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when the door is locked, no one can enter against her will : ' hun



^ Just as from Freyja proceeded the gonoral notion of a freyja frouwa, so
necklace-wearing serves to describe a bcantii'ul wife or maiden. In Sanu. 1)7''
menfjlotS (monili laeta, rejoicing in a necklace) means simply femina, but in
108* 111" Menfjby^ is a proper name (see p. 272 note); in 222* menslcdrjul is
used of Brynhildr. Women are commonly named from their ornaments of
gold or precious stones, Sn. 128 (see Suppl.).



308 GODDESSES.

utti ser eina skemmu, er var bffiSi fogr ok sterk, sva at ]?at segja
menn, ef hurSin var Isest, at eingi matti komast i skemmuna an
(without) vilja Freyju,' Su. 354. We are tokl the trick by which
Loki after all got in, and robbed her of the necklace ; ^ Homer says
nothing about that, but (II. 14, 165-8) he knows of Here's ^aXa/io?,

TOP ol <^t'Xo9 vio<i eTeu^ev
" HcjjacaTO'i, TrvKLva-i Se 6upa<i crraO/jLolaiP eTTrjpcre
kXtjISi KpviTTfi, TT)v S' ov ^£09 aX\.o<i avtpyev.
"What can be more exactly in accordance with that inaccessible
apartment of Freyja, especially as the t/u.a9 is spoken of directly
after ? Hephaistos (Vulcan), who built his mother the curiously
contrived bedchamber, answers to the dwarfs who forged the neck-
lace for Freyja. The identity of Frigg and Freyja with Here and
Aphrodite must after this mythus be as plain as day.

10. FOLLA.. SiNDGUND.

Another thing that betrays the confusion of Frigg with Freyja
is, that the goddess Folld, now proved by the Merseburg poem to
belong to our German mythology, is according to it a sister of Frua,
while the OjST. Falla again is handmaid to Frigg, though she takes
rank and order among the Asynjor themselves (Sn. 36-7).^ Her
office and duties are sufficiently expressed in her name ; she justi-
fies our reception of the above-mentioned Ahundia or da7ne Hahonde
into German mythology, and corresponds to the masculine god of
plenty Pilnitis, Pilnihcs, whom the Lettons and Prussians adored.
Like dame Herke on p. 253, she bestowed prosperity and abundance
on mortals, to her keeping was intrusted the divine mother's chest
(eski), out of which gifts were showered upon them.

It may be, that FuUa or Folia was at the same time thought
of as the full-moon (Goth. fulli]?s, Lith. Pilnatis, masc), as another
heavenly body, Orion, was referred to Frigg or Freyja : in the Mer-
seburg MS. she is immediately followed by Sannct with a sister
Bindgund, whose name again suggests the path of a constellation.
The Eddie Sol ranks with the Asynjor, but Sindgund (ON. Sinn-

1 He bored a hole and crept through as a fly, then as a flea he stung the
sleeping goddess till she shook off the ornament : an incident still retained in
nursery-tales. Conf. the stinging fly at the forging, Sn. 131.

2 If we read Fria for Frua, then Folia would stand nearer to her as in the
Norse, whether as attendant goddess or as sister. Yet, considering the insta-
bility of those goddesses' names, she may keep her place by Frouwa too.



GAUT. SllTIA. SUXIA. WARA. SAGA. NANDA. ' 309

gunnr ?) is unknown to the Edda. In cli. XXII. on the constella-
tions I shall come back to these divinities (see Suppl.).

11. Gakt. Sippia. Sunia. Wag a. Saga. Nanda.

From surviving proper names or even impersonal terms, more
rarely from extant myths, we may gather that several more
goddesses of the North were in earlier times common to the rest of
Teutoudom.

Frey's beloved, afterwards his wife, was named Gcr&r, she
came of the giant breed, yet in Sn. 79 she is reckoned among the
Asynjor. The Edda paints her beauty by a charming trait : when
Freyr looked from heaven, he saw her go into a house and close the
door, and then air and water shone with the brightness of her arms
(Ssem. 81. Sn. 39). His wooing was much thwarted, and was
only brought to a happy issue by the dexterity of his faithful
servant Slcirnir. The form of her name Oerffr, gen. GerSar, ace.
GerSi (Sicm. 117''), points to a Goth. Gardi or Gardja, gen. Gardjos,
ace. Gardja, and an OHG. Gart or Garta, which often occurs in the
compounds Hildigart, Irmiugart, Liutkart, &c., but no longer alone.
The Latin forms llildegardis, Liudgardis have l^etter preserved the
terminal i, which must have worked the vowel-change in GerSr,
ThorgcrSr, ValgerSr, HrimgerSr. The meaning seems to be cingens,
municiis [Gurth ?], Lat. Cinxia as a name of Juno (see Suppl.).

The Goth, sihja, OHG. sippia, sippa, AS. sib gen. sibbe, denote
peace, friendship, kindred; from these I infer a divinity Sihja, Sippia,
Sib, corresponding to the ON". Sif gen. Sifjar, the wife of Thorr, for
the ON", too has a pi. sifjar meaning cognatio, sifi amicus (OHG.
sippio, sippo), sift genus, cognatio. By this sense of the word, Sif
would appear to be, like Frigg and Freyja, a goddess of loveliness
and love ; as attributes of OSinn and Thor agree, their wives Frigg
and Sif have also a common signification. Sif in the Edda is called
the fair-haired, ' it harfagra goS,' and gold is Sifjar haddr (Sifae
peplum), because, when Loki cut off her hair, a new and finer crop
was afterwards forged of gold (Sn. 119. 130). Also a herb, poly-
trichum aureum, bears the name haddr Sifjar. Expositors see in
this the golden fruits of the Earth burnt up by fire and growing up
again, they liken Sif to Ceres, the ^avOt] Ai]fn]r't]p (II. 5, 500) ; and
with it agrees the fact that the Slav. Siva is a gloss on 'Ceres dp.i



310 GODDESSES.

frumenti ' (Hanka's glosses 5* 6^^) ; only the S in the word seems
to be the Slav, zliivete = Zh, and V does not answer to the Teut.
r, B, P. The earth was Thor's mother, not his wife, yet in Sn.
220 we do find the simple Sif standing for earth. To decide, we
ought to have fuller details about Sif, and these are wholly want-
ing in our mythology. Nowhere amongst us is the mystic relation
of seed-corn to Demeter, whose poignant grief for her daughter
threatens to bring famme on mankind (Hynm to Cer. 305 — 315), nor
anything like it, recorded.

The Gothic language draws a subtle distinction between sunja
(Veritas) and simjS (defensio, probatio veritatis) ; in OHG. law,
sunna, sunnis means excusatio and impedimentum. The ON. law
likewise has this si/n gen. synjar, for excusatio, defensio, negatio,
impedimentum, but the Edda at the same time exhibits a personi-
fied Si/7i, who was to the heathen a goddess of truth and justice,
and protected the accused (Sn. 38). To the same class belongs Vor
gen. Varar, goddess of plighted faith and covenants, a dea foederis
(Sn. 37-8), just as the Eomans deified Tutela. The phrase ' vigja
saman Varar hcndi,' consecrare Tutelae manu (Saem. 74^), is like
the passages about Wish's hands, p. 140. As in addition to the
abstract wish we saw a Wish endowed with life, so by the side of
the OHG. wara foedus there may have been a goddess Wara, and
beside sunia a Sunid (see SujipL).

In the same way or sage (saw, tale) is intensified into a heathen
goddess Saga, daughter of Wuotan ; like Zeus's daughter the Muse,
she instructs mankind in that divine art which Wuotan himself
invented. I have argued in a separate treatise (Kleine schr. 1, 83 —
112), that the frou Avcntiure of the Mid. Ages is a relic of the
same.

Nanna the wife of Baldr would be in Goth. Nanjjo, OHG.
Nandd, AS. Aodc, the bold, courageous (p. 221), but, except in ON,
the simple female name is lost ; Procopius 1, 8 has Gotliic Qevhe-
vdvda, ON. ThioSnanna (see Suppl.).

Inferences like these, from dying words to dead divinities,
could be multiplied ; to attempt them is not unprofitable, for they
iiliarpen the eye to look in fresh quarters [for confirmation or con-



EAIIANA. HELLIA. 3 1 1

futation]. The discovery from legend or elsewhere of a liarmony
betweeu myths may raise our guesses into demonstrations.^

12. PtAHANA (Ran). Hellia (Hel).

My survey of the gods closed with Oegir and Loki ; and the
iXoddesses akin to these sliall be the last mentioned here.

To correspond to the ON. Gcfjon the Old Saxons had, as far as
we know, not a female but a male being, Gchan, Gcofon (sea, p. 239).
With four giant oxen, according to Sn. 1, Gefjon ploughs Zealand
out of the Swedish soil, and a lake arises, whose inward bend exactly
fits the projecting coast of Zealand. She is described as a virgin,
and all maidens who die virgins wait upon her, Sn. 36. Her name
is called upon when oaths are taken : sver ek viS Gcfjon, F. Magn.
lex. 386 (see Suppl.). Gefn, a name of Freyja (Sn. 37 and Viga-
glumss. cap. 27) reminds one of Gefjon.

Ran was the wife of the seagod Oegir, they liad nine daughters
who are cited by name in the Edda, and called Rdnar (or Oegis)
dcctr} Men who are drowned fall to the share of Ran, which of
itself attests her divinity : fara til Rdnar is to get drowned at sea,
Fornald. sog. 2, 78 ; and sifja at Rdnar to be drowned, Fornm. sog.
6, 376. Those who were drowned she drew to her in a net, and

^ It seems almost as if the MHG. poets recognised a female personage fru
Fuoge or Gefiwge (fitness), similar in plastic power to the niasc. Wish, a per-
sonified compages or apfiovia. Lachmann directs me to instances in point. Er.
7534-40 (conf. Iwein, p. 400) :

So hete des meisters sin So had the master's thought

gepriievet ditz gereite turned out this riding-gear

mit grozer wisheite ; with great wisdom ;

er gap dem helfenbeine he gave the ivory

und da hi dem gesteine and withal the jewelry

sin gevellige stat, each its proper place,

als in diu Geviioge bat. as him dame Fitness bade.

(Couf. Er. 1246 : als in min ware schulde bat).— Parz. 121, 11 :

Wer in den zwein landen wirt, Whoso in the two lands thrives,

Gefuorjc ein wundcr an im biit ; Fitness a wonder in him bears ;
he is a miraculous biilh of Fitness, her child, her darling.— Conversely, Wal-
ther 64, 38 :

Fr6 Unfuoge, ir habt gesiget. Dame Unfitness, thou hast triumphed.

And 65, 25 :

Swer Ungcfiioge swigen hieze Whoso bade Indecorum hush,

mid sie abe den biirgen stieze ! and hurled her from lier strongholds.

It is true, the prefixes ge-, un-, argue a later and colder allegory. And tlie
weak fem. form (ace. in -en) would be preferable, OIIG. Fuoga, gen. FuogCin,
as in N. cap. 135 hifuogun, sotigenam (see Suppl.).

2 Sit^m. 79^ 144'>- 153^' 180. Sn. 124-9. 185. Eyrbygg. saga p. 274, and in-
dex sub v. Ran. Egilssaga p. 616.



312 GODDESSES.

carried them off, whence the explanation of her name : ran neut. is
rapina, rsena rapere, spoliare (see Suppl.).

On the discovery of the rare word rahancn (spoliare) in the
Hildebr. lied 57, I build the supposition that other Teutonic lands
had also a subst. rahan (rapina, spolium) and a goddess Baliana
(conf. Tanfana, Hluodana), as well as an Uogi = Oegir.i

As we passed from Oegir (through Forniot and Logi) to Loki,
so we may from Ean to Hel, who is no other than Loki's daughter,
and like him a dreadful divinity. Ean receives the souls that die
by water, Hel those on land, and Freyja those that fall in battle.

The ON. lid gen. Heljar shows itself in the other Teutonic
tongues even less doubtfully than Frigg and Freyja or any of the
above-mentioned goddesses : Goth. Halja gen. Haljos, OHG. Hellia,
Hdla gen. Hellia, Hella, AS. Hdl gen. Helle ; only, the personal
notion has dropt away, and reduced itself to the local one of halja,
hellia, hell, the nether world and place of punishment. Originally
Hellia is not death nor any evil being, she neither kills nor
torments ; she takes the souls of the departed and holds them with
inexorable grip. The idea of a place evolved itself, as that of oegir
oceanus out of Oegir, and that of geban mare from Geban ; the
converted heathen without any ado applied it to the christian
underworld, the abode of the damned ; all Teutonic nations have
done this, from the first baptized Goths down to the Northmen,
because that local notion already existed under heathenism,
perhaps also because the church was not sorry to associate lost
spirits with a heathen and fiendish divinity .^ Thus hellia can be
explained from Hellia even more readily than ostara from Ostara.

In the Edda, Hel is Loki's daughter by a giantess, she is sister
to the wolf Fenrir and to a monstrous snake. She is half black and
half of human colour {bid half, en half meS horundar lit), Sn. 33,
after the manner of the pied people of the Mid. Ages ; in other

1 The Trad, patav. pp. 60-2 assure iis of a man's name Raan, Rhaan
(Rahan ?). An OHG. Rahana rests on a very slender foundation.

" Hel has no attinity at all Avith ON. hella petra, hellir antrum, as the
Goth, hallus petra shows (from hillan sonare, because a rock resounds) : a
likelier connexion is that with our hole antrum, OHG. holi, more frequent in
neut. hoi, for which Ave should expect a Goll.ic hul, as in fact a fem. hulundi
is caverna, for a cave covers, and so does the nether Avorld (both therefore from
hilan celare). Only, the vowels in hole (= hull) and holle (= halja) do not



RAII.VNA. HELLIA. 313

passages her blackness alone is made a subject of comparison : hldr
sem Hel, Nialss. 117. Fornm. sog. 3, 188; conf. Hdjarshinn for
complexion of deatlily hue, Landnamab. 2, 19. Nialss. cap. 96.
Fornald. sog. 2, 59. 60 ;^ death is black and gloomy. Her dwelling
is deep down in the darkness of the ground, under a root of the
tree Yggdrasill, in Niflheim, the innermost part of which is there-
fore called Nifihel, there is her court (rann), there her halls, Ssem.
(jb 44a 9j.a_ gjj_ 4_ |-{er platter is named hungr, her knife sultr,
synonymous terms to denote her insatiable greed. The dead go
down to her, fara til Hdjar, strictly those only that have died of
sickness or old age, not those fallen in fight, who people Valhalla,
Her personality has pretty well disappeared in such phrases as i
hcl sla, drepa, berja i hel, to smite into hell, send to Hades ; i hclju
vera, be in Hades, be dead, Fornald. sog. 1, 233. Out of this has
arisen in the modern dialects an altogether impersonal and distorted
term, Swed. ihjdl, Dan. ihiel, to death.^ These languages now
express the notion of the nether world only by a compound, Swed.
helvcte, Dan. Jiclvede, i.e., the ON. hclviti (supplicium infernale),
OIIG. hellmvizi, MHG. hellewize. One who is drawing his last
breath is said in ON. liggja milli heims oc heljar (to lie betwixt
home and hell), to be on his way from this world to the other.'
The unpitying nature of the Eddie Hcl is expressly emphasized ;
what she once has, she never gives back : haldi Hel }?vi er hejir, Sn.
68 ; heJir nu Hel, Sa3m. 257% like the wolf in the apologue (Rein-
hart xxxvi), for she is of wolfish nature and extraction ; to the
wolf on the other hand a hellish throat is attributed (see SuppL).
Two lays in the Edda describe the way to the lower world, the

^ The ancients also painted Demeter, as the wrathful earth-goddess, Mark
(Pans. 8, 42. O. Miiller's P]umenides 168, conf. Archteol. p. 509 the black
Demeter at Phigalia), and sometimes even her daughter Persephone, the fair
maid doomed to the underworld : ^ furva Proserpina,' Hor. Od. 2, 13 (Censorin.
De die nat. c. 17). Blade Aphrodite (Melanis) is spoken of by Pausanias 2, 2.
8, G. 9, 27 and by Athenanis bk. 13 ; we know the black Diana of Ephesus,
and that in the I\lid. Ages black Madonnas were both painted and carved, the
Holy Virgin appearing tlien as a sorrowing goddess of earth or niglit ; such at
Loretto, Naples, Einsiedeln, Wurzburg (Altd. W. 2, 209. 28G), 'at Oettingen
(Goethe's Corresp. with a child 2, 184), at Puy (Biisching's Nachr. 2, 312-333),
Marseilles and elsewhere. I think it specially signilicant, that the Erinnys or
Furia dwelling in Tartarus is also represented botli as black and as half ivhite
half black.

- Swed. has more, correctly iha>l, i.e., ihal (Fred, af Normandie 1299.
13-56. 1400. 1414). In Ostgotalagen p. 8, one reading has already ihiaill for
ihad ; they no longer grasped the meaning of the term.



314 GODDESSES.

HelreiS Lrynhildar and tlie VegtamsqviSa ; in the latter, OSin's
ride on Sleipuir for Baldr's sake seems to prefigure that wliich
.HermoSr afterwards undertakes on the same steed in Sn. 65-7.
But the incidents in the poem are more thrilling, and the dialogue
between Vegtamr^ and the vala, who says of herself :
var ek snifin sniofi (by snow), ok slegin regni,
ok drifin doggo (by dew), dauS (dead) var ek leingi,
is among the sublimest things the Edda has to shew. This vala
nmst stand in close relationship to Hel herself.

Saxo Gram. p. 43 very aptly uses for Hel the Latin Proserpina,
he makes her give notice of Balder's death. In the Danish popular
Ijelief Hel is a three-legged horse, that goes round the country,
a harbinger of plague and pestilence ; of this I shall treat further
on. Originally it was no other than the steed on which the goddess
posted over land, picking up the dead that were her due ; there is
also a ivaggon ascribed to her, in which she made her journeys.

A passage in Beowulf sliow^s h)w the Anglo-Saxons retained
perfectly the old meaning of the word. It says of the expiring
Grendel l(i98 : ' feorh alegde, lueSene sawle (vitam deposuit,
animam gentilem), }7£er hine Hel onfeng^ the old-heathen goddess
took possession of him.

In Germany too the Mid. Ages still cherished the conception of
a voracious, hungry, insatiable Hell, an Orcus esuriens, i.e., the man-
devouring ogre : ' diu Helle ferslinclet al daz ter lebet, si ne ivirdet
niomer sat,' N. Cap. 72. ' diu Helle und der arge wan werdent
niemer sat,' Welsch. gast. It sounds still more personal, when she
has gaping yaioning jaws ascribed to her, like the wolf ; pictures in
the MS. of Ctedmon represent her simply by a wide open mouth.
Der tobende wuoterich The raging tyrant

der was der Hellcn gelich, he was like the Hell

diu daz abgrunde who the chasm (steep descent)

hegenit mit ir munde be-yawneth with her mouth

unde den himel zuo der erden. from heaven down^ to earth,
unde ir doch niht ne mac werden,And yet to her it cannot hap

1 OSinn calls himself Vegtamr (way-tame, broken-in to the road, gnariis
viae), son of Valtamr (assuetus caedibus), as in other places gangtamr (itineri
assuetus) is used of the horse, Sa^m. 265'', but OSinn himself is GangraSr or
Gangleri. Vegtamr reminds one of the holy priest and minstrel Wechtam in
Hunibald.

" I have supposed that ' unde den ' is a slip for ' abe dem '. — Trans.



UAH ANA. HELLIA. 315

daz si iiner werde vol ; that slie ever become full ;

si ist daz ungcsatliche hoi, she is the insatiable cavern,

daz weder uu noeh uie ne sprah : that neither now nor ever said
' diz ist des ih niht ne mac' ' this is what I cannot (manage).'

Lampr. Alex. G671-80. Old poems have frequent allusions to the
abgrund (chasm, abyss) and the doors of hell : helligruoba, hella-
grunt, helliporta, &c. Gramm. 2, 458 ; der abgrunde tunc, der tiefen
helle tunc (the deep hell's dinge, darkness). Mart. 88^ 99°.

Of course there are Bible texts that would in the first instance
suggest much of this, e.g., about the insatiableness of hell, Prov. 27,
20. 30, 16 (conf. Freidank Ixxiv), her being uncovered, Job 26,
6, her opening her mouth, Isaiah 5, 14. But we are to bear in
mind, that all these have the masc. aS?;? or infernus, with which
the idea of the Latin Orcus also agrees, and to observe how the
German language, true to its idiosyncrasy, was obliged to make use
of a feminine word. The images of a door, abyss, wide gaping
throat, strength and invincibility (fortis tanquam orcus, Petron.
cap. 62), appear so natural and necessary to the notion of a nether
world, that they will keep recurring in a similar way among
different nations (see SuppL).

The essential thing is, the image of a greedy, unrestoring, female
deity.^

But the higher we are allowed to penetrate into our antiquities,
the less hellish and the more godlike may Halja appear. Of this
we have a particularly strong guarantee in her affinity to the Indian
Bhavani, who travels about and bathes like Nerthus and Holda
(p. 268), but is likewise called Kali or Mahahdli, the great llach
goddess. In the underworld she is supposed to sit in judgment on
souls. This office, the similar name and the black hue (kala niger,
conf. caligo and KekaLv6<;) make her exceedingly like Halja. And
Halja is one of the oldest and commonest conceptions of our
heathenism.

1 In the south of ITollanfl, where the Mouse falls into the sea, is a place
named Hdvoeisluis. I do not know it' any forms in old documents confirm tlie
idea contained in the name, of Hell-foot, foot of Hell. The Romans have
a Helium here : Inter Helium acFlevum, ita appellantur ostia, in quae effusus
Rhenus, ah septentrione in lacus, ab occidente in amnem Mosam se spar^it,
medio inter haec ore modicum nonnne suo custodiens alveiim, Plin. 4, 29.
Tac. also says 2, G : immense ore, Conf. supra \). 198 on Unjjisdijr (see Suppl.).



CHAPTER XIV.

CONDITION" OF GODS.

Now that we have collected all that could be found concerning
the several divinities of our distant past, I will endeavour to survey
their nature as a whole ; in doing which however, we must be
allowed to take more frequent notice of foreign and especially
Greek mythology, than we have done in other sections of this
work : it is the only way we can find connecting points for many a
thread that otherwise hangs loose.

All nations have clothed their gods in human shape, and only
by way of exception in those of animals ; on this fact are founded
both their appearances to men, or incarnation, their twofold sex,
their intermarrying with mankind, and also the deification of
certain men, i.e., their adoption into the circle of the gods. It
follows moreover, that gods are begotten and born, experience pain
and sorrow, are subject to sleep, sickness and even death, that like
men they speak a language, feel passions, transact affairs, are
clothed and armed, possess dwellings and utensils. The only
difference is, that to these attributes and states there is attached a
higher scale than the human, that all the advantages of the gods
are more perfect and abiding, all their ills more slight or transient.

This appears to me a fundamental feature in the faith of the
heathen, that they allowed to their gods not an unlimited and
unconditional duration, but only a term of life far exceeding that
of men. All that is born must also die, and as the omnipotence of
gods is checked by a fate standing higher than even they, so their
eternal dominion is liable at last to termination. And this reveals
itself not only by single incidents in the lives of gods, but in the
general notion of a coming and inevitable ruin, which the Edda
expresses quite distinctly, and which tlie Greek system has
in the background : the day will come when Zeus's reign shall end.



CONDITION OF GODS. 317

But this opinion, firmly lield even by the fStoics,^ finds utterance
only now and then, particularly in the story of Prometheus, which
1 have compared to the Norse ragnarokr, p. 245-6.

In the common way of thinking, the gods are supposed to be
immortal and eternal. They are called Oeol alev iovre^, II. 1, 290.
494, aleijeverai 2, 400, dddvaroi 2, 814, n6dvaTo<i Zev^ 14, 434 ;
and therefore /Lta/cape? 1, 339. 599 in contrast to mortal man. They
have a special right to the name cifi^poTot immortales, while men
are ^poToi mortales ; dix^poTo<; is explained by the Sansk. amrita
immortalis, the negative of mrita mortalis (conf Pers. merd, homo
mortalis) ; in fact both amrita and d/u,/3p6aco<;, next neighbour to
dp,^poro^, contain a reference to the food, by partaking of which
the gods keep up their immortality. They taste not the fruits of
the earth, whereby the ^poroi live, ot dpovpr)<i Kapirov eSovaiv, II. 6,
142. With ySpoTo? again is connected ^p6To<; thick mortal blood,
whereas in the veins of the gods flows Ixd^p (H. 5, 340. 416), a light
thin liquid, in virtue of which they seem to be called d^poToi =

dfl^pOTOt.

Indian legend gives a full account of the way amrita, the elixir
of immortality, was brewed out of water clear of milk, the juice of
herbs, liquid gold and dissolved precious-stones f no Greek poem
tells us the ingredients of ambrosia, but it was an dix^pocrcy-j rpocj)/]
(food), and there was a divine drink besides, fyXvKv veKrap, II. 1,
598, of a red colour 19, 38, its name being derived either from vtj
and KTaaOac, or better from veK-rap necem avertens. Where men
take bread and wine, the gods take ambrosia and nectar, Od. 5,
195, and hence comes the

dfi^poTov at/xa Oeolo,
tx^cop, oco^; irep re peet jxaKapeacn deoicnv •
00 '^ap alrov eSovcr , ov 'rrivova aWoira olvov •
TOVveK dvalfiove^ elai Koi dddvaroc KaXiovrai.



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