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die messe beide got u. in ; Parz. 378, 25. Wh. 280, 5. neic si im
unde gote ; Iw. 6013. Also in O.Fr., jel te pardoins de diit et de
mi ; ]\Iones untersuch. 245. Sometimes the Evil One is named by
the side of the Deity : got noch den tiuvcl loben ; Iw. 1273. in
beschirmet der tii'vcl noch got ; Iw. 4635, i.e. no one protects him.

Poems of the Middle Ages attribute human passions to God ;
especially is He often pictured in a state of complacency and joy
(see Suppl.), and again in the contrary state of wrath and vengeance.
The former is favourable to the creation of eminent and happily
endowed men : got was an einer suczen zuJit, do'r Parzivalen 1^
worhte (in amiable trim — form, training — when he made Perci-
val) ; Parz. 148, 26. got der was vil scnftcs muotes. do er
geschuof so reine ein wip ; MS. 1, 17^ got der was iii froiden, do
er dich als ebene maz (so evenly meted); MS. 1, 22\ got in grossen
freudcn was, do er dich schuof {i.e., created wine) ; Altd. bl. 1, 413.
got der was in hohem werdc, ^ do er geschuof die reinen fruht, wan
ime was gar lool ze muote ; MS. 1, 24^ got si zer werlde brahte, do
ze freuden stuont sin muot ; Wigal. 92S2. got der was vil ivol
gemuot, do er schuof so reinem wibe tugent, wlinne, schoene an libe ;
MS. 1, 201*. got was gczicrdc milte, der si beide schuof nach lobe ;
Troj. 19922. got selb i^i richen freudcn was, do er ir lip als ebene
maz; Misc. 2, 186. ich weiz daz got in froiden was, do er niht,
frouwe, an dir vergaz waz man ze lobe sol schouweu. Ls. 1, 35.
So a troubadour sings : belha domna, de cor y entendia Dieus, quau
formet vostre cors amoros; liayn. 1, 117.^ It is an equally heathen

1 The Gotliic gavairthi = peace.

- To the creative God rejoicing in his -work, the M.H.G. poets especially
attribute dilujence and zeal : an den henden lac der gotes iliz ; Parz. 88, 15.
jach, er triiege den gotes fliz ; Parz. 140, 5. got het sinen Iliz gar ze wnnsche
wol an si geleit ; Wigal. 4130. ich woen got selbe worhte dich niit siner got-
licher hant ; Wigal. 9723. zware got der hat geleit sine kunst und sine kraft,
sinen tliz und sine meisterschalt an disen loblichen lip; Iw. 1685. So in

2



18 GOD.

sentiment, tliat imputes to God a propensity to gaze at human
beauty, or to do whatever men do : got mohte selbe gcrne sehen die
selben juncfrouwen ; Fragm. 22"'. gott moht in (him, i.e. the
musician) gerne hoeren in sinen himelkceren; Trist. 7649. den slac
scoUe got selbe haben gesehen (shoukl have seen that stroke) ; Eol.
198, 18. Karl 72 . got selbe moht ez gerne sehen ; Trist. 6869. ein
puneiz (diadem), daz in got selber mohte sehen ; Frauend. 84, 16.
gestriten dazz d'engel mohten hceren in den niun koeren ; Willeh.
230, 27. si mohte nach betwingen mite (might nigh compel
withal) eines engels gedanc, daz er vil lihte cincn ivanc durch si
von himele taic (fail from heaven for her) ; Iw. 6500 (imitated by
Ottocar 166"). icli weiz daz wol, daz sin got niclit vcrdrilzze ; MS.
2, 127^ ir har gelich dem golde, als ez got tailnschcn soldo; MS. 2
62^. sin swert dat geinc (ging, went) an siner hant, dat got selve
vrdchdc mere (woidd ask to know), we der ritter were ? dey engele
muosten lachen, dat hey is sus kunde machen ; Haupts zeitschr, 3,
24. This hilarity of the attendant guardian-angels (ch. XXVIII)
or valklirs must be thought of in connexion with the laughing of
ghosts (ch. XXXI). In Ilartmann's Erec, when Enite's white hands
groomed (begiengen) a horse, it says 355 : und wiere, daz got liicn
erde rite, icli wain, in genuocte da mite, ob er solJien marstcdlcr hccte.
This view of a sympathizing, blithe and gracious god, is particularly
expressed in the subst. Irnldi, O.N. hylU : OSins hylli ; Sam. 47^^.
Ullar hylli ok allra goSa ; Sa^m. 45^^.

On the other hand, of the primitive sensuous representation of
an angry avenging deity (see SuppL), the most striking example
will be treated of presently in ch. VIII, under Donar, thunder.^
The idea recurs several times in the Edda and elsewhere : rci&r er
J^er OSinn, rt"/^y er ];er Asabragr ; Sasm. 85^ OSinn o/racTr ; Siem.
228''. rcid' varS ];a Freyja oc fnasaSi ; Soim. 71^ — she was wroth,

Clirestien; jaia fist Dex de sa main iiue, por nature fere muser, tout le mont i
porroit user, s'ele la voloit contrefere, que ja nen porroit a chief trere ; no Dex,
s'il sen voloit pener, mi porroit, ce cuit, assener, que ja une telle feist, por peine
que il i meist (see SuppL).

1 Piacula ircc deum, Liv. €2, 9. deos iratos liabeam ! dii immortales liomin-
ibus irasci et succensere consvieverunt, Cic. pro Rose. 16. And Tacitus on this
very subject of the Germans : propitiine an irati dii, Germ. 5. ira dei, Hist. %
26. infensi Batavis dii, Hist. 5, 25. And in the Mid. Ages : tu odium Dei
omniumque sanctorum habeas ! Vita Meinwerci, cap. 13 § 95. crebresccn-
tibus jayi jamque cottidie Dei justo judicio in populo diversis calamitatibus ot
flagellis .... quid esset in quo Deus oflensus esset, vel quibus placaii
posset operibus ; Pertz 2, 547.



GOD. 19

and snorted or panted, as the angry wolf in Iieinli. XLII spirtles out
his beard. guSin o-eid' ordin ; Fornm. sog. 2, 29. 231. go5a grcmi
(deorum ira) is announced ; Egilss. 352. at rjrcmia go5 (offendere
deos); Fornald. sog. 2, 69. was imo god cWohjan ; HeL 157, 19.
than wirdid in waldand grani, mahtig modag; HeL 41, 16 (elsewhere :
diu Sffilde, or the world, earth, is gram), ein zornec got in daz gebot
(bade them), daz uns hie suohten mit ir her ; Parz. 43, 28. hie ist
geschehen gotes rdche ; Reinh. 975. got wil verviieren sinen zorn ;
Osw. 717 ich wsene daz got roeche da selbe sinen anclen (wreak his
vengeance); Gudr. 845, 4. daz riime got! (God rue it); Trist.
12131. daz ez got immer riuwe ! Trist. 11704. The Lex Bajuv.
6, 2, in forbidding Sunday labour, says : quia talis causa vitanda
est, quae Deuni ad iracnndiam provocat, et exinde flagellamur in
frugibus et penuriam patimur. How coarse were the expressions
still used in the 17th century ' " An abuse that putteth God on
his mcltlc, and maketh him to hold strict and pitiless inquisition,
that verily he shall, for saving of his honour, smite thereinto vnth
his fists " ; and again : " to run itpon the sjKnrs of an offended
jealous God "} A wicked man was in the Mid. Ages called gotc hide,
loathed by God. One form of imprecation was to consign a man
to God's hatred : uz in gotes haz ! Trist. 5449. liz strtchet (sheer
off) balde in gotes haz ! Trist. 14579. nu vart den gotes haz alsam
ein boeswiht von mir hin ! Frauend. 109, 12. mich hat der gotes
Jmz bestanden ; Kl. 518. inch hat rehtfe gotes haz (al. foul weather,
the devil, &c.) daher gesendet beide ; Iw. 6104. so miieze ich
haben gotes lioz ; Altd. w. 3, 212. varet hen an godes haz I Wiggert
2, 47. nu mueze er gewinnen gotes haz; Eoth 611. In like manner
the MLG. godsat liebbe ! Huyd. op St. 2, 350. Eeinaert 3196.^
But, what deserves particular notice, this fornmla ' in gotes haz,' or
in ace. without prepos. ' gotes haz varn, strichen ' has a perfect
parallel in another which substitutes for God the sun, and so heigh-
tens the heathenish colouring ; ir suit farn der svnncn haz ! Parz.
247, 26. var der sunnen haz ! Unprinted poems of Riiediger 46.
hebe dich der sunnen haz ! Er. 93. nu ziuhe in von mir der sunnm
haz ! Helmbr. 1799. si hiezen in strichen in der sunnen haz; Eracl.
1100. hicz in dev sunnen hc(z hill xarn ; Frauend. 375, 26. A man
so cursed does not deserve to have the sun shine on him kindly.

1 Hartmann on benedictions, Niirnb. 1080, p. 158, 180.

- Serious illness or distress is habitually called 'der gotes slac,' stroke.



20 GOD.

The Vandal Gizericli steps into his ship, and leaves it to the winds
where they shall drive it to, or among what people he shall fall
that God is angry with, ej)' ov<i 6 6eo^ copjiarai. Procop. de hello
Vand. 1, 5.

Such hostile attitude breeds now and then a rebellious spirit in
men, which breaks out in promethean defiance and threats, or even
takes a violent practical turn (see Suppl.). Herodotus 4, 94 says of
the Thracians : ovtoc oi avroi ©pj]iKe<i koI Tr/ao? ^povWjv re koI
darpaTrrjv to^€6ovt€<; avco Trpot tov ovpavov, wrreiXevat tod deM. If
the god denied the assistance prayed for, his statue was flung into
the river by the people, immersed in water, or beaten. In the
Carolingian romances we repeatedly come upon the incident of
Charles threatening the Deity, that if he deny his aid, he will throw
down his altars, and make the churches with all their priests to
cease from the land of the Franks ; e.g. Ferabr. 1211, 1428, &c.
So dame Breide too threatens to uncover the altar and break the
holy relics ; Orendel 2395 ; and Marsilies actually, after losing the
battle, has the houses of his gods pulled down ; Eol. 246, 30. If
the vintage failed, the statue of Urban was thrown into a bath or
the river.^ The Arcadians would scourge their Pan with squills
((TKiX\.ai,<;), when they returned bootless from the chase (Theocr. 7,
106). The Greeks imputed to their gods not only anger and hate,
but envy, love of mischief, vipueai,^.

Epithets of God (see Suppl.), In our modern speech : der liche,
liebste, gnddige^ grosse, gute, allmdchtige. In our older tongue : herre
got der guote ; Eeinh. 1296. Gute frau, 276. herro the godo ; Hel.
78, 3. 90, 6. fro min the godo ; 143, 7. gnmdeger trehtin; Eeinh.
1309. — Freq. the rieh God: thie riJceo Christ; Hel. 1, 2. riki
god; Hel. 195,9. riU drohtin ; Hel. 114,22. der rMe got von
himele; Eoth. 4971. got der riclie; Nib. 1793, 3. Trist. 2492.
durch den richen got von himel , Morolt 3526. der riche got mich
ie gesach ; V.d. wibe list 114.^ — Cot edmahtico, cot heilac; Wesso-

^ When lightning strikes, our people say : If God can bmii, we can build
again ; Ettners hebamme, p. 16.

- Where God is, there is grace and peace ; of a solemn sjiot it is said :
Here dwells der liebe Gott ! And, to di'ive den lieben Gott from a person's
room (Lessing 1, 243), means, to disturb a solitary in his sanctum.

^ OHG. rtlilii dives, potens, also beatus ; and dives is near akin to Diviis,
as Dis, Ditis springs out of divit. From the Slav. 6%/us derived boghut (dives),
Lilh. hagotas ; compare ops, in-ops (Russ. u-boghiy), opulentus with Ops, the
Bona Dea. Conf. Diefenb. celt. 1, 196.



GOD. 21

brunn. Gebct. mahtig drohtm ; Hel. 2,2. frea celmildig ; Csedm.
1,9. 10,1. se cclmihtiga wealdend; Thorpe's anal. 83. manno
miltisto (largissimus) ; Wessobr. Geb. vil milter Christ ; Cod. pal.
350, 56. — The AS. has freq. : ece dryhten, ieternus ; Caedm. 246,
11. Beow. 3382. 3555. 4655. Also : witig god, sapiens ; Beow.
1364, 2105. Cffidm. 182, 24. witig dryhten ; Beow. 3101. 3679.
Ctedm. 179, 8. witig wuldorcyning ; Ca3dm. 242, 30. — Waltant got;
Hild. waldindinger got; Eoth. 213. 523. 1009. 2332. 4031.
ivaltant Krist : OV. 25, 91. Gudr. 2243. (AS.) wealdend ; Csedm.
9, 25. wuldres wealdend; Beow. 4. heofnes wealdend; Cffidm.
17, 15. ]?eoda wealdend. feeder alwealda; Beow. 630. (OS.)
waldand ; Hel. 4,5. Q,Q. waldand god. 3,17. waldand drolitin
1, 19. aloivaldo 4, 8. 5, 20. 8, 2. 69, 23. This epithet is not found
in the Edda. The notion of ' wielding ', dominari, regere, is further
apphed to the Supreme Being in the phrase es ivaltcn, Parz. 568, 1.
En. 7299. 10165. 13225. So ouv gottivalt's ! M. T>nt. godwouds !
Huyd. op St. 2, 548. Our ace. in ' das wait Gott ! ' is a blunder ;
Agxicola 596. Praet. weltb. 2, 50. — God is occasionally called the 1/^
Old : dev alte Gott lebt noch, i.e. the same as ever. A.S. eald metod.
MHG. hat got sin alt gemiiete ; Wh. 66, 20. der aide got ; Pioth.
4401. popul. 'der alte Yater'. In a Servian song (Vuk 2, 244.
Montenegro 101), bogh is named ' stari krvnik ', the old blood-
shedder, killer ; and in Frauenlob MS. 2, 214'' der alte friedel .
(sweetheart). The 13th century poets sometimes use the Lat.
epithet altisdmus, Wh. 216, 5. 434, 23. Geo. 90, 401 ; with which
may be compared the MHG. diu hohste hant, Parz. 484, 6. 487, 20.
568, 8. Wh. 134, 7. 150, 14. and the OHG. zi waltanteru hcnti,
OV. 25, 91. — The 'all-wielding' God is at the same time the all-
seeing, all-knowing, all-remembering ; hence it is said of fortunate
men, that God saw them, and of unfortunate, that God forgot them :
(OHG.) kesah tih kot ! = te felicem ! N. Boeth. 145. (MHG.)
gesach in got!=happy he! Altd. bl. 1, 347. so mir got crgaz ;
Troj. kr. 14072. so hat got min vergezzen ; Nib. 2256, 3. wie gar
iuwer got vergaz (how utterly God forgot you) ; Iw. 6254. got min
vergaz ; Ecke 209. got heete sin vergezzen ; Trist. 9243. genaxle-
licher trehtin, wie vergaeze d^ ie min so ? Trist. 12483. For other
examples, see Gramm. 4, 175.— God, by regarding, guards : daz si
got iemer sclwnwe ! Iw. 794. 0. Engl. God you see ! God keep
you in his sight !



22 GOD.

Among substantive epitliets are several vvliicli God lias in com-
mon with earthly rulers (see Suppl.) : — Gothic frdiija OS. frdho,
fro, AS. fred ; which name I shall treat of more fully by and by.
— OHG. truhtin, MHG. trehtin, OS. drohtin, AS. dryhtcn, ON".
drottinn. — OHG. Jieriro, MHG. Jierrc, which however, when used
of God, is never contracted into her, any more than Dominus into
the Romance domnus, don. — Conspicuous above all is the name
Father (see Suppl.). In the Edda, alfod'r. (Siem. 46'' 88* 154^ Sn.
3. 11. 17), herfa&ir, herja fad'ir, valfa&ir are applied to OSinn as
the father of all gods, men and created things. Such compounds
are not found in the other dialects, they may have sounded heathen-
ish ; though the AS. could use feeder alwealda, Beow. 630, and the
idea of God as Father became more familiar to the christians than
to heathens. The OHG. alt fatar = grandfather, 0. i. 3, 6. AS.
ealdfteder, Beow. 743. 1883, I have nowhere seen applied to God.
As the Greeks coupled together Zei*? Tran^p, esp. in the voc. Zev
■TTciTep, and the Romans Jupiter, Diespiter, Dispiter, Mars pater,^
as well as Atj/jl^ttjp, AajnaTrjp, Terra mater, so the Lettons bestow
on almost every goddess the epithet mahtc, mahviina^=mafer,
matercula (Biittner 244. Bergmann 142), on which we shall have
more to say hereafter. To all appearance, father Goth, fadr is
connected with fa]?s lord, as pater irary'jp is with ttotl';, ttoctl'^, Lith.
pats. — The AS. meotod, metod, Csedm. 223, 14. eald metod, Beow.
1883. s65 metod, Beow. 3222. OS. metod, Hel. 4, 13. 15, 17. 66, 19,
an expression which likewise appears in the Edda, miotu&r Ssem.
226^ 241,^ seems to signify Creator, as verbally it bears the sense of
mensor, moderator, finitor. The full meaning of metod will not be
disclosed, till we have a more exact knowledge of the relation
between the Goth, mitan (to mete) and maitan (to cut), the OHG.
mezan and meizan ; in the Lat. metiri and metere, besides there
being no shifting of consonant (d for t), the quantity is inverted.
The OISI". miotucfr appears to be also sector, messor ; in Snorri 104.
105, the wolfs head with which Heimdall was killed is called
' miotuSr HeimSallar,' and the sword is ' mans miotuSr ' ; so in
Eornald. sog. p. 441, 'manna miotuSr' (see Suppl.). In MHG.
too, the poets use mezzan of exquisite symmetry in creating : do
sin (Wunsch's) gewalt ir bilde mciz ; Troj. 1962C. got selb in

^ Jane pater ! Cato 134 ; but what can Di.-^sunapiter mean in the remark-
able conjuring-spell, Cato 160 ?



GOD. 2;;

riclieii fixiudoii was, do er ir lip als chcnc maz ; Miyc. 2, 18G. er sol
7.e: rehte lauge mczzcn, der an si so cbcne maz, daz er an si zer werlte
nie uach voUeni wunsclie weder des nocli des vergaz ; MS. 1, 154".
got der was in frijiden, do er dicli als cbcne maz ; MS. 1, 22''
wer kunde in so gemezzen, Tit. 130. 1. anders denne got uns
maz, do er ze werke ilber mich gesaz, Parz. 518, 21. ' ein bilde
mezzen ' is therefore the same thing as ' ein bilde schaj^en '
to create (Troj. 19805), or giezen to cast, mould (Walth. 45,
25. MS. 1, 195^ 2, 226'') ; and in Suchenwirt 24, 154 it says :
' got het gcgozzcn uf ir vel, ir mlindei rot und wiz ir kel ' ; which
throws a significant light on the Gothic tribal name Gduts, A.S.
Gcdt OHG. K6z (see Suppl.). — AS. scippcnd, creator, OHG. sccfo,
scephio, MHG. scJicpfa-re, Wh. 1, 3. NHG. schopfer. — Some of
these names can be strung together, or they can be intensified by
composition : drohtin god, Hel. 2. 13. wcddand fro min, Hel. 148,
14. 153, 8. frcd dryhten, Beow. 62. 186. lif-frcd, CiL^dm. 2, 9. 108,
18. 195, 3. 240, 33. Beow. 4. The earthly cuning with a prefix can
be used of God : ivuldorcyning, king of glory, Ctedm. 10, 32. hcvan-
cuning, Hel. 3, 12, 18. 4, 14. 5, 11. and synonymously with these,
rodora loeard, Ccedm. 11, 2. or the epic amplification, irmin-got
obana a& AcwTie, Hild. got von himele, Mb. 2090,4. 2114, 1. 2132, 1.
2136, 1.

Of such epic formulas (see Suppl.), beautiful specimens, all of
one tenour, can be cited from the poets, especially the Eomance :
they are mostly borrowed from God's dwelling-place, his creative
powder, his omnipotence, omniscience and truth : — Dios aquel, que
esta en alto, Cid 800. 2352. 2465. qui la amont el seint eel
maint (abides), Ben, 26018. qui maint el firmament, Berte
129. 149. der hoho sizet unde nideriu sihet, N. ps. 112, 5. qui
haut siet et de loing mire, Ben. 11687. qui haut siet et loins
voit, Berte 44, 181. Guitecl. 2, 139. der liber der blauen decke
sitzt, Melander Jocoseria 1, 439. cot almahtico, dii himil inti
erda gaworahtos (wroughtest heaven and earth), Wessobr. Geb. eel
scnhor, qui lo nion a creat, Ferabr. 775. (|ui tot le mont forma,
Berte 143. que fezit nueyt e dia, Ferabr. 3997. per aycel senhor que
fetz eel e rozada (sky and dew), Ferabr. 2994. 4412. qui fist ciel et
rousee, Berte 28. QQ>. 111. 139. 171. 188. Aimon 876. qui feis mer
salee, Berte 67. qui fist et mer et onde, Meon 3, 460. des hant
daz mer gesalzen hat, Parz. 514, 15. qui fait courre la nue, Berte



24 GOD,

lo6. 183 {ve(})e\r]jepeTa Zeu<;). par celui qui fait toner, Een.
1GG58. 17780. par qui li soleus raie, Berte 13. 81. der himel und
erde gebot und die mergriezen zelt (counts the sea-sands, or pebbles).
Mar. 18, der der sterne zal weiz, Wh. 466, 30. der die sterne hat
gezalt, Parz. 629, 20. der uns gap des manen (moon's) schin, Wh.
476, 1. qui fait croitre et les vins et les blez, Ferabr. 163^ der
niir ze lebene geriet (planned). Nib. 2091, 4. Kl. 484, der mir ze
lebene gebot (bade), Eoth. 215, 517. 4552. der uns daz leben
gebot. Mar. 24. (M. Dut.) bi den here die mi ghebot (Gramiu.
4, 134), die mi ghewrochte, Elegast 345. 451. 996. qui tot
a a baillier (oversee), Berte 35. qui tot a a garder, Berte 7.
que totz nos a jutgier, Ferabr. 308. 694. 1727. the man-
cunnies forwardot, Hel. 152, 5. qui sor tos homes puet et vaut,
Meon 4, 5. dominus qui omnia potest, Docum. of 1264 in Wenk 3.
no. 151. wider den nieman vermac, A. Heinr. 1355. der aller
wunder hat gewalt, Parz. 43, 9. der git unde nimt (gives and
takes), Parz. 7 9. der weinen und lachen geschuof, Wh. 258, 19.
der beidiu krump unde sleht gescuof (both crooked and plain),
Parz. 264, 25. der ane sihet alle getougen (secrets), Diut. 3, 52.
der durch elliu herzen siht, Frid. 355. der in diu herze siht, Wh.
30, 29. der ie daz guote geriet (aye the good devised), Greg. 2993.
ther suntiloso man (sinless), 0. iii. 21, 4. dera nie voller genaden
zeran (tear, waste), Er. 2490. qui onques ne menti (nunquam
mentitus), Berte 82. 96. 120. 146. Mdon 3, 8. icil dieu qui ne
ment, et qui fist tot quanque mer serre, Een. 19338. er mik skop
ok ollu rseSr, Fornm. sog. 1, 3. sa er oUu rseSr, ibid. 8, 107. er
solina hefSi skapat, ibid. 1, 242. het a J^ann sem solina skapaSi,
Landn. p. 139.

If, in some of the preceding names, epithets and phrases descrip-
tive of God, unmistakable traces of Heathenism predominate, while
others have barely an inkling of it, the following expressions are
still more indisputably connected with the heathen way of
thinking.

In the Norse mythology, the notion of a Deus, Divus, if not of
the uppermost and eldest, yet of a secondary rank, which succeeded /
to power later, is expressed by the word as, pi. ccsir (see Suppl.).^
Landds (Egilss. pp. 365-6) is patrium numen, and~try it Thor, the
chief god of the North, is designated, though as and allmdttki as is
given to OSinn (Landn. 4, 7). dsmcrjui is divine power : tha vex



GOD. 25

honum asmcgin halfu, Sn. 26. fa'raz i asmegin, Sn. 65. But the
name must at one time have been universal, extending over Upper
Germany and Saxony, under such forms as : Goth. OHG. ans, pi.
anseis, cnsi, AS. 6s, pi. es (conf. our gans, with OIST. gas, pi.
goess, AS. gos, pi. ges ; and hose = hansa). It continued to form
a part of proper names : Goth. Ansila, OHG. Anso ; the OHG.
Anshelm, Anshilt, Anspald, Ansnut conespond in sense to Cotahelm,
Cotaliilt, &c. ; AS. Osweald, Oslaf, Osdasg, Osred ; ON. Asbiorn,^
Asdis, Asgautr, Aslaug, Asmundr, &c. — Now in Ulphilas Lu, 2,
41-2, cms denotes a beam, 8ok6<;, which is also one meaning of the
ON", as, whether because the mighty gods were thought of as joist,
rafter and ceiling of the sky, or that the notions of jugum and
mountain-ridge were associated with them, for as is especially used
of jugum terrse, mountain-ridge. Pan. bierg-aas (dettias = sliding
beam, portcullis, Landn. 3, 17). But here we have some other
striking passages and proofs to weigh. An AS. poem couples
together ' esa gescot ' and ' ylfa gescot,' the shots of auses and of
elves, jaculum divorum et geniorum, just as the Edda does sesir and
alfar, Sa^m. 8" 71'* 82 - ' 83^ Jornandes says, cap. 13 : Turn Gothi,
magna potiti per loca victoria, jam proceres suos quasi qui fortuna
vincebant, non puros liomines, sed scmidcos, id est anscs (which
would be anseis) vocavere. "What can be plainer ? The Norse lesir
in like manner merge into the race of heroes, and at much the
same distance from an elder dynasty of gods whom they have
dethroned. And here the well-known statement of Suetonius and
Hesychius,^ that the Etruscans called the gods assures or a:si, may
fairly be called to mind, without actually maintaining the affinity
of the Etruscan or Tyrrhenian race with the ancient German,
striking as is the likeness between rvpf)T)v6<i, rvpcnjvo^i and the ON.
Ipnvs, OHG. durs.^

The significance of this analogy, however, is heightened, when

1 Ursus divinns, Asbinia (ursa divina), for wliich the Waltharius has the
hybrid O.spirn, prop. Anspirn ; conf. Reiiih. fuchs p. ccxcv. For Asketill,
Oscytel, see end of ch. III.

- Suet. Octavian. cap. 97. futnrumque, ut inter deos referretur, qnod
cesar, id est reliqna pars e Csesaris nomine, Etrusca linyua detis vocaretur.
Hesych. s.v. alaoi 6(o\ vno tcov Tvpprjviov. Conf. Lanzi 2, 483-4 ; also Dio
Cass. 56, 29.

^ Unfortunately l»urs means a giant, and durs a demon, which, if they
have anything to do with the rvparjvoi, would rather imply that these were a
hostile and dieaded people,— Tkaks.



26 GOD.

we observe that tlie Etruscan religion, and perhaps also the Roman
and the Greek, supposed a circle of twelve superior beings closely
bound together and known by the name of clii consentes or complices
(see SuppL), exactly as the Edda uses the expressions Iwpt and hond,
literally meaning vincula, for those high numina (Srem. 24"^ 89".
Sn. 176. 204), and also the sing, hapt and hand for an individual god
(Sffim. 93''). Though hapthandun in the Merseburg poem cannot
with certainty be taken to mean the same thing (the compound
seems here to denote mere bodily chains), it is possible that dens
and 82o<i are referable to Sew I bind ; that same ' ans ' a yoke, is the
same thiug as the ' brace and band ' of all things ; neither can we
disregard the fact that tivelve is likewise the number of the Norse
£esir ; conf. Ssem. 3^ : ' eesir or ]?vi liSi ' of the set, kindred.

Some other appellations may be added in support. In the
earliest period of our language, the neut. ragin meant consilium.
Now the plural of this, as used in the Edda, denotes in a special
manner the plurality of the gods (see SuppL). Begin are the
powers that consult together, and direct the world ; and the expres-
sions bliS regin,^ hoU regin (kind, merciful gods), uppregin, ginregin
(supers potestates) have entirely this technical meaning. Ragna-
rokr (Goth, ragine riqvis ? dimness, darkness of gods) signifies the
end of the world, the setting of the divine luminaries. Ssem.
89'' has "rognir ok regin" coupled together, rognir (cf. 196") being
used to distinguish the individual ragincis (raguneis?), masc.
These OK regin would be Goth, ragina, as the hopt and bond are



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