders reminds
one of Saxo Gram. p. 93, and of the ' Ari^^o humeris traveeta Alpes' (Pliny N.H.
3, 18 ; their beintf set on ^v]leels, of Nestor's story about Olen' ; conf. the ship
of Fro above. [An inadvertence on the author's part : the ship is not ' carried,'
but ' drawn by rojjes thrown over the weavers' shoulders '.]

^ St. Tron between Liei/e and Louvain.



260 GODDESSES.

tatcm ? Cogebant sententia proscriptionis textores, iiocte et die
navim stipare omni armaturae gcncre, solicitasque ei excubias nocte
et die continuare. Mirumque fuit, quod non cogebant eos ante
navim Ncptuno hostias immolare, de cujus naves esse solent regione,
sed Neptunus eas Marti reservabat, quod postea niultipliciter fac-
tum est.

Textores interim occulto sed praecordiali gemitu Deum justum



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