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a')(kvv S' av rot cm oc^daXfioov eXov, fj irplv eTrijev,
6(f>p'' ev 'yi'yvoiaKrj'i ijfxep 6eov rjhe koI avSpa.

Just so Biarco, in Saxo Gram., p. 37, is unable to spy Othin riding
a white steed and aiding the Swedes, till he peeps through the ring
formed by the arm of a spirit- seeing woman: a medium that
elsewhere makes the elfin race visible to the bleared eyes of man.
In another way the gods, even when they showed themselves
bodily, concealed their divine nature, by assuming the form of a
human acquaintance, or of an animal. Poseidon stept into the
host, disguised as Kalchas, II. 13, 45, Hermes escorted Priam as a
Myrmidon warrior 24, 397, and Athene the young Telemachus as
Mentor, In the same way Othin appeared as the chariot-driver
Bruno (p. 330), or as a one-eyed old man. Metamorphoses of gods
into animals in Teutonic mythology take place only for a definite
momentary purpose, to which the character of the animal supplies
the key ; e.g., O'iSinn takes the shape of a snake, to slip throu£,di a



hole lie has bored (Sn. 86), and of an eagle, to fly away in haste
(86), Loki that of a fly, in order to sting (131), or to creep through
a keyhole (356) ; no larger designs are ever compassed by such
means. So, when Athene flies away as a bird, it expresses the
divinity of her nature and the suddenness of her departure. But
the swan or bvill, into which Zeus transformed himself, can only be
explained on the supposition that Leda too, and lo and Europa,
whom he was woomg, were thought of as swan-maidens or kine.
The form of animal would then be determined by the mythus, and
the egg-birth of the Dioscuri can be best understood in this way
(see Suppl.).

In the Asiatic legends, it seems to me, the manifestations of
deity are conceived deeply and purely in comparison, and nowhere
more profoundly than in those of India. The god comes down and
abides in the flesh for a season, for the salvation of mankind.
Wherever the doctrine of metempsychosis prevailed, the bodies of
animals even were eligible for the avatara ; and of Vishnu's ten
successive incarnations, the earlier ones are animal, it was in the
later ones that he truly ' became man ' (see Suppl.). The Greek
and Teutonic mythologies steer clear of all such notions ; in both
of them the story of the gods was too sensuously conceived to have
invested their transformations with the seriousness and duration of
an avatara, although a belief in such incarnation is in itself so
nearly akin to that of the heroes being bodily descended from the

I think that on all these lines of research, which could be
extended to many other points as well, I have brought forward a
series of undeniable resemblances between the Teutonic mythology
and the Greek. Here, as in the relation between the Greek and
Teutonic languages, there is no question of borrowing or choice,
nothing but unconscious affinity, allowing room (and that inevit-
ably) for considerable divergences. But who can fail to recognise,
or who invalidate, the surprising similarity of opinions on the
immortality of gods, their divine food, their growing up overnight,
their journeyings and transformations, their epithets, their anger
and their mirth, their suddenness in appearing and recognition at
parting, their use of carriages and horses, their performance of all
natural functions, their illnesses, their language, their servants and


messengers, offices and dwellings ? To conclude, I think I see a
further analogy in the circumstance, that out of the names of living
gods, as Tyr, Freyr, Baldr, Bragi, Zeus, grew up the common nouns
tyr, frauja, baldor, bragi, deus, or they bordered close upon
them (see SuppL).



Between God and man there is a step on whicli the one leads
into the other, where we see the Divine Being brought nearer to
things of earth, and human strength glorified. The older the epos,
the more does it require gods visible in the flesh ; even the younger
cannot do without heroes, in whom a divine spark still burns, or
who come to be partakere of it.

Heroism must not be made to consist in anything but battle
and victory : a hero is a man that in fighting against evil achieves
immortal deeds, and attains divine honours. As in the gradation
of ranks the noble stands between the king and the freeman, so
does the hero between God and man. From nobles come forth
kings, from heroes gods, r^pw? earlv ef uvOpwirov rt kol deov
a-vvOerov, o fxr)Tid dvOpcoTro'i earl, iii^re 6eo<i, Koi avvaix^orepov earl
(Lucian in Dial, mortuor. 3), yet so that the human predominates :
' ita tamen ut plus ab liomine habeat,' says Servius on Aen. 1, 200.
The hero succumbs to pains, wounds, death, from which even the
gods, according to the view of antiquity, were not exempt (p. 318).
In the hero, man attains the half of deity, becomes a demigod,
semideus : rj fi t6 eo) v yeva avSpcov, II. 12, 23 ; avhpwv i)pu)(Dv delov
7ew9, dl KoXkoviai rjfjblOeoi, Hes. €py. 159. Jornandes applies
semidei to the anses (supra p. 25), as Saxo Gram, pronounces
Balder a semidcum, arcano superum semine procreatum. Otherwise
in OJSr. writings we meet with neither halfgoS nor halfas ;^ but N.
Cap. 141 renders hemithei heroesque by ' halhkota unde erdkota
(earthgods) '.

Heroes are distinct from daemonic beings, such as angels, elves,
giants, who fill indeed the gap between God and man, but have not
a human origin. Under paganism, messengers of the gods were

1 Hiklftroll, halfrisi are similar, and the OHG. halpdurinc, halpwalah,
halpteni (ON. halfdan) as opposed to altdurinc, altwalah.


gods themselves ;'• the Jiulco-christiaii angel is a docmon. Eather
may the hero be compared to the christian saint, who througli
spiritual strife and sorrow earns a place in heaven (see SuppL).

This human nature of heroes is implied in nearly all the titles
given to them. For tlie definite notion of a divine glorified hero,
the Latin language has borrowed hcros from the Greek, though its
own vir (=Goth. vair ON", ver,^ AS. OHG. wer, Lett, wihrs, Lith.
wyras) in the sense of vir fortis (Tac. Germ. 3) so nearly conies up
to the Sanskr. vira heros. Heros, ■>/p&)?, which originally means a
mere fighter, has been identified with rather too many things: hcrus,
"Hpr], 'HpaKXrj<i, even "Apr]<; and dpert) = virtus, so that the Goth,
dims, OX. ar, ari— nuntius, minister, might come in too, or the
supposed digamma make a connexion with the aforesaid vira look
plausible. More undeniably, our held is a prolongation^ of tlie
simple ON", hair, AS. hajle vir : the name Halidegastes (like
Leudogastes) is found so early as in Vopiscus ; and a Goth, halips,
OHG. halid, helid may be safely inferred from the proper names
Helidperaht, Helidcrim, Helidgund, Helidniu, Helidberga,'* though
it is only from the 12th century that our memorials furnish an
actual hdit pi. helide ; the IMHG. helet, belt, pi. helde, occurs often
enough. Of the AS. hxled' I remark that it makes its pi. both
hffileSas and heeleS {e.g., Beow. 103), the latter archaic like the
Goth. men6}?s, whence we may infer that the Gothic also had a pi.
]iaH];s, and OHG. a pi. helid as well as helida, and this is confirmed
by a MHG. pi. held, Wh. 44, 20. In OS. I find only the pi.
helidos, helithos ; in the Heliand, helithcunni, helithocunni mean
simply genus humanum. i\LDut. has helet pi. helde. The ON.
lioldr pi. holdar (Spem. 114^ 115^ Sn. 171) implies an older
holuSr (like manuSr = Goth. men6|?s) ; it appears to mean nothing
but miles, vir, and holdborit (hold-born) in the first passage to be
sometliing lower than hersborit, the holdar being free peasants,
buendr. The Dan. Kelt, Swed. hjclte (OSwed. halad) show an
anomalous t instead of d, and are perhaps to be traced to the

1 At most, we might feel some doubt about SIcirnir, Frey's messenger and
servant ; but he seems more a bright angel than a hero.

- With tliis we shoukl have to identify even the veorr used of Thorr (p.
187) in so far as it stoxl for viorr.

3 Fortbildung : thus staff, stack, stall, stem, stare, &c. may be called
prolongations of the root sta.— Trans.

* In earlv docs, the town of Heldburg in Tliuringia is already called
Helidiberga, MB. 28^ 33.


German rather than the ON. form. If we prefer to see both in
hair and in halijjs the verb haljan occulere, defendere, tueri, the
transition from tutor to vir and miles is easily made ; even the
Lat. celer is not far from celo to conceal.

Beside this principal term, the defining of which was not to be
avoided here, there are several others to be considered. Notker,
who singularly avoids heleda, supplies us in Cap. 141 with : ' heroes,
taz chit, hertinga aide chueniga '. This hcrtinga suggests the AS.
heardingas, Elene 25. 130, whether it be a particular line, or heroes
in general that are meant by it ; and we might put up with the
derivation from herti, heard (hard), viri duri, fortes, exercitati, as
hartunga in N. ps. 9, 1 means exercitatio. But as we actually find
a Gothic line of heroes Azdingi, Astingi, and also an ON. of
Haddingjar, and as the Goth, zd, ON. dd, AS. rd, OHG. rt corres-
pond to one another, there is more to be said for the Gothic word
having dropt an h in the course of transmission, and the forms
hazdiggs, haddingr, bearding, hartinc being all one word.^ Now, if
the ON. haddr means a lock of hair (conf. p. 309), we may find in
haddingr, hazdiggs, &c. a meaning suitable enough for a freeman
and hero, that of crinitus, capillatus, cincinnatus ; and it would be
remarkable that the meaning heros should be still surviving in the
tenth century. No less valuable to us is the other term chucnig,
which can hardly be connected with chuning rex, as N. always
spells it ; it seems rather to be = chuonig, derived either from
chuoni audax, fortis (as fizusig from fizus callidus), or from its still
unexplained root.^ Other terms with a meaning immediately
bordering on that of hero are: OHG. degan (miles, minister);
wigant (pugil) ; chamfio, chempho (pugil), AS. cempa, ON. kappi ;
the ON. hetja (bellator), perhaps conn, with hatr odium, helium ;
and slmti, better slia&i, AS. sceaSa, scaSa, properly nocivus, then
prEedator, latro, and passing from this meaning, honourable in
ancient times, into that of heros ; even in the Mid. Ages, Landscado,
scather of the land, was a name borne by noble families. That
heri (exercitus), Goth, harjis, also meant miles, is shown by OHG.

^ The polypt. Irminon 170^ has a proper name Ardingus standing for
Hardingvis. . j ,, ,,

2 Graff 4, 447 places chuoni, as well as chunmc and chunni, under the all-
devouring root chan ; but as kruoni, AS. grene viridis, comes from kruoan,
AS. growan, so may chuoni, AS. cene, from a lost chuoan, AS. cowan pollere ?
vigere ?


glosses, Grafif 4, 983, and by names of individual men compounded
with heri; conf. ch. XXV, einheri. The OHG. ?tTc'cc7ao, hrecchio,
reecho, had also in a peculiar way grown out of the sense of exsul,
profugus, advena, which predominates in the AS. wrecca, OS.
wrekio, into that of a hero fighting far from home, and the LIHG.
reclce, ON. rechr is simply a hero in general.^ Similar develop-
ments of meaning can doubtless be shown in many other words ;
what we have to keep a firm hold of is, that the very simplest
words for man (vir) and even for man (homo) adapted themselves
to the notion of hero ; as our inann does now, so the ON. hah; the
OHG. gotno (homo), ON. gu7}ii served to express the idea of lieros.
In Diut. 2, 314^, heros is glossed by gomo, and gumnar in the Edda
has the same force as skatnar (see Suppl.).

Now, what is the reason of this exaltation of human nature ?
Always in the first instance, as far as I can see, a relation of bodily
kinship between a god and the race of man. The heroes are
epigoni of the gods, their line is descended from the gods : settir
guma er fra goSom komo, Sa;m. 114^

Greek mythology affords an abundance of ];)roofs ; it is by
virtue of all heroes being directly or indirectly produced by gods
and goddesses in conjunction with man, that the oldest kingly
families connect themselves with heaven. But evidently most of
tliese mixed births proceed from Zeus, who places himself at the
head of gods and men, and to whom all the glories of ancestors are
traced. Thus, by Leda he had Castor and Pollux, who were called
after him Dios-curi, Hercules by Alcmena, Perseus by Danae,
Epaphusby lo, Pelasgus by Niobe, Minos and Sarpedon by Europa;
other heroes touch him only through their forefathers : Agamemnon
was the son of Atreus, he of Pelops, he of Tantalus, and he of Zeus ;
Ajax was sprung from Telamon, he from Aeacus, he from Zeus and
Aegina. Next to Zeus, the most heroes seem to proceed from Ares,
Hermes and Poseidon : Meleager, Diomedes and Cycnus were sons
of Ares, Autolycus and Cephalus of Hermes, while Theseus was a
son of Aegeus, and Nestor of Neleus, but both Aegeus and Neleus

^ Some Slavic expressions for hero are woi-tliy of notice : Kuss. vUiar.,
Serv. vitez; Russ. boghatyr, Pol. bohater, Boh. bohatyr, not conn, either witli
bogh deus, or boghat dives, but the same as the Pers. behddir, Turk, bahadyr,
Mongol, baghdtor, Hung, bdtor, Manju butura, and derivable from h\(dra lively,
merry ; Schott in Erman's zeitschr. 4, 531 [Mongol, bayhd is force, fiia, aiid
-tor, -tur an adj. sullix].


were Poseidon's children by Aethra and Tyro. Acliilles was the
son of Peleus and Thetis, Aeneas of Anchises and Venus.^ These
examples serve as a standard for the conditions of our own heroic
legend (see Suppl.).

Tacitus, following ancient lays, places at the head of our race as
its prime progenitor Tuisco, who is not a hero, but himself a god, as
the author expressly names him ' denm terra editum '. Now, as
Gaia of herself gave birth to Uranos and Pontes, that is to say, sky
and sea sprang from the lap of earth, so Tuisco seems derivable
from the word tiv, in which w^e found (pp. 193-4) tlie primary
meaning to be sky ; and Tuisco, i.e., Tvisco, could easily spring
out of the fuller form Tivisco [as Tuesday from Tiwesda^g]. Tvisco
may either mean coelestis, or the actual offspring of another divine
being Tiv, whom we afterwards find appearing among the gods :
Tiv and Tivisco to a certain degree are and signify one thing.
Tvisco then is in sense and station Uranos, but in name Zeus,
whom the Greek myth makes proceed from Uranos not directly,
but through Kronos, pretty much as our Tiv or Zio is made a son
of Wuotan, wdiile another son Donar takes upon him the best part
of the office that the Greeks assigned to Zeus. Donar too was son
of Earth as well as of Wuotan, even as Gaia brought forth the great
mountain-ranges (ovpea /xaKpd, Hes. theog. 129 = Goth, fairgunja
mikila), and Donar himself was called mountain and fairguneis (pp.
169. 172), so that ovpav6<; sky stands connected w^ith ovpo<i 6po<i
mountain, the idea of deus with that of ans (pp. 25. 188). Gaia,
Tellus, Terra come round again in our goddesses Fiorgyn, lorS and
Kindr (p. 251) ; so the names of gods and goddesses here cross one
another, but in a similar direction.

This earth-born Tvisco's son was 3Tannus, and no name could
sound more Teutonic, thougli Norse mythology has as little to say
of him as of Tvisco (ON. Tyski ?). No doubt a deeper meaning
once resided in the word ; by the addition of the suffix -isk, as in
Tiv Tivisco, there arose out of mann a mannisko = homo, the

^ In the Eoman legend, Eomulus and Eemiis were connected tlirongh
Silvia with Mars, and through Aniulius witli Venus ; and Eomulus was taken
up to heaven. The later apotheosis of the omperors differs from the genuine
heroic, almost as canonization does from primitive sainthood ; yet even
Augustus, being deified, passed in legend for a son of Apollo, whom the god in
the shape of a dragon had by Atia ; Sueton. Octav. 91.

iNGuio. 345

tliinking self-conscious being (see p. 59) ; both forms, tlie simple
and the derived, have (like tiv and tivisko) the same import, and
may be set by the side of the Sanskr. Manus and manushya.
]\Iannus liowever is the first hero, son of the god, and father of all
men. Traditions of this forefather of the whole Teutonic race
seem to have filtered down even to the latter end of the Mid. Ages :
in a poem of meister Frauenlob (Ettm. p. 112), the same in which
the mythical king Wippo is spoken of (see p. ;^00), we read :

Mcnnor der erste was genant, Mennor the first man was named
dem diutische rede got tet to whom Dutch language God

bekant. made known.

This is not taken from Tacitus direct, as the proper name, though
similar, is not the same (see Suppl.).

As all Teutons come of Tvisco and Mannus, so from the three
(or by some accounts five) sons of Mannus are descended the three,
five or seven main branches of the race. From the names of
nations furnished by the Eomans may be inferred those of their
patriarchal progenitors.

1. Inguio. Iscio. Irmino.

The threefold division of all the Germani into Ingaevones,
Iscaevones and Herminones^ is based on the names of three heroes,
Ingo, Isco, Hermino, each of whom admits of being fixed on yet
surer authority.

T7ifj, or Ingo, Tnrjuio has kept his place longest in the memory
of the Saxon and Scandinavian tribes. Eunic alphabets in OHG.
spell Inc, in AS. Lig, and an echo of his legend seems still to ring
in the Lay of Euncs :

Ing wyes arrest mid Eastdenum

gesewen secgum, oc5 he siSSan east

ofer wfieg gewat. wan aefter ran.

J?us Heardingas ];one hrole nemdon.
Ing first dwelt with the East Danes (conf. Beow. 779. 1225. 1650),
then he went eastward over the sca,^ his wain ran after. The wain

1 Pro.ximi oceano Ingaevones, medii Herniinones, ceteri Istaevones vocan-
tur, Tac. Germ. 2.

^ Cajdm. 88, 8 says of the raven let out of Noah's ark : gewat ol'er wonue
wa'g sigan.


is a distinctive mark of ancient gods, but also of heroes and kings ;
its being specially put forward here in connexion with a sea-
voyage, appears to indicate some feature of the legend that is
unknown to us (see Suppl.). Ing's residence in the east is
strikingly in harmony with a pedigree of the Ynglings given in the
Islendingabok (Isl. sog. 1, 19). Here at the head of all stands
' Yngvi Tyrkja konungr,' immediately succeeded by divine beings,
NiorSr, • Freyr, Fiolnir (a byname of OSinn), Svegdir, &c. In the
same way OSinn was called Tyrkja konungr (Sn. ^68) from his
residing at Byzantium (p. 163 note).^ The Ynglinga saga on the
other hand begins the line with NiorSr, after whom come Freyr,
Fiolnir and the rest; but of Freyr, whom the wain would have
suited exactly, it is stated that he had another name Yngvi or
Yngvifreyr (p. 211-2), and the whole race of Ynglingar were named
after him.^ Ingingar or Ingvingar would be more exact, as is
shown by the OHG. and AS. spelling, and confirmed by a host of
very ancient names compounded with Ing or Ingo : Inguiomerus
(Ingimarus, Ingumar, or with asp. Hincmarus), Inguram, Ingimund,
Ingiburc, Inginolt, &c. Even Saxo Gram, writes Ingo, Ingimarus.
As for Ynglingar, standing for Inglingar, it may be formed from
the prolongation Ingil in Ingelwin, Ingelram, Ingelberga and the
Norse Ingellus, unless it is a mere confusion of the word with
ynglingr juvenis, OHG. jungilinc, AS. geongling, from the root
ung, June, geong, which has no business here at all (?). — The main
point is, that the first genealogy puts Ingvi before NiorSr, so that
he would be Frey's grandfather, while the other version makes him
be born again as it were in Freyr, and even fuses his name with
Frey's, of which there lurks a trace likewise in the AS. * frea
Ingwina' (p. 211). This Ingwina ajjpears to be the gen. pi. of
Ingwine, OHG. Inguwini, and * dominus Ingwinorum ' need not
necessarily refer to the god, any hero might be so called. But with
perfect right may an Ingvi, Inguio be the patriarch of a race that

1 Snorri sends him to Turkland, Saxo only as far as Byzantium. — Trans.

^As the ON. genealogies have Yngvi, NiorSr, Freyr, the Old Swedish
tables in Geijer (hafder ""118. 121. 475) give Inge, Neorch, Fro; some have
Neoroch for Neorch, both being corruptions of Neorth. Now, was it by
running Ingvi and Freyr into one, that the combination Ingvifrerjr (transposed
into AS. frea Ingwina) arose, or was he cut in two to make an additional
link 1 The Skaldskaparmal in Sn. 211=^ calls Yngvifreyr OSin's son, and from
the enumeration of the twelve or thirteen Ases in Sn. 21 !*> it cannot be doubted
that Yngvifreyr was regarded as equivalent to the simple Freyr,


bears the name of Ingvingar ■=■ Ynglingar. And then, what the
Norse genealogy is unable to carry farther up than to Ingvi, Tacitus
kindly completes for us, by informing us that Inguio is the son of
Mannus, and he of Tvisco; and his Ingacvones are one of two
things, either the OHG. pi. Inguion (from sing. Inguio), or Ingwini
after the AS. Ingwine.

Thus pieced out, the line of gods and heroes would run :
Tvisco, Mannus, Ingvio, Nerthus, Fravio (or whatever shape the
Gothic Frauja would have taken in the mouth of a Roman). The
earth-born Tvisco's mother repeats herself after three intermediate
links in Nerthus the god or hero, as a Norse Ingui stands now
before NiorSr, now after ; and those Vanir, who have been moved
away to the east, and to whom NiorSr and his son Freyr were held
mainly to belong (pp. 218-9), would have a claim to count as one
and the same race with the Ingaevones, although this associa-
tion with Mannus and Tvisco appears to vindicate their Teutonic

But these bonds draw themselves yet tighter. The AS. lay
informed us, that lug bore that name among the Hcardings, had
received it from them. This Heardingas must either mean -heroes
and men generally, as we saw on p. 342, or a particular people.
Hartiing is still remembered in our Heldenbuch as king of the
Eeussen (Rus, Russians), the same probably as ' Hartnit ' or
' Hertnit von Eeussen ' ; in the Alphart he is one of the AYolfing
heroes.^ Hartunc and his father Immune (Rudlieb 17, 8) remain
dark to us. The Heardingas appear to be a nation situated east of
the Danes and Swedes, among whom Ing is said to have lived for
a time ; and this his sojourn is helped out both by the Turkish
kinfj YnG;ui and the Russian Hartung. It has been shown that to
Hartunc, Hearding, would correspond the ON. form Haddingr.
Now, whereas the Danish line of heroes beginning with OSinn
arrives at FroSi in no more than three generations, 0'5inn being
followed by Skioldr, FriSleifr, FroSi ; the series given in Saxo
Gram, stands thus : Humbl, Dan, Lother, Skiold, Gram, Hading,
Frotho. But Hading stands for Hadding, as is clear from the
spelling of ' duo Haddingi ' in Saxo p. 93, who are the Haddingjar
often mentioned in the Edda; it is said of him, p. 12 : ' orientalium

1 Hemit = Haixling in the Swedish tale of Dietrich (Iduna 10, 253-4.


robore debellato, Suetiam reversus,' which orientals again are
Eutheni ; but what is most remarkable is, that Saxo p. 17-8 puts
in the mouth of this Danish king and his wife Eegnilda a song
which in the Edda is sung by Nior&r and Skaffi (Sn. 27-8).^ We
may accordingly take Haddiug to be identical with NiorSr, i.e., a
second birth of that god, which is further confirmed by FriSleifr
(= Frealaf, whom we have already identified with the simple Frea,
p. 219) appearing in the same line, exactly as Freyr is a son of
NiorSr, and Saxo says expressly, p. 16, that Hadding offered a
Froblot, a sacrifice in honour of Freyr. Whether in Fro&i (OHG.
Fruoto, MHG. Fruote), the hero of the Danish story, who makes
himself into three, and whose rule is praised as peaceful and bliss-
ful, we are to look for Freyr over again, is another question.

In the god-hero of Tacitus then there lingers, still recognisable,
a Norse god ; and the links I have produced must, if I mistake
not, set the final seal on the reading ' Nerthus '. If we will not
admit the goddess into the ranks of a race which already has a
Terra mater standing at its very head, it is at all events no great
stretch to suppose that certain nations transferred her name to the
aod or hero who formed one of the succeeding links in the race.

There are more of these Norse myths which probably have to
do with this subject, lights that skim tlie deep darkness of our
olden time, but cannot light it up, and often die away in a dubious
flicker. The Formali of the Edda, p. 15, calls OGinn father of
Yngvi, and puts him at the head of the Ynglingar : once again we

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