Jacob Grimm.

Teutonic mythology (Volume 1) online

. (page 37 of 46)
Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 37 of 46)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

see ourselves entitled to identify OSinn with Mannus or Tvisco.
Nay, with all this interlacing and interchange of members, we
could almost bear to see OSinn made the same as NiorSr, which is
done in one manuscript. But the narrative ' fra Fornioti ok bans
ffittmonnum' in Fornald. sog. 2, 12 carries us fartlier: at the top
stands Burri, like the king of Tyrkland, followed by Burr, Offinn,
Freyr, Niorffr, Freyr, Fiolnir ; here tlien is a double Freyr, the
first one taking Yngvi's place, i.e., the Yngvifreyr we had before ;
but also a manifold O&inn, Fiolnir being one of his names (Siiem.
IQa 46^ 184*. Sn. 3). Burri and i/iwr, names closely related to

1 So Wh. Muller (Haupt's zeitschr. 3, 48-9) has justly pointed out, that
SkaSi's choice of the muflied bridegroom, whose feet alone were visible (Sn.
82), agrees with Saxo's ' eligendi mariti libertas curiosiore corporum attrecta-
tione,'''but here to find a\'ing that the flesh has healed over. SkaOi and
Eagnhild necessarily fall into one.


each other like Folkvaldi and Folkvaldr, and given in another Ikt
as Burri and Uors, seem clearly to be the Buri and Borr cited by
Sn. 7. 8 as forefathers of the three brothers OGinn, Vili, Ve (see p.
162). Now, Buri is that first man or human being, who was
licked out of the rocks by the cow, hence the eristporo (erst-born),
an OHG. Poro, Goth. Baura ; Borr might be OHG. Parv, Goth.
Barns or whatever form we choose to adopt, anyhow it comes from
bairan, a root evidently well chosen in a genealogical tale, to denote
tlie first-born, first-created men.^ Yet we may think of Byr too,
the wish-wind (see Oskaljyrr, p. 144). Must not Buri, Borr, O&inn
be parallel, though under other names, to Tvisco, Mannus, Inguio ?
Inguio has two brothers at his side, Iscio and Hermino, as OSinn
has A^ili and Ve ; we should then see the reason wdiy the names
Tyski and MaSr^ are absent from the Edda, because Buri and Bon-
are their substitutes ; and several other things would become
intelligible. Tvisco is ' terra editus,' and Buri is produced out of
stone ; when we see OCinn heading the Ynglingar as well as
Inguio the Ingaevones, we may find in that a confirmation of the
hypothesis that Saxons and Cheruscans, preeminently worshippers
of Wodan, formed the flower of the Ingaevones. These gods and
demigods may appear to be all running into one another, but always
there emerges from among them the real supreme divinity,

I go on expounding Tacitus. Everything confirms me in the
conjecture that Inguio's or Ingo's brother must have been named
Iscio, Isco, and not Istio, Isto. There is not so much weight to be
laid on the fact that sundry ]\ISS. even of Tacitus actually read
Iscaevones : we ought to examine more narrowly, whether the st
in Pliny's Istaevones be everywhere a matter of certainty ; and
even that need not compel us to give up our sc ; Iscaevo was
perhaps liable to be corrupted by the llomans themselves into Istaevo,
as Vistula crept in by the side of the truer Viscula (Weichscl). r>ut
what seem irrefragable proofs are the Bscio and Hisicion^ of

1 So in the ra.^siiial 10o% Burr is called the first, Barn the second, and lotS
(conf. AS. eadcn) the tliird child of Fu5ir and Mouir.

'^ ON. for man : sing. niaSr, nuinnis, nianni, niann ; pi. mcnn, nuunui,
mbnnum, nienn.

=» In Nennius § 17, Stevenson and Sanniarte (]'p. 39. 40) have adopted the
very worst reading Huilio.


Nennius, in a tradition of the Mid. Ages not adopted from Tacitus,
and the Isiocon^ in a Gaelic poem of the 11th century (see Suppl.).
If this will not serve, let internal evidence speak : in Tuisco and
Mannisco we have been giving the suffix -isc its due, and Tuisto, a
spelling which likewise occurs, is proof against all attempt at
explanation. Now Isco, as the third name in the same genealogy,
would agree with these two. For Tvisco and Mannus the Norse
legend substitutes two other names, but Inguio it has preserved in
Ingvi ; ought not his brother Iscio to be discoverable too ? I fancy
I am on his track in the Eddie Ashr, a name that is given to the
first-created man again (Seem. 3. Sn. 10), and means an ash-tree.
It seems strange enough, that we also come across this ash (let
interpretation understand it of the tree or not) among the Eunic
names, side by side with ' inc, ziu, er,' all heroes and gods ; and
among the ON. names for the earth is Bskja, Sn. 220^. And even
the vowel-change in the two forms of name, Iscio and Askr, holds
equally good of the suffix -isk, -ask.

Here let me give vent to a daring fancy. In our language the
relation of lineal descent is mainly expressed by two suffixes,
ING and ISK. Manning means a son the offspring of man, and
mannisko almost the same. I do not say that the two divine
ancestors were borrowed from the grammatical form, still less that
the grammatical form originated in the heroes' names. I leave the
vital connexion of the two things unexplained, I simply indicate it.
But if the Ingaevones living ' proximi oceano ' were Saxon races,
which to this day are addicted to deriving with -ing, it may be
remarked that Asciburg, a sacred seat of the Iscaevones who dwelt
' proximi Eheno,' stood on the Ehine.^ Of Askr, and the relation
of the name to the tree, I shall treat in ch. XIX ; of the Iscae-
vones it remains to be added, that the Anglo-Saxons also knew a
hero Ocsc, and consequently Oescingas.

Zeuss, p. 73, gives the preference to the reading Istaevones,
connecting them with the Astingi, Azdingi, whom I (p. 342) took for
Hazdingi, and identified with the ON. Haddingjar, AS. Heardingas,
OHG. Hertinga. The hypothesis of Istaevones = Izdaevones would
require that the Goth, zd = AS. rd, OHG. rt, should in the time of

1 Pointed out by Leo in the zeitschr. f. d. alt. 2, 534.

^ Conf. Askitun (Ascha near Amberg), Askiprunno (Escliborn near Frank-
fort), Askipah (Eschbach, Eschenbach) in various parts ; Ascarih, a man's
name (see Suppl.).


Tacitus have prevailed even among the Ehine Germans ; I have never
yet heard of an OHG. Artinga, Ertinga, nor of an ON. Addingar,
Eddingar, According to this conjecture, ingenious anyhow and
worth examining further, the ancestral hero would be called Istio=
Izdio, Izdvio, OHG. Erfo, ON. Mdi, with which the celebrated
term edda proavia would agree, its Gothic form being izd6, OHG.
erta. Izdo, Izdio proavus would seem in itself an apt name for the
founder of a race. The fluctuation between i and a would be common
to both interpretations, ' Iscaevones = Askinga ' and ' Istaevones =
Artinga '.

The third son of Mannus will occupy us even longer than his
brothers. Ermine's posterity completes the cycle of the three main
races of Germany : Ingaevones, Iscaevoncs, Herminones. The order
in which they stand seems immaterial, in Tacitus it merely follows
their geographical position ; the initial vowel common to them
leads us to suppose an alliterative juxtaposition of the ancestral
heroes in German songs. The aspirate given by the Eomans to
Herminones, as to Hermunduri, is strictly no part of the German
word, but is also very commonly retained by Latin writers of the
Mid. Ages in proper names compounded with Irmin. In the name
of the historical Arminius Tacitus leaves it out.

As with Inguio and Iscio, we must assign to the hero's name
the otherwise demonstrable weak form Irmino} Ermino, Goth.
Airmana : it is supported by the derivative Herminones, and even
by the corruptions * Hisicion, Armenon, Negno ' in Nennius (see
Suppl.). Possibly the strong-formed Irman, Irmin, Armin may
even be a separate root. But what occurs far more frequently than
the simple word, is a host of compounds with irman-, irmin-, not
only proper names, but other expressions concrete and abstract :
Goth. Ermanaricus (Airmanareiks), OHG. Irmanrih, AS. Eormenric,
ON. lormunrekr, where the u agrees with that in the national
name Hermundurus ; OHG. Irmandegan, Irmandeo, Irmanperaht,
Irmanfrit, Irminolt, Irmandrut, Irmangart, Irmansuint, &c. Atten-
tion is claimed by the names of certain animals and plants : the
ON. lormungandr is a snake, and lormunrekr a bull, the AS.
Eormenwyrt and Eormenleaf is said to be a mallow, which I also

1 Pertz 1. 200. 300. 2, 290. 463. 481 ; the abbas Irmino of Charles the
Great's time is known well enough now ; and a female name larmin is met
with in deeds.


find written geormenwyrt, geormenleaf. Authorities for irmangot,
irmandiot, OS. irminthiod, irminman, irmansul, &c., &c., have been
given above, p. 118. A villa Irmenlo, i.e., a wood (in ilia silva
scaras sexaginta) is named in a deed of 855, Bondam's charterbook,
p. 32. silva Irminlo, Lacombl. 1, 31.

In these compounds, especially those last named, irman seems
to have but a general intensifying power, without any distinct
reference to a god or hero (conf. Woeste, mittheil. p. 44) ; it is
like some other words, especially got and diot, regin and megin,
which we find used in exactly the same way. If it did contain
such reference, Eormenleaf w^ould be Eormenes leaf, like Torneotes
folme, Wuotanes wee. Irmandeo then is much the same as
Gotadeo, Irmanrih as Diotrih ; and as irmangot means the great
god, irmandiot the great people, iormungrund the great wide earth,
so irmansul cannot mean more than the great pillar, the very sense
caught by Eudolf in his translation universalis columna (p. 117).

This is all very true, but there is nothing to prevent Irmino or
Irmin having had a personal reference in previous centuries : have
we not seen, side by side with Zeus and Tyr, the common noun
deus and the prefix ty-, tir- (p. 195-6) ? conf. p. 339. If Siieteresdeeg
has got rubbed down to Saturday, Saterdach (p. 125), so may Eritac
point to a former Erestac (p. 202), Eormenleaf to Eormenes leaf,
Irmansul to Irmanessul ; we also met with Donnerbiihel for
Donnersbiiliel (p. 170), Woenlet for Woenslet, and we say
Frankfurt for Erankenfurt [Oxford for Oxenaford, &c.]. The more
the sense of the name faded out, the more readily did the genitive
form drop away ; the OHG. godes hiis is more literal, the Goth.
gu];lius more abstract, yet both are used, as the OS. regano giscapu
and regangiscapu, metodo giscapu and metodgiscapu held their
ground simultaneously. As for geormen = eormen, it suggests
Germanus (Gramm. 1, 11).

It is true, Tacitus keeps the Hermino that lies latent in his
Herminones apart from Arminius with whom the Homans waged
war ; yet his famous ' canitur adhuc barbaras apud gentes,' applied
to the destroyer of Varus, might easily arise through simply
misinterpreting such accounts as reached the Eonian ear of
German songs about the mythical hero. Granted that irmansul
expressed word for word no more than ' huge pillar,' yet to the people
that worshipped it it must have been a divine image, standing for


a particular god. To discover who this was, we can only choose
one of two ways : either he was one of the three great divinities,
Wodan, Thenar, Tin, or some being distinct from them.

But here we nuist, above all things, ponder the passage partly
quoted on p. Ill from Widukind, himself a Saxon; it says, a
lieatlien god was worshipped, whose name suggested Mars, his
pillar-statue Hercules, and the place where he was set up the sun
or Apollo. After that, he continues : ' Ex hoc apparet, aestima-
tionem illorum utcumcpie probabilem, qui Saxones originem duxisse
putant de Graecis, quia Hirmin vel Hermes graece Mars dicitur,
quo vocabulo ad laudem vel ad vituperationem usque hodie etiam
ignorantes utimur '. From this it follows, that the god to whom
the Saxons sacrificed after their victory over the Thuringians was
called Hirmin, Irmin, and in the lOth century the name was still
affixed in praise or blame to very eminent or very desperate
characters.^ Apollo is brought in by the monk, because the altar
was built ad orientalem portam, and Hercules, because his pillar
called up that of the native god ; no other idol can have been
meant, tlian precisely the irminsul (pp. 115 — 118), and the true form
of this name must have been Irmines, Irmctnes or Hirmines sill.
The Saxons had set up a pillar to their Irmin on the banks of the
Unstrut, as they did in their own home.

The way Hirmin, Hermes and Mars are put together seems a
perfect muddle, though Widukind sees in it a confirmation of the
story about the Saxons being sprung from Alexander's army
(Widuk. 1, 2. Sachsensp. 3, 45). We ought to remember, first,
that Wodan was occasionally translated Mars instead of Mercurius
(pp. 121. 133), and had all the appearance of the Eoman Mars
given him (p. 133); then further, how easily Irmin or Hirmin in
this case would lead to Hermes, and Ares to Mars, for the Irminsul
itself is connected with Eres-burg (p. IIG). What the Corvei
annalist kept distinct (p. Ill), the two images of Ares and of
Hermes, are confounded by Widukind. But now, which has the
better claim to be Irmin, jl/a?'s or Mcreurijt On p. 197 I have
pronounced rather in favour of Mars, as Mlillenholf too (Ilaupt 7,
384) identifies Irmin with Ziu ; one might even be inclined to see

^ Much as we say now : he is a regular devil, or in Lower Saxony hamer
(p. 182). The preti.x irmin- likewise intensifies in a good or bad sense ; like
' inningod, inuinthiod,' there may have been an irniinthiob = * meginthiob,
regiutliiob '.



in it the name of the war-god brought out on p. 202, ' Eru, Heru,'
and to dissect Irman, Erman into Ir-man, Er-man, though, to judge
by the forms Irmin, Eormen, Ermun, lormun, this is far from
probable, the word being derivative indeed, yet simple, not com-
pound ; we never find, in place of Ertag, dies Martis, any such
form as Ermintac, Irminestac. On behalf of Mercury there would
speak the accidental,^ yet striking similarity of the name Irmansul
or Hirmensul to 'Epjxriq and ep/za = prop, stake, pole, pillar (p.
118), and that it was precisely Hermes's image or head that used
to be set up on such ep/j^ara, and furtlier, that the Mid. Ages
referred tlie irmen-pillars to Mercury (p. 116). In Hirmin the
Saxons appear to have worshipped a Wodan imaged as a tvarrior.

If this view be well grounded, we have Wodan wedging himself
into the ancient line of heroes ; but the question is, whether Irmin
is not to be regarded as a second birth or son of the god, whether
even an ancestral hero Irmino is not to be distinguished from this
god Irmin, as Hermino in Tacitus is from Arminius ? So from thiod,
regin, were formed the names Thiodo, Ilegino. It would be harder
to show any such relation between Ing and Ingo, Isc and Isco ; but I
think I can suggest another principle which will decide this point:
wlien races name themselves after a famous ancestor, this may be a
deified man, a demigod, but never a purely divine being. There are
Ingaevones, Iscaevones, Herminones, Oescingas, Scilfingas, Ynglin-
gar (for Ingingar), Volsungar, Skioldungar, Niflungar,- as there were
Heracleidae and Pelopidae, but no Wodeningas or Thunoringas,
though a Wodening and a Kronides. The Anglo-Saxons, with
Woden always appearing at their head, would surely have borne
the name of Wodeningas, had it been customary to take name
from the god himself. Nations do descend from the god, but
through the medium of a demigod, and after him they name them-
selves. A national name taken from the highest god would have
been impious arrogance, and alien to human feeling.

As Lower Saxony, especially Westphalia, was a chief seat of
the Irmin-worship, we may put by the side of Widukind's account
of Hirmin a few other traces of his name, which is not even yet

he Greek aspirate corresponds a Teutonic S, not H : o, 17 sa, so ;
; aXs salt. [There are exceptions : q, t], ol he, her, hig ; oXoy whole,

1 To the
fVra sibun
hela ; e'Aco haul, holen].

- A patronymic suffix is not necessary : the Gautos, Gevissi, Suapa take
name from Gauts, Gevis, Snap, divine heroes.

IRMIN. 355

entirely extinct in that part of Germany, StroJtmann has noted
down the tbllowing phrases in Osnabriick : ' he ment, use herrc
gott heet Herm (he thinks our Lord is called H., i.e. is never angry) ;
use herre gott heet nich Hcria, he heet leve herre, un weet wal to-
te-gripen (knows how to fall on) '. Here there seems unconcealed
a slight longing for the mild rule of the old heathen god, in
contrast to the strictly judging and punishing christian God. In
Saxon Hesse (on the Dieniel), in the districts of Paderborn, Kavens-
berg and Munster, in the bishopric of Minden and the duchy of
Westphalia/ the people have kept alive the rhyme :

Hcrmen, sla dermen,

sla pijjen, sla trummen,

de kaiser wil kummen

met hamer un stangen,^

wil Hcrmen uphangen.

Hermen is challenged, as it were, to strike up his war-music, to
sound the catgut, j)ipe and drum ; but the foe draws nigh with
maces and staves, and will hang up Hermen (see Suppl.). It is not
impossible that in these rude words, which have travelled down the
long tradition of centuries, are preserved the fragments of a lay
that was first heard when Charles destroyed the Irmensul. They
cannot so well be interpreted of the elder Arminius and the Eomans.^
The striking and the staves suggest the ceremony of carrying out
the Summer.

In a part of Hesse that lies on the Werra, is a village named
Ermschwerd, which in early documents is called Ermeswerder,
Armeswerd,* Ermencsioerde (Dronke's trad. fuld. p. 123), Ermcnes-
wcrethe (Vita Meinwerci an. 1022. Leibn. 1, 551), = Irmineswerid,
insula Irmini, as other gods have their isles or eas. This interpre-
tation seems placed beyond a doubt by other such names of places.

Leibn. scr. 1, 9 and Eccard, Fr. or. 1, 883, De orig. Germ. 397

1 Roinniiil's Hessen 1. p. G6 note. Westphalia (Minden 1830) i. 4, 52.
The tunc is iriveu in Scluunann's Musical, zeitun;^ lor 183G.

- Variants : mit stangeu und prangeu (wliicli also means staves) ; niit
hamer im tani,'cn (tongs).

'^ This explanation has of course been tried : some have put Hermann for
Hermen, others aiUl a narrative verse, Avhich I do not suppose is found in the
people's mouth : ' un Hcrmen shiug dermen, slaug pipen, slaug trummen, de
fiirsten sind kummen met all eren niannen, liebt Varus uphangen '.

* The same vowel-ciiange is seen in Ermensulen (deed of 1:298 in Baring's
Clavis dipl. p. -193 no. l.j), a Weslplialian vilkige, now called Armcvseul.


give Irmineswagen for tlie constellation arctus, plaustrum coeleste,
I do not know on what authority : this wain would stand beside
Wuotanswagen, Donnerswagen, and even Ingswagen.

Some of the later AS, and several 0. Engl, authorities, in
specifying four great highways that traverse England, name
amongst them Er^ningestrdc, running from south to north of the
island.^ But we may safely assume the pure AS. form to have
been Eormenstrtet or Eormenes-strat, as another of the four ways,
Wcetlingastrcct, occurs in the Saxon Chron. (Ingr. 190. Thorpe's
anal. p. 38), and in the Treaty of iElfred and Guthrun (Thorpe, p.
G6), and ' andlang Wactlinga straet ' in Kemble 2, 250 (an. 944).
Lye has Irmingstrcct together with Irmingsul, both without refer-
ences. The conjectural Eormenstnet would lead to an OHG.
Irmanstraza, and Eormenesstra;t to Irmanesstraza, with the mean-
ings via publica and via Irmani.

Now it is not unimportant to the course of our inquiry, tliat
one of the four highways, Wcetlingastrffit, is at the same time
translated to the sky, and gets to look quite mythical. A plain
enough road, extending from Dover to Cardigan, is the milky way
in the heavens, i.e., it is travelled by the car of some heathen god.

Chaucer (House of Fame 2, 427), describing that part of the
sky, says :

Lo there, quod he, cast up thine eye,

se yondir, lo, the galaxie,

the whiche men clepe the milky way

for it is wdiite, and some parfay

ycallin it lian Watlingestrcte,

that onis was brente with the hete,

whan that the sunnis sonne the rede,

which hite Phaeton, wolde lede

algate his fathirs carte and gie.
In the Complaint of Scotland, p. 90, it is said of the comet : ' it
aperis oft in the quhyt circle callit circulus lacteus, the quhilk the
marynalis callis Vatlanstrcit '. In Douglas's Virgil, p. 85 :

^ IIII clieminii Watlingestrcte, Fcsse, Hickenildestrete, Ermingestrete
(Thorjoe's Anc. laws, p. 192; ; conf. Henry of Hunt. (Erningestreet), Kob. of
Glouc, Oxf. 1742, p. 299 (also Erning., after the preceding). Eaniilph
Higliden's Polyclir., ed. Oxon. p. 19G. Leland's Itinerary, Oxf. 1744. 6, 108—
140. Gibson in App. chron. b'ax. p. 47. Camden's Eritannia, ed. Gibson,
Lond. 1753, p. Ixxix. In the map to Lapj)enberg'.'s Hist, of Engl., the direction
of the foui" roads is indicated.

iRuiN. 357

Of every stcrne tlic twynkling notis he
that in the still hevin move cours we sc,
Arthurys house, and Hyades betaikning rane,
Watlingestretc, the Home and the Charlewane,
the feirs Orion with his goldin glave.
Wittlinga is plainly a gen. pi. ; who the Woetlings were, and how
they came to give then- name to an earthly and a heavenly street,
we do not know. Chaucer perhaps could still have told us, but he
prefers to harp at the Greek mythus. Phaethon, also the son of a
god, when he presumed to guide his father's sun-chariot, burnt a
broad streak in the sky, and that is the track we call the milky
way. The more conmion view was, that Here, indignant at the
bantling Hermes or Herakles being put to her breast, spilt her
milk along the sky, and hence the bright phenomenon. JSTo doubt,
among other nations also, fancy and fable have let the names of
earthly and heavenly roads run into one another.^

A remarkable instance of this is found in one of our national
traditions ; and that will bring us round to Irmin again, whom we
almost seem to have lost sight of.

^ I limit myself to briefly quoting some other names for the milhj way.
In Arabic it is tarik al thihn (via stramiiiis) ; Syriac schevil tevno (via paleae) ;
Mod. Hebrew netibat thcben (semita paleae) ; Pers. rah kah keshan (via stranieu
trahentis) ; Copt, pimoit ende pitoh (via straminis) ; Ethiop. hasare zamanegadc
(stipida viae) ; Arab, again derb ettubenin (path of the chopped-straw carriers) ;
Turk, samau uyhrisi (paleam rapiens, paleae fur) ; Armen. hartacol or hartacoyh
(paleae tur) ; all these names run upon scattered chaff, which a thief dropt in
his flight. ]\Iore simple is the Arabic majerra (tractus), nahr al majerra
((lumen tractus), and the Roman conception of path of the gods or to the gods ;
also Troq. 2Mth of souls, Turk, hadjiler juli (pilgrims' path), hadji is a pilgrim to
Mecca and Medina. Very similar is the christian term used in the ]\lid. Ages,
' galaxias via sancti Jacobi ' already in John of Genoa's Catholicon (13th cent.) ;
camino di Santiago, chemin de saint Jaques, Jacobsstrasse, Slov. zesta v' Rim
(road to Rome), irom the pilgrimages to Galicia or Rome, which led to heaven
[was there no thought of Jacob s ladder ?] This James's road too, or pilgrim's
road, was at once on earth and in heaven ; in Lacomblet, docs. 184 and 185
(an. lOjl) name a Jacobsiccch together with the via regia. ON. vetrarh, ant
(winterway). Welsh caer Gicydion (p. loO), and Arianrod (silver street? which
comes near Argentoratum). Finn, linnunrata (birdway), Lith. paukszczitt
kid''s, perhaps because souls and spirits tlit in the shape of'birds ; Hung. Hada-
kuttija (via belli), because the Hungarians in nngrating from Asia followed
this constellation (see Suppl.). Vroneldenstraet (p. 285) and Pharaildis lit
intelligibly enough with fraa Holda and Herodias, whose airy voyages easily
account for their giving a name to the milky way, the more so, as Wuotan,
who joins Holda in the nightly hunt, shows himself here also in the Welsli
appellation caer Givgdion. Even the fact of Diana being mixed up with that
chase, and Juno with the milky way, is in keeping ; and gods or spirits sweep
along the heavenly road as well as iu the heavenly hunt.


Widukind of Corvei is the first who gives us out of old songs
the beautiful and truly epic story of the Saxons' victory over the
Thuringians/ which Euodolf before him (Pertz 2, 674) had barely
touched. Irmenfried, king of the Thuringians, being oppressed by
Dieterich, king of the Franks, called the Saxons to his aid : they
appeared, and fought valiantly. But he began to waver in his
inind, he secretly negotiated a treaty with the Franks, and the two
nations were about to unite against the formidable Saxon host.
But the Saxons, becoming aware of the treachery, were beforehand ;
led by the aged Hathugat, they burst into the castle of the Thurin-

Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 37 of 46)