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confirmed.

Now who is Cisa ? One naturally thinks first of that Suevic
Isis (p. 257) in Tacitus, whose name even is not unlike Cisa, Zisa,
if we make allowance for the mere dropping of the initial, an
omission which the Eoman might be prompted to make by the
similarity of the Isis that he knew. But even if Zisa be totally
dififerent from Isis, she can with all the better right be placed by
the side of our Zio, in whom also was displayed a thoroughly
Swabian deity (p. 199) ; nay, together with our supposed feminine
Ziu (p. 203) there may have been a collateral form Zisa, so tliat her
Zisunherg would exactly correspond to the god's Ziewesberg, Zisberg
(see Suppl.). Shall I bring forward a reason for this guess, which
shall be anything but far-fetched ? The ]\Iid. Dutch name for the
third day of the week had the curious form Disendach (p. 125), which
being of course a corruption of Tiscndach brings us at once to Tise
= Zisa. It is a matter for further researches to demonstrate,^ but

1 DoAvn in the Riess between the rivers Lefh and Wertach, in the niiilst of
Siieves^ at a time suimosed to be before even the Romans settled in the region,



miKKA. FROUWA. 299

that three divinities, Zio, Zisa and Isis, are assigned to the Suevi, is
ah'eady abundantly clear,

8. Frikka (Frigg). Frouwa (Freyja).

Our inquiry turns at length to the goddesses of the Norse
religious system, of whom unequivocal traces are forthcoming in
the rest of Teutondom.

Foremost of these are Frigg tlie wife of OSinn, and Freyja the
sister of Freyr, a pair easy to confound and often confounded
because of their similar names. I mean to try if a stricter etymo-
logy can part them and keep them asunder.

The name of Freyja seems the easier : it is motived no doubt
by the masculine Freyr (Gramm. 3, 335). Now as we recognised
Freyr in the Gothic frauja (p. 209), Freyja leads us to expect a
Gothic fraujo, gen. fraujons, both in the general sense of domina
mistress, and in the special one of a proper name FrcUijo. The
notion of mistress, lady, never occurs in Ulphilas. To make up
for it, our OHG. remains express it very frequently, by fruwd,
froicd; the 'MUG. frouive,frou and our modern /ra?6 have preserved
themselves purely as common nouns, while the masc. fro has
vanished altogether. In meaning, frouwe and frau correspond
exactly to herre, herr, and are used like it both in addressing and
.otherwise.^ Our minnesiingers are divided as to the respective
superiority of frouwe (domina) and wip (femina),^ wip expressing
more the sex, and frouwe the dignity ; to this day we feel frau to
be nobler than weib, though the French femme includes a good deal
of what is in our frau. It seems worthy of notice, that the poets

no Slav f^ods need be looked for ; neither does the Slav mythology know any-
thing,' at all certain aliout a Ziza, allcfjed to he Ceres nianimosa (Boh. cic, cec,
Pol. eye, Russ. titi, niannna), in sujtport of whom forsooth our Cisa must be
wronged ; see Hanusch 278. It were better to think of the MHG. name for
the zeisig (zeis-chen, siskin) diu 'Jse. ein kleiniu ztse, Ms. 1, 191''. AVh. 275,
30 ; which can scarcely have arisen from cicindela (glow-worm, Graff 5, 711) ;
however, no connexion has come to light between the goddess and the form of
a bird, though some little birds, the woodj^ecker, the titmouse, were held
sacred.

1 Like our fr6, the Fr. dame (dominus) is now lost ; dame (domina)
remains, like our /raw.. The Span, keejis both doji and doua, the Ital. only
donna. The Romance tongues express the masc. notion by two other M'ords,
sire, sicur (p. 27) and seigneur, signore, sehor, i.e., senior, out of which an Ital.
signora, a !>pan. senora have sprouted, but no Fr. feminine.

2 Walth. 48-9. 57. Amgb. 45'' 4^''. IMs. 2, 182*' 210^ Docen misc. 2,
'^".'^-9. frouwe unde \\\p, Parz. 302. 7 (see Supjil.).



300 GODDESSES.

harp on the connexion of fmu with froh glad (fro-lic) and freude
joy ; conf. Fridank 106, 5—8. Tit. 15, o5.

The AS. and OS. hinguages have done the very reverse : while
their masc. frea, fraho is used far more freely than the OHG.
frouwo, tliey have developed no fem. by its side. The M. Dutch
dialect has vrauive, vrouwe in addressing and as title (Huyd. op St.
1, 52. 356. Eein. 297. 731. 803. 1365. 1655. 2129. 2288. 2510-
32-57-64, &c.), seldomer in other positions, Eein 2291 ; the modern
vrotL'W has extended its meaning even beyond the limits of our
frau.

All the above languages appear to lack the fem. proper name,
in contrast to the OIST. wdiich possesses Frcyja almost solely as the
goddess's name, and no freyja = hera. Yet we find husfreyja house-
wife, ScCm. 212^, and Snorri is still able to say that freyja is a
tignarnafn (name of honour) derived from the goddess,^ that grand
ladies, rikiskonur, are frcyjar, Sn. 29. Yngl. saga c. 13. The
readings frur, fruvor here are corrupt, for the Icel. form frit has
evidently slipped in from the Dan. frue, Swed. /rw, and these from
( 1 ermany. The goddess should be in Swed. Froa, Dan. Froe, which
I have never met with ; the Swed. folk-song of Tlior's hammer
calls Freyja Froijenborg (the Dan. Fridlefsborg), a Danish one has
already the foreign Fru. Saxo is silent about this goddess and
her father altogether ; he would no doubt have named her Froa.
Our Merseburg poem has now at last presented us with Fruci =
Frowa, as the proper name of the goddess.^

Friyg gen. Friggjar, daughter of Fiorgynn and wife of OSinn, is
kept strictly apart from Freyja, gen. Freyju : in the Vaf]?rudnismal
and the beginning of the Grimnismal, O&lnn and Frigg are plainly
presented as husband and wife ; and as Hroptr and Svafnir are
also names of OSinn, ' Hroptr ok Frigg, Svafnir ok Frigg ' in Saem.

^ As fiaiijo from Fraujo, and freyja from Freyja, a song of Frauenlob's,
Ettm. p. 112 makes icq? come from a Frankish king JFijypeo. Is this an echo
of a mythical Wippo, Wibba (geneal. of Mercia, end of ch. VII) l The expla-
nation is as false as when the Edda derives vif i'rom vela, for all a woman's
being practically a weaver and a peace-weaver ; we should have to assume two
roots, viban and veiban, side by side. The ON. proper name Vefreyja is also
worthy of note, Fornald. sog. 2, 459. 3, 250. 594.

" The reasons why we may not take fnld here for a mere title (and so a
novm com.) are set forth in tlie Zeitschi-. f. d. a. 2, 189. As for the u in the
5IS., it looks to me quite plain, else Wackernagel's proposal to read Friia =
Frija, Friga, Fria, would be acceptable (friiu does occur in T. 93, 3). Frua
and Fria are alike welcome and suitable for my explanation.



FRIKKA. FKOUWA, 001

01^ 9?^^ express tlie same relation. Saxo Gram., p. 13, has correcLly
' Frigga Othini conjux '. In prayers the two goddesses even stand
side by side : ' sva hialpi ther hollar va^ttir, Frigrj ok Frcyja, ok
fleiri gO(5 (more gods), sem Jju feldir mer far af hondom ! ' Sffim.
240^ So they do at the burning of Baldr's body, Sn. 66, conf. 37.
And that Danish folk-song has likewise ' Friggc, Fru og Thor '.

The ON. usually has gg where the AS. has eg and OHG. cc or
kk, namely, where a suffix i had stood after g or k : thus, ON.
egg (acies), AS. ecg, OHG. ekki ; ON. bryggja (ponsj, AS. brycge,
OHG. prukka ; ON. hryggr (dorsum), AS. lirycg, OHG. hrukki.
In the same way we get an AS. Fricg, OHG. Frikka, Frikkia, even
farther away from Frouivd than Frigg from Freyja.

It is the confounding of these two beings that will explain how
Adam of Bremen came to put Fricco instead of Fro for Freyr (supra,
p. 212) ; he would equally have said Fricca for Freyja. Fricco,
Friccho, Friccolf were in use as proper names in OHG.

And now it seems possible to explain, what is otherwise
unaccountable, why the sixth day of the week, dies Veneris, should
be called in ON. both Firj/Judagr and also FriadnQr, in OHG.
never Frouwuntac, but i^rmtac, Frigciac, now Frcitag, in AS.
Frigedxg (for Fricgedteg ?), v. supra, pp. 123-6, and in Faroese
Fngggjaded (Lyngbye 532).

Among these forms the AS, presents no difficulty : in the OHG.
and ON. names we are puzzled by the absence of the guttural. I
believe a solution is offered by that most important passage in
Paulus Diac. 1, 8 where Wodan's consort is named i^rea, which can
only mean Frigg, not Freyja, as Saxo Gram, too, while expressly
grounding on Paulus, makes use of the form Frig : ' Paulo teste
auctore Frig dea '}

This Langob. Frca accords with the OHG. Fria, I take it to be
not only identical with Frigg, but the original form of the name ;
it has less to do with Freyja and the AS. masc. frea. As an ON.
bru (pons) stands related to bryggia, so will fri to frigg. The
Langob. Frea is = Frea, Fria, Frija, Frea. Its root is suggested by

1 The AS. chroniclers (p. 128) borrow Frea from Paulus. With Frea we
must above all connect the frea of the Laws of Liutpraiid (5, 40 and 67, an.l
tins means uxor, doniina, not libera, iuL^enua. Paulus therefore, in assigning
Frea to Wodan as his wife, has put lier in tlie place of the Noi-se Friir<i. The



put lier in tlie pi
lus, when Forna
.. - . ,, t^i'i.^'S that shov

Ociinii, as is done in the Grimnisnial (^see iSuppI.).



substitution is ol'ten made : thus, when Fornald. sog. 2, 25-6 has ' heita a
Freuju ok a Hott (Ofiinn),' it is Frigg that should have been associated wbh



302 GODDESSES.

sucli words as : Goth, freis, frijis (liber), OHG. fri ; Goth, frijon
(amare), OH(t. frion ; especially may we take into account the OS.
neut. M (mulier), Hel. 9, 21. 13, 16. 171, 21. 172, 1, the AS.
freo (mulier), Ca3dra. 29, 28. freolic cwen (pulcra femina), Beow.
1275. freolicu meowle. Cod. exou. 479, 2, freolic wif, Beow. 1222.
freolic fcemne, Ctedm. 12, 12. 54, 28.^ Now, as fri (liber) and our
frech, ON. frekr (protervus, impudens), fri (mulier formosa) and
ON. fric5r (formosus), friSr (pax) seem to be all related, even the
adjectival forms betray the shifting sense of the substantival.^

We gather from all this, that the forms and even the meanings
of the two names border closely on one another. Frcyja means the
gladsome, gladdening, sweet, gracious goddess, Frigg the free,
beautiful, loveable ; to the former attaches the general notion of
frau (mistress), to the latter that of fri (woman). Holda, from hold
(sweet, kind), and Berhta from berht (bright, beautiful) resemble
them both. The Swedish folk-song, in naming Froijenborg, calls
her ' den vana solen,' the beautiful sun.

Hence the mingling of their mytlis becomes the more con-
ceivable. Saxo, p. 13, relates how Frigga, to obtain gold for her
ornaments, violated conjugal fidelity; more minutely told, and
differing much in the details, the tale about Freyja in Sn. 356
appears to be the same adventure. On quite another ground
however the like offence is imputed to Frigg too (Sffim. 63. Yngl.
saga cap. 3). In Sn. 81 the valshamr of Frcyja is spoken of, but in
113-9 that of Frigg ; the former is supported by Sa3m. 70.

Hence the variations in the name for the day of the week. The
OHG. i^r^Ifftac ought clearly to be Friggjardagr in ON., and the
ON. Freyjudagr should be Frouwuntac in OHG. Hence too the
uncertainty in the naming of a constellation and of several plants.
Orion's belt, elsewhere named Jacob's staff and also spindle (coins
rfkaKarrj), is called by the Swedish people Friggerock (coins Friggae,
Hire, p. 6G3) or Frejcrock (Finn Magnusen 361*), as we noticed
before, or Frojas rock (Wieselgren. 383). The orchis odoratissima,
satyrium albidum, a plant from which love-potions are brewed, Icel.
Friggjargras, otlierwise hionagras (herba conjugalis) ; the later

1 Conf. the MHG. wiplich wip, Parz. 10, 17. MS. 1, SO"' 202*. 2, 42^
182'' 258^ wibin wip, MsH. 1, ^59'' ; similarly drjXvrepai ywa'iKfs, Otl. 11,
386. 434. 15, 422. Hesiod scut. 4.

" We might connect Venus with the Goth, qino, qens, as venire with
qiman ; the Wei. given would answer to Gvenus for Venus ; the Ir. dia
beine, Friday, from becm, ben (lady) = Venus = AS. cwen.



FRIKKA. FROUWA. 303

christian way of thinking has substituted Mary for the heathen
goddess. And the labouring man in ZeaLand speaks of the above
constellation also by the name of Maridrok, Marirolc. Several
kinds of fern, adiantum, polypodium, asplenium, are named lady's
hair, maidenhair, Mariewjms, capillus Veneris, Icel. Freyjuhdr, Dan.
Fruehaar, Venusstraa, Venusgrds, Norweg. Marigras, &c. Even if
the Norse names here have sprung out of Latin ones, they show-
how Venus was translated both by Frigg and Freyja and Mary.
As for Mary, not only was the highest conception of beauty carried
over to her, (frio sconiosta, idiso sconiost, Hel. 61, 13. 62, 1), but
she was pre-eminently our lady, frau, domina, donna. Conf. infra
frauachxmli, ladycovr, Marienktilblem. In the nursery-tales she sots
the girls sewing and spinning like Holda and Berhta, and Ilolda's
snow appears to mean the same as Mary's snow (p. 268).

Before so close a contact of the two names I pause, doubting with
which of them to connect the strong and incontestable similarity of
certain divine names in the non-Teutonic [Aryan] languages.
First of all, an OBoh. gloss gives Priye for Aphrodite ; taking into
account the Goth, frijon, the OHG. friudil (lover), MHG. vriedel,
and the Slav, priyatel (friend). Boh. pijtel, Pol. przyiaciel, it must
have meant either Freyja the goddess of love and fruitfulness, or
Frigg the divine mother and patroness of marriage. In Sanskrit
also pri is to love, priyas a friend, Eamapriya dear-to-Lakshmi =
lotus, Yamapriya pleasing-to-Yama = ficus indica, priya in names
of gods = husband or wife. Pott's forsch. 2, 424-7. Then |jnY/m'fc
is the earth, and matd Prithvi Terra mater, from whom comes fruit
and increase (conf. Wei. pridd terra, Bopp's gloss. 223^) ; and the
word, though next of kin to prithus {TrXarin: latus), the earth being
named the broad and wide, seems nevertheless connected with
Fria, Frigg and fridu.

Frigg the daughter of Fiorgynn (p. 172), as consort of the highest
god,^ takes rank above all other goddesses : she knows the fates of
men (Sa^m. 63^ Sn. 23. 64), is consulted by OSinn (Sasm. 3P),
administers oaths, handmaids fulfil her best, she presides over

1 Some of the AS. genealogies have ' Wuden et Frcdlaf ejus uxor,' so that
Frigg = Frealaf (OIIG. Froleip ?) which fits in with that Fridlcfsborg in the
Danish song, p. 300 ; others make Freahif Woden's father. But in lien of him
we have also i'VirVulaf and i'^j-ifVuwulf, a fresh confirmation of the connexion
between friS and the troddcss's name.



30 i GODDESSES.

marriages, and her aid is implored by the childless (Fornald. sog. 1,
117) ; hence hionagras is also Friggjargras. We may remember
those maidens yet unmarried (p. 264) being yoked to the plough of
the goddess whose commands they had too long defied. In some
parts of northern England, in Yorkshire, especially Hallamshire,
popular customs show remnants of the worship of Fricg. In the
neiglibourhood of Dent, at certain seasons of the year, especially
autumn, the country folk hold a procession and perform old dances,
one called the giant's dance : the leading giant they name Woden,
and his wife Frigga, the principal action of the play consisting in
two swords being swung and clashed together about the neck of a
boy without hurting him.^ Still more remarkable is the clear
vestige of the goddess in Lower Saxony, where to the common
people she is fru Frehe^ and plays the very parts which we saw
assigned to frau Holle (pp. 267-8): a strong argument, by the way, for
the divine nature of this latter. Then in Westphalia, legend may
derive the name of the old convent FrecJcenhorst, Friclcenhorst, from
a shepherd Frickio, to whom a light appeared in the night (like the
fall of snow by night at Hildesheim, p. 268) on the spot where the
church was to be built ; the name really points to a sacred hurst or
grove of Frecica fem., or of FricJco masc, whose site Christianity was
perhaps eager to appropriate ; conf. Frmcinghyrst, Kemble 1, 248.
2, 265. There is a Vrckckvc, Frickslchen, not far from Magdeburg
(see SuppL).

Freya is the goddess most honoured after or along with Frigg ;
her worship seems to have been even the more prevalent and
important of the two, she is styled ' agatuz af Asynjum,' Sn. 28,
and ' blotgySja,' Yngl. saga cap. 4, to whom frequent sacrifices were
offered. HeiSrekr sacrificed a boar to her, as elsewhere to Freyr,
and honoured her above all other gods.^ She was wedded to a

1 Communicated by J. M. Kemble, from the mouth of an ' old Yorkshire-
man '. I account for the sword by the ancient use of that weapon at weddings ;
conf. RA. 426-7. 431 ; esp. tlie old Frisian custom pp. 167-8, conf. Heimreich's
Nordfries. cliron. 1, 53-4. In Swabia, as Lite as the 18th century, the brides-
men carried hxrge swords with fluttering ribbons before tlie bride ; and there
is a striking simihiritv in the Esthonian custom (Superst. M. 1 3).

^Eccard de o^g.^Germ. p. 398: Celebratur in plebe Sa.xonica /rw Freke,
cui eadem munia tril^uuntur, ([uae superiores Sax ones Holdae suae adscribunt.
Fru Freke has just been unearthed again by Ad. Kuhn, namely in the Uker-
mark, where she is called Fruike, and answers to fru Harke in the Mittelmark
and fru Gode in the Prignitz.

3 Hervararsaga, ed. Verel. p. 138, ed. 1785 p. 124. By the editors of the
Fornald. sog. 1, 493 the passage is banished into the notes as an unsupported
reading.



mrKKA. FROUWA. 305

man (not a god, at least not an As), named OiJi-, bnt he forsook her,
and she sought him all over the world, among strange fjeoples,
shedding tears. Her name Sz/r (Sn. 37) would perhaps be Saurs in
Gothic : Wilh. IMliller has detected the very same in the Syritha of
Saxo Gram. p. 125, who like^dse goes in search of Othar. Freyja's
tears were golden, gold is named after them, and she herself is
'gratfagr,' fair in greeting (weeping), Sn. 37. 119. 133; in our
nursery-tales pearls and flowers are wept or laughed out, and dame
Holla bestows the gift of weeping such tears. But the oldest
authorities make her warlike also ; in a waggon drawn by two cats
(as Thorr drives two goats)^ she rides to the battlefield, ' riSr til
vigs,' and goes shares with OSinn in the slain (supra p. 133, conf.
Sasm. 42^ Sn. 28. 57). She is called ' eigandi valfalls ' (quae
sortitur caesos in pugna), Sn. 119 ; valfre2/ja, mistvess, of the chosen,
Nialss. p. 118, and of the valkyrs in general; this seems to be
in striking accord with Holda or Berhta (as well as Wuotan)
adopting the babes that die unchristened into their host, heathen
goddesses the heathen souls. Freyja's dwelling is named FoUc-
vdngr or FullTdngar, the plains on which the (dead?) folk troop
together ; this imparts new credibility to the connexion of St.
Gertrude, whose minne is drunk, with Frowa, for the souls of the
departed were supposed to lodge with Gertrude the first night (p. 61).
Freyja's hall is Sessrymnir, the seat-roomy, capacious of much folk;
dying women expect to find themselves in her company after death.
ThorgerSr in the Egilss., p. 103, refuses earthly nourishment, she
thinks to feast with Freyja soon : * ok engan (nattverS) mun ek
fyrr enn at Freyju '. Yet love-songs please her too, and lovers do
well to call upon her : ' henni likaSi vel mansongr, a hana er gott
at heita til iista,' Sn. 29. That the cat was sacred to her, as the
wolf to Wuotan, will perhaps explain why this creature is given to
night-hags and witches, and is called donneraas, wetter aas (-carrion).
When a bride goes to the wedding in fine weather, they say ' she
has fed the cat well,' not offended the favourite of the love-goddess.
The meaning of a phrase in Walther 82, 17 is dark to me : ' weder
ritest gerner cine giddin' hatze, aid einen wunderlichen Gerhart
Atzen ? ' In Westphalia, however, the weasel was named froie,

^ Freyja has a waggon like Nertlms (mother of Freyr?), like Holda and
Freyr hinisili', Wuotan and Donar (pp. 105-7, 251-2-4, 275) ; the kingly waggon
is proper only to great exalted deities.

20



306 GODDESSES.

Reinli. clxxii, which I suppose means frau, fraulein (froiken), as
that ghostly creature was elsewhere called muhmlcin (aunty),
fraulein, donna, donnola, titles sure to be connected with myths,
and these would doubtless point in the first place to our goddess
and her worship. The Greeks said Galinthias was turned into a
weasel or cat (yaXeTf), Ovid, metam. 9, 306 (see SuppL).

In so far as such comparisons are allowable, Friffj would stand
on a line with Here or Juno, especially the pronuba, Jupiter's
spouse ; and Freyja with Venus,^ but also with Isis who seeks
Osiris. Frcyr and his sister Freyja are suggestive of Liber and
Libera (Dionysus and Proserpina, or even her mother Demeter ; of
sun and moon). Mary could replace the divine mother and the
goddess of beauty ; verbally Frigg agrees better with Libera, and
Adam of Bremen's Fricco, if he was god of love, answers in name to
Liber, in character to Freyr.

The passage quoted from Paul Diac. is one of the clearest and
most convincing testimonies to the harmony between the German
and Norse mythologies. An author of Charles the Great's time
tells us that the Langobards named Wodan's wife Frca, and she is
called Frigy in the Edda, He cannot have drawn this from Norse
tradition, much less can his narrative through Saxo's intermediacy
have become the source of the northern faith.

But in favour of Freyja too we possess a weighty piece of
external evidence. The Edda makes her the owner of a costly
necklace named Brisinga men (Brisingorum monile) ; she is called
' eigandi Brisingamens,' Sn. 37. 119. How she acquired this
jewel from the dwarfs, how it was cunningly stolen from her by
Loki, is fully narrated in a tale by itself, Sn. 354 — 357. In the
poets therefore Loki is Brisings J?iofr (Thorl. obs. 6, 41. 63) ; a lost
lay of the Edda related how Heimdallr fought with Loki for this
ornament, Sn. 105. When Freyja pants with rage, the necklace
starts from her breast (stauk J^at it micla men Brisinga), Ssem. 71^
When Thorr, to get his hammer back, dres:ics up in Freyja's gar-
ments, he does not forget to put her famous necklace on: 'hafi

1 In the Tanhauser, as snng in Switzerland (Aufsess. anz. 1832, 240-2 ;
Uhland's volksl. p. 771), instead of the usnal dame Venus we find precisely
frau Frene, and ace. to Staid. 1, 395 frein is there a collateral form offrei iree.
A woman's name Vreneli is known from Hebel. Vrene may be Verena the
martyr, or Veronica, v. Vrene, Ben. 328.



FRIKKA. FltOUWA. ' :'>07

hann (liave he) it mikla vicn Brtsimja ! ' Ssem. 72. — Now this very
trinket is evidently known to the AS. poet of Beowulf 2399, he
names it Brodnga mene, without any allusion to the goddess ; I
would read * Brisinga mene,' and derive the word in general from a
verb which is in MHG. brisen, breis (nodare, nodis constringere,
Gr. KevTelv to pierce), namely, it was a chain strung together of
bored links. Yet conf. ch. XX, hrising St. John's fire : perhaps
the dwarfs that forged it were called Brisinrjar '!■ The jewel is so
closely interwoven with the myth of Freyja, that from its mention
in AS. poetry we may safely infer the familiarity of the Saxon race
with the story itself ; and if the Goths worshipped a goddess
Fraujo, they too would doubtless know of a Breis igge mani.^
Conf. ch. XX, lar&ar men, Earth's necklace, i.e., turf in the ON",
legal language.

We cannot but feel it significant, that where the gospel simply
speaks of ro ayiov sacrum (Matt. 7, 6), the OS. poet makes it a
helag halsmeni (holy necklace), Hel. 52, 7 ; an old heathen remin-
iscence came over him, as once before about doves perching on
shoulders (p. 148). At the same time, as he names only the swine,
not the dogs, it is possible that he meant halsmeni to be a mere
amplification of ' merigrioton,' pearls.

But this legend of the goddess's necklace gains yet more in im-
portance, when we place it by the side of Greek myths. Brisinga
men is no other than Aphrodite's 6piJio<i (Hymn to Venus 88), and
the chain is her girdle, the Kearo<i ifia<i 7rot/c/Xo<f which she wears
on her bosom, and whose witchery subdues all gods and mortals.
How she loosens it off her neck {diro ar7]6ea(piv) and lends it to
Hero to charm her Zeus with, is told in a lay that teems with
world-old myths, II. 14, 214-8. As the ifxd<i is worn in turn by
Here and by Aphrodite, the Norse fable gives the jewel now to
Frigg and now to Freyja, for that ' gold of Frigg ' in Saxo is the
same as Brisinga men. Then there is another similarity : the same
narrative makes Freyja possess a beautiful chamber, so strong that,



Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 32 of 46)