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world into three parts.^ The domina clothed in white reminds one
of Perahta the bright, the bona domina or bona socia'^ of Holda the
gracious, and Herodias haunting the oaks by night of the Old
German tree-worship. They are originally benignant beings all,
whose presence brings prosperity and plenty to mankind ; hence to
them, as to friendly spirits or gods, meat and drink are set for a
sacrifice in the night season. Holda, Berhta and Werra seem to
love a particular kind of food, and look for it on their feast-day.

7. Hruoda (Hrede). Ostara (Eastre).

Thus far we have got acquainted with the names and worship
of several goddesses, who were honoured under different names by
particular tribes of Teutondom (N"erdu, Hludana, Tanfana, Holda,
Berhta), and others resembling them have only become known to
us under foreign appellations (Isis, Diana, Herodias, Abundia) : of
all these (so long as I consider still doubtful the connexion of

1 Agitiir pars tertia nmncli. Ovid. met. 5, 372 ; tertia pars mundi fiimans
perit Alrica ilaiuiuis, Coripp. 1, 47 : tertia pars orbis Europa vocatur, Wal-
thar. 1.

2 Is tlie name socia connected with tlie Satia in Guiliehnns Alvernus ?


' Erce ' with our Herke) not one is to be found among the Anglo-

On the other hand, the Anglo-Saxon historian tells us the
names of two beings, whom he expressly calls ancient goddesses of
liis people, but of whose existence not a trace is left amongst other
Germans. A clear proof, that here as well as there, heathenism
was crowded with divinities of various shape and varying name,
but who in their characteristics and cultus corresponded to one
another. Why this multiplicity of form should prevail more in the
case of the female deities than of the male, can be fairly explained,
I think, by the greater respect paid to the chief masculine
divinities: they were too famous and too highly thought of, for
their principal names not to have penetrated all branches of the

The two goddesses, whom Beda (De temporum ratione cap. 1 3)
cites very briefly, without any description, merely to explain the
months named after them, are Hrede and Edstre, March taking its
Saxon name from the first, and April from the second : ' Rlicdmo-
luifh a dca illorum Rheda, cui in illo sacrificabant, nomiuatur.' —
'Antiqui Anglorum populi, gens mea . . . apud eos Aprilis
Esturmoiiath, qui nunc paschalis mensis interpretatur, quondam a
dca illorum, quae Eostra vocabatur et cui in illo festa celebrantur
(?), nomen habuit ; a cujus nomine nunc paschale tempus cogno-
minant, consueto aniiquae ohscrvationis vocabulo gaudia novae
solennitatis vocantes.' ^

It would -be uncritical to saddle this father of the church, who
everywhere keeps heathenism at a distance, and tells us less of it
than he knows, with the invention of these goddesses. There is
nothing improbable in them, nay the first of them is justified by
clear traces in the vocabularies of other German tribes. March is
in OHG. lenzinmanot, named after the season lenzo, lengizo
[lengthening of days] f but it may have borne other names as well.
Oberlin quotes, from Chorion's Ehrenkranz der teutschen sprach,
Strassb. 1044, p. 91, Rdmonat for March ; and a doc. of 1404

' One MS. (Kolmesen opusc. p. 287 ; this ref. given in Rathlefs Hoya and
Diepholz 3, IG) reads : Veteres Anglicani populi vocant Estormonath paschalem
monseni, idque a dea quadam cui Teutonici populi in pagani.snio sacrilii'ia
fecerunt tempore mensis Aprilis, quae Eostra est appellata.

2 Gramm. 2, 510. Langez. Diut. 3, 88.



(Weisth. 1, 175) has Rcdtmonet, it is not clear for what month.
When we find in the Appeuzeller reimchronik p. 174 :

In dem Redimonet

die puren kamen donet,

do der merzenmonat gieng herzu

an ainem morgen fru

do zundentz Eorschach an ;

here Rcdhnonct seems, by the displacement so common in the
names of months, to be the month before March, as Chorion uses
his Retmonat for February as well. Von Arx explains the word
(p;ite differently, and I think untenably, by a mountain. Apart
from the Swiss term altogether, I believe the AS. name was
really Hred' or Hreffc = OHG. Hruod or Hruodd, and derived,
as I said on p. 20G, from hruod gloria, fama ; so that we get the
meaning of a shining and renownful goddess. The Trad. fuld. 2,
196, furnish a female name Hruada, gen. Hruadun, and in 1, 42. 2,
26, another nom. Hruadun, this last apparently formed like ON.
Fiorgyn and Hlodyn. The AS. adj. hreS or hreSe means crudelis
(Ceedm. 136, 21. 198, 2), perhaps victoriosus ? I am in doubt
about hreS, sigehreS, guShreS, Beow. 5146. 974. 1631 ; they waver
between an adj. and a subst. sense, and in the last passage,
' Beowulfe wearS guShreS gifeSe,' victoria is evidently meant.
When the AS. Menologue, line 70, translates Martius by reSe, this
may stand for hre&'e.

We Germans to this day call April ostermonat, and ostarmdnoth
is found as early as Eginhart (temp. Car. Mag.). The great
christian festival, which usually falls in April or the end of March,
bears in the oldest of OHG. remains the name ostard gen. -un •} it
is mostly found in the plural, because two days (ostartagil,
aostortaga, Diut. 1, 266^) were kept at Easter. This Ostard, like
the AS. Edstre, must in the heathen religion have denoted a higher
being, whose worship was so firmly rooted, that the christian
teachers tolerated the name, and applied it to one of their own
grandest anniversaries." All the nations bordering on us have
retained the Biblical 'pascha'; even Ulphilas writes paska, not

1 T. 157, 1. 3. 5. 0. i. 22, 8. iii. 6, 16. iv. 9, 8. Hymn. 21, 4. Fragiii.
tlieol. xiv. 17.

- Conf. Ideler's chronologie 1, 516.

ziSA. 291

austro, though he must have known the word ; ^ the Norse tongue
also has imported its paskir, Svved. pask, Dan. paaske. The OIIG^.
adv. 6sta7' expresses movement toward the rising sun (Gramm. 3,
205), likewise the ON", mistr, and probably an AS. eastor and Gotli.
austr. In Latin the identical austcr has been pushed round to the
noonday quarter, the South. In the Edda a male being, a spirit of
light, bears the name of Atistri, so a female one might have been
called Aiistra ; the High German and Saxon tribes seem on the
contrary to have formed only an Ostard, Edstre (fem.), not Ostaro,
Eiistra (masc).- And that may be the reason why the Norsemen
said paskir and not austrur : they had never worshipped a goddess
Austra, or her cultus was already extinct.

Ostara, Eddre seems therefore to have been the divinity of the
radiant dawn, of upspringing light, a spectacle that brings joy and
blessing,^ whose meaning could be easily adapted to the resurrec-
tion-day of the christian's God. Bonfires were lighted at Easter,
and according to a popular belief of long standing, the moment the
sun rises on Easter Sunday morning, he gives three joyful leaps, he
dances for joy (Superst. 813). Water drawn on the Easter
morning is, like that at Christmas, holy and healing (Superst. 775.
804) ; here also heathen notions seems to have grafted themselves
on great christian festivals. Maidens clothed in white, who at
Easter, at tlie season of returning spring, show themselves in clefts
of the rock and on mountains, are suggestive of the ancient goddess
(see SuppL).

8. ZiSA.

Beda's account of Hrede and Eastre* shall be followed now by
a statement reaching back to the 11th century, and deserving
attention if only for its great age, concerning a goddess Zisa
worshipped at Augsburg in the heathen time.

^ For oriens he chooses iirruns, for occiJens sagqs, i.e., rising and sinking of
the sun, not tliat he did not know vistr (versus occidentem), root vis (repose,
stillness, evening).

^ Composite proper names : Ostroberht, Austroberta, Austregisil, Ostro-
gotha (like Visigotha, Vistrimund, Westeralap, Sundarolt, Nordberulit, &c. &c.)

* In tlie Busijue language ostnra means May, tlie budding leafing time,
from ostoa, leaf, foliage : a mere accidental ies?,niblanee.

* I might introduce into the te,\t an AS. R'ccn, if I knew any more about
her than what Lye's glossary quotes from Cod. Cot. 65, 87 : Iticcnne Diana. It
is formed like ] inen (aucilla), wylpen (bellouu), &c.


Tlie Cod. Monach. Lat. 2 (of 1135), and the Cod. Emmeran. F.
IX. fol. 4:'' (of 12-13th cent.) contain identic ' Excerpta ex Gallica

' Dum liec circa rcnum geruntur, in noricorum (interlined
bawariorum, Cod. Vind. CII. pauwarioriini) finibus grave vulnus
romanus populus accepit. quippe germanorum gentes (interlined
suevi), que retias occupaverant, non longe ab alpibus tractu pari
patentibus campis, ubi duo rapidissimi amnes [interlined licus et
wcrtlialia (CII vuerdalia)] inter se conlluunt, in ipsis noricis finibus
(interlined terminis bawariorum et sicevorum) civitatem non quidem
muro sed vallo fossaque cinxerant, quam appellabant zizarim (CII.
cizarim) ex nomine dee cize,^ quara religiosissime colebant. cujus
templum quoque ex lignis harharico ritu constrictum, postquam eo^
colonia romanti deducta est, inviolatum permansit, ac vetustate
collapsum nomen* colli servavit. banc urbem titus annius pretor
ad arcendas barbarorum excursiones kal. sextilibus (interlined
exacta jam estate) exercitu circumvenit. ad meridianam oppidi
partem, que sola a continenti (interlined littoribus) erat, pretor ipse
cum legione martia castra operosissime communivit. ad occiden-
tem vero, qua barbarorum adventus erat, dvar, hogudis regis filius,
cum equitatu omni et auxiliaribus macedonum copiis inter fiumen ct
vallum loco castris parum amplo infelici temeritate extra fiumen
(interlined loerihaha) consedit. pulchra indoles, non minus romanis
quam greets disciplinis instructa. igitur quinquagesimo nono die,
qua eo ventum est, cum is dies dec cize (CII. de^ ciz^) apud larharos
celeberrimus, ludum et lasciviam magis quam formidinem ostentaret,
immanis barbarorum (interlined suevorum, CII. svivorum) multitude,
ex proximis silvis repente erumpens ex improviso castra irrupit,
oquitatum omnem, et quod miserius erat, auxilia sociorum delevit.
avarj' cum in hostium potestatem regio babitu vivus venisset, [sed

1 I owe their cominiuiication to Sclimeller's kindness. The same piece is
found at Vienna in two forms : in the Cod. Lat. CII (olim hist. prof. WrA) sec.
xi. ineuntis fol. 79. 80 ; and in the Cod. CCXXVI (olim univ. '237) sec. xii.
In hoth it stands between Jorn. De reb. get. and De regn. succ. CII has
interlinear glosses and marginal notes (exactly like the Munich MSS.) by a
scarcely later hand, which also writes the heading ' Excerptum ex Gallica
historia '. CCXXVI adopts the interlinears into the text, but otherwise agrees.

^ On margin: 'Quern male polluerat cultura nefaria dudum
gallns monticulum hunc tibi cv:a tulit '.

' On margin ; 'post conditani urljem avrjnstnni a romanis'.

* Marg. note : 'ut usque hodie ab incolis cizunbcrc nominetur'.

^ Marg. note: 'ex cujus vocabulo, quia ibi inactatus ct tumulatus est
chrikesaveron (CII chrekasaver) nomen accepit. grecus enim erat '.

ziSA. 29:5

que apud larharos reverentia ?J more peciulis il)idem mactatur.^
oppidani vero uoii iniuori fortuiia sed luaiori virtute pretorem in
auxiliuni sociis properaiitein adoriuntur. romaiii baud segniter
resistunt. duo principes oppidanorura hahino^ et caccus^ in primis
pugnautes cadunt. et incliiiata jam res oppidauoruui esset, ni
maturasseiit auxiliuni ierre socii in altera ripa jam victoria potiti.
denique coadunatis viribus castra irrumpunt, pretorem, qui paulo
altiorem tumuluni (interlined pcrleih) frustra ceperat, romana vi
resistentem obtruncant. legionem-* divinam (interlined martiam),
ut ne nuncius cladis superesset, funditus delent. Verres solus
tribunus militum arnne transmisso in proximis paludibus sc
occultans^ honestam mortem subterfugit. nee multo post sicilie
proconsul immani avaricia turpem mortem promeruit. nam cum se
magistratu abdicaret, judicio civium damnatus est.'

The same fragment, only without the interlined words and
without marginal additions, stands in Goldast's Eerum suev. scrij^t.
aliquot veteres, Ulm 1727 tbl. p. 3 under the rubric : * Vellcii GalU
fragmentum de victoria Suevorum contra Eomanos ' (conf. Haupts
zeitschr. 10,291). It has the readings ' dea Cisa' and ' Cisara,'
and for Caccus ' Cams,' but agrees in the other names. Further,
for loco parum amjjlo, I find the better reading apto. The paren-
thesis ' sed — reverentia ' is wanting, so is the concluding sentence
' nam — damnatus est '. I should believe that Goldast had borrowed
it all from Wolfg. Lazius's Eeip. Eom. libri xii. Franco!. 1501 p.
52, if this copy had not some variations too ; the heading runs :
' Velleii excerpta ex Gallica historia ' ; it has Cisara, but Cizi^, also
' Habbino, Caccus, amplo,' and concludes with promeruit. Lazius

^ On margin. :

' Hoc nomen terris bogudis dat regia proles
grecavar (CII grecus auar), pecudis de suevis more litatus.'
2 On margin :

' Prefectus haheno se victum liicque sepultuni
perpetuo montis nomine notiticat.
qui juxta montem oceisus et sepultus nomen monti habenonhcrch dedit, quera
rustici havenenbercli (CII havenonpercli) dicunt.'

^ CII : 'a cujus nomine putamus ickingen. nominari.'

* On margin : ' de hac ibi perdita legione adhuc paicich nominatur.'
Then in smaller but contemporaneous writing :

' Indicat hie collis romanam nomine cladeni

martia ([uo legio tota simnl periit.
sulididit liunc rume jirepcs victoria ^^firo,
hoc sibimet templum qui modo constituit.'
5 On margin : ' hie quia in paludibus adjacentibus latuit, lacui ueriase hue
usque nomen dedit '.


says : ' quam nos historiam in pervetusto codice menibran. Uteris
autiquissimis scriptam reperimus ' ; that would be the sixth MS.
known hitherto, and copies must have been pretty numerous in the
11-1 2th centuries. The one that Goldast had before him may
probably have been the oldest.

Either one or the other of them, both Otto von Freisincjen and
the author (or continuator) of the Auersberg chronicle seem to have
had before them. The former tries to connect the story with
Quintilius Varus (instead of Verres), and after relating his over-
throw, adds (chron. 3, 4) : ' Tradunt Augustenses banc caedem ibi
factam, ostenduntque in argumentum collem ex ossibus mortuorum
compactum, quem in vulgari perUich (Mone, anz. 1, 256), eo quod
legio ibi perierit, usque hodie vocant, vicumque ex nomine Yari ap-
pellatum monstrant '. The Auersberg chronicler's account, though
he almost verbally adopts the older fragment, I hold it needful to
insert here, because the marginal glosses are curiously interwoven
with the text, and referred to ' discovered inscriptions on stone '}

De Augusta Vindelicorum vel Ehetiae. sicut ex scriptis veterum
coUigitur haec ci vitas tria nomina accepit. Germanorum quippe
geutes primum considentes in partibus Ehetiae, quae nunc est pars
Sueviae, non longe ab alpibus in planitie, locotamen munito propter
concursum duorum rapidorum fluminum, banc urbem construxerunt,
et non muris sed fossatis eam firmaverunt, et ex nomine deae Zizae,
quam religiosissime colebant, Zlzerim eam nominabant. liujus
quoque deae templum ex lignis barbarico ritu constructum, etiam
postquam Eomani eam incolere coeperunt, inviolatum permansit.
at vetustate collapsum nomen colli servavit, in quo j)ostmodum in
lapide exsculpti hi versus sunt reperti :

quem male polluerat cultura nefaria dudum
gallus monticulum hunc tibi Ziza tulit.
unde usque in praesens ab incolis idem monticulus Zizcnherg no-
minatur. apud banc urbem Eomani deleti sunt magna caede.
nam Titus Annius praetor ad arcendas barbarorum excursiones
cum exercitu in kal. August! eam circundedit, ipseque ad meri-
dianam oppidi partem, quae sola patebat, castra sua cum legione
Martia operosissime communivit. ad occidentem vero ultra
Huvium, ubi Suevis aut barbaris aditus patebat, Avar Bogudis regis

1 Chron. Conradi ursperg. Argent. 1532, p. 308. ed. 1609, p. 225.

ziSA. 295

filius cum omni equitatii et auxilio maccdonlco conseJit. igitur
({uiuquagesimo nono die, quani eo ventum est, cum is dies deae Ziz^
apud barbaros celeberrimus esset, ludum et lasciviam magis quam
formidinem cives ostentarunt. tunc etiam immanis barbarorum
multitude, quae de partibus Sueviae illuc convenerat, de proximis
silvis repente erumpens ex improviso castra irrupit et Avaris
exercitum delevit. ipsum quoque Avar regio habitu iiidutum
vivum comprehendeutes crudeliter in modum pecoris mactaverunt.
a quo in loco, ubi mactatus est, vicus usque liodie appellatus est
Crieclicsavcron, in quo hi versus reperti sunt :

his nomen terris Bogudis dat regia proles

Graemes Avar, pecudis de Suevis more litatus.
oppidani vero non minori fortuna sed majori virtute praetorem
in auxilium sociis properantem invadunt, quibus Eomani hand
segniter resistunt, in quo conflictu duo principes oppidanorum
Habino et Caccus in primis pugnantes cadunt, et inclinata jam res
esset oppidanorum, ni maturassent auxilium ferre Suevi in altera
ripa victoria jam potiti. de uominibus autem illorura principum
interfectorum exstant adhuc loca denominata, nam rustici de Ha-
hinonc vocant monticulum Habinoberg, in quo lii versus reperti
sunt :

praefectus Habino se victum atque sepultum
perpetuo mentis nomine notificat.
a Cacco vero dicunt Gcgyincn denoniinari. denique coadunatis
Suevis et oppidanis castra irrumpunt, et praetorem, qui paulo al-
tiorem tumulum frustra ceperat, romana vi resistentem obtruncant,
legionemque divinam, ut nee nuncius cladis superesset, funditus
delent. de hac perdita legione adhuc perlaich, quasi perdita legio,
nominatur, ubi postniodum hi versus sunt reperti :

indicat hie collis romanam nomine cladem,
martia quo legio tota simul periit.
solus Vcrres tribunus militum amne transmisso in proximis palu-
dibus se occultans honestam mortem subterfugit, lacui Vernse
hucusque nomen dedit. versus :

das nomen lacui Vcrres quo tu latuisti.
hie tamen non niulto post Siciliae proconsul eff'ectus turpem mor-
tem promeruit. nam cum se magistratu abdicaret judicio civium
damnatus est. propter hunc Verrcm tradunt Augustenses banc
caedem fuisse eandem, quam sub Augusto lactam quidam descri-


bunt, sed Varum ilium nominant his verbis : ea tempestate Varus,
romano more, superbe et avare erga subditos ae gereus a Germanis
deletus est.

Some later writers also mention the tradition. About 1373 —
91, an ecclesiastic, Klichlin, composed in rhyme a history of
Augsburg ^ for the burgomaster Peter Egen the Young, who wished
to have his house painted with illustrations from it. Cap. 2, foL
99 says of the Swabians :

Sie bawten einen tempel gross darein
zu eren (in honour of) Zise der abgottin,
die sie nach heidnischen sitten (after heatlien ways)
anbetten zu denselben zeiten (adored in those days).
Die stat ward genennt (city got named) auch Zisaris
nach der abgottin (after the goddess), das was der pris.
Der tempel als lang stund unversert (stood uninjured),
bis im von alter was der val beschert (its fall decreed),
und da er von alter abgieng (as from age it passed away),
der berg namen von im empfieng (the hill took name),
daruf gestanden was (whereon had stood) das werck,
und haist noch hlit (hight still to-day) der Zisciibcrclc.
Conf. Keller's Fastn. sp., p. 1361. Sigism. Meisterlin, in his Augs-
burg chronicle ^ (which is in print from the 8th chap, of bk 1),
treats of this Cisa in chaps. 5-6 of bk 2. In the unprinted chap. 4
of bk 1, he unmistakably refers to Klichlin, and again at the end of
chap. 7 : ' das er auch melt (tells) von der gottin Cisa, die auch
genent wird Cizais, das sy geert habend (they honoured her) die
doch aus Asia warend ; dawider seind die andern, die von Cysa
schreibent, die sprechent, das sy die Vindelici habend nach
schwebischen sitten angebettet. von der gottin wirst du hernach
mer haben, ob got wil (buch 3. cap. 5. 6).' (See Suppl.)

Hopeless contradictions lie on the face of that fragment.
Bogud, a Punic ship's-captain, who lived in the year 494 of Eonie,
or 260 B.C.,^ is here turned into a Macedonian king ; and his son
Avar is made contemporary with the Ciceronian Verres of 200
years after, or even of the still later Varus. Yet Bogudes and
Varus do occur as contemporaries of Pompey in Dio Cassius 41, 42.

1 Cod. Monach. Lat. 61 ; likewise sent me by Schmeller.

- Aitgsb. 15'22 fol. IVIeisterlin wrote it in 1456, and died about 1-184.

2 Niebuhr's Eom. Hist. 3, 677.

zisA. 297

"What Titus Annius was meant by the ' praetor,' I cannot guess ;
there is a consul of that name A.U.C. 601 and 626, or B.C. 153, 128.
Velleius Paterculus can never have written this sort of thing.^

But all the rubbish it contains does not destroy the value of
the remarkable story to us. The comparatively pure Latinity is
enough to show that it was not composed so late as the twelfth
century ; Lazius and Velser ^ are inclined to place it in the Caro-
lingian period, and it looks like the work of a foreigner, to whom
the Germans are heathens and barbarians. The glosses confirm the
local connexion of the whole tradition with Augsburg and its
neighbourhood ; and not only the Latin verses, but the German
forms werthaha (R. Wertach), cizunberc, habino, habinonberc, look
too old for the 12th century. Habino (Hepino), Habinolf, is an
authentic OHG. man's name : Cacus is unknown to me, Cacan,
Cagau would seem more vernacular, and the derived local name
Geginen leads up to it. Some of the names cpioted are preserved
to this day: the eminence in the middle of the city, next the senate-
house, is still called Peiiach, on which the monastery and churcli
of St. Pdcr were founded in 106-1; so the verse 'subdidit hunc
(collem) Eomae praepes victoria Pdro ' was composed after that ?
The name pcrlcih, which the legend derives from periens or perdita
legio, suggests the OHG. eikileihi, aigilaihi (phalanx), Gl. ker. 124.
Diut. 1, 223 ; and in other compounds we find leih in a variety of
senses.^ Zisenberg and Havenenberg are names no longer heard,
wliile Pfersen (Veris-se) MB. 33^ 108 an. 1343, and Kricgshaher
are well known villages. Whatever may be the explanation of the
older and correcter form Criechesaveron, it is very plain that the
name of the place Criahhes (graeci) avani (imago, conf. pp. 86, 95,
yet also avaro proles) first suggested ' Graecus Avar,' as well as
Ildbmonberc the hero ' Habino '. The Auersberg chronicler's state-
ment, that the Latin verses were found carved in all those places,
must be rejected.

We find then, tliat tradition, true to her wont, has mixed up

1 G. Jo. Vossius, De liist. Lat. 1, 24.

- Marci Velseri rer. Augustuuar. lilni 8. 1594 fol. p. 45.

* Henisch p. 293 explains ' berlach ' at Augsburg ' ab ursis in publica
cavea ibi altis,' a thing wliich was done in other towns, e.fj. Bern. On the
Perlach tower there was fi.ved a figure of St. Michael, which came into view
every time the clock struck on Michaelmas-day ; in earlier times a wooden
temple of lais (p. 294, ex lignis) is said to have stood on the spot ; Fischart's
geschichtkl. 30'' : ' der ama/.onischeu Augspurgcr japetisch fraw Eysen '.


fact and fiction ; the great point is, that she brings us tidings of a
Suevic goddess. Cisa seems the older and better spelling, and Ciza
would be harder to explain. Now from this name of the goddess
we can hardly derive that of the town Cisara, supposing it to be a
purely German derivative ; names of places are never formed with
such a termination from male or female proper names. It seems
more likely that Cisara = Cisae ara, from the altar and temple of
tlie goddess : and later writers might corrupt Cisaram into Zizarim,
Zizerim. We read that she was most devoutly (religiosissime)
honoured by the Suevi, her anniversary is a grand festival devoted
to games and merrymaking, the day is precisely defined as the
fifty-ninth after Aug. 1, it fell therefore on Sept. 28. At such a
season might be held a feast of the divinity who had prospered the
harvest just gathered in. On Sept. 29 the christians kept one of
their grandest days, that of St. Michael, who often had to rejDlace a
heathen god of war and victory. It seems worthy of notice, that
the Saxons had their great feast of victory about the same time,
viz., the beginning of October ; Widukind pp. 423-4. With the
first Sunday after Michaelmas the holi/ common-week was considered
in the Mid. Ages to begin ; Scheffer's Haltaus, pp. 141-2. na der
hilligen meinweken, Weisth. 3, 240. In the handing down of a
precise and doubtless genuine date, I feel the credibility of the story

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