Jacob Grimm.

Teutonic mythology (Volume 1) online

. (page 38 of 46)
Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 38 of 46)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

gians, and slow them all ; the Franks stood still, and applauded the
warlike renown of the Saxons. Irmenfried fled, but, enticed by a
stratagem, returned to Dieterich's camp. In this camp was
staying Irmenfried's counsellor Iring, whose prudent plans had
previously rendered him great services. When Irmenfried knelt
before Dieterich, Iring stood by, and having been won by Dieterich,
slew his own lord. After this deed of horror, the Fraukish king
banished him from his sight, but Iring said, ' Before I go, I will
avenge my master,' drew his sword, stabbed Dieterich dead, laid his
lord's body over that of the Frank, so that the vanquished in life
might be the victor iu death, opened a waij for himself with the
sword (viam ferro faciens), and escaped. ' Mirari tamen non
possumus ' adds Widukind, ' in tantum famam praevaluisse, ut
Iringi nomine, quem ita vocitant, lacteus coeli circulus usque in
praesens sit notatus.' Or, with the Auersberg chronicler : ' famam
in tantum praevaluisse, ut lacteus coeli circulus Iringis nomine
Iringesstrdza usque in praesens sit vocatus ' (sit notatus in Pertz
8, 178).

In confirmation, AS. glosses collected by Junius (Symb. 372)
give ' via secta : Iringes uuec,' from which Somner and Lye borrow
their ' Iringes weg, via secta '. Conf. via sexta iringcsinicc, Haupts
zeitschr. 5, 195. XJnpubl. glosses of the Amplonian libr. at Erfurt
(10-llth cent. bL 14^^) have 'via secta: luuaringes iiueg ' ; which
luwaring agrees very remarkably with the later form Euring in
Euringsstrass, Aventin 102^ 103^

1 Conf. the differing but likewise old version, from a H. German district,
in Goldast's Script, rer. Suev. p^). 1 — 3, where Swabians take the ph\ce of the
Saxons. The Auersberg chron. (ed. Argent. 1609, pp. 146-8) copies Widu-
kind. Eckehard, in Pertz 8, 176-8.

IRMIN. IllING. 259

In the Nibelungeulied 1285. 1965 — 2009, these heroes appear
again, they are the same, but differently conceived, and more akin
to the n. German version in Goldast : ^ Irnvrit of Duringen and
Irinc of Tenemarke, one a landgraf, the other a markgraf, both
vassals of Etzel (Attila). The Lied von der klage (threnody) adds,
that tliey had fallen under the ban of the empire, and fled to
Hunland ; here we see a trace of the banishment that Dieterich
pronounced on Iring. In the poems of the 13th century, however,
Irins is not a counsellor, still less a traitor and a murderer of
Irmenfried : the two are sworn friends, and both fall before the
irresistible Hagene and Volker.

Add to all this, that the Vilk. saga cap. 360, though silent on
Irnfried, tells of h'ung's last combat with Hogni, and makes him
sink against a stone wall, which is still called Iriings ver/gr in
memory of the hero. The Norse redactor confounded vegr (via)
with veggr (niurus) ; his German source must have had Iringcs vec,
in allusion to the ' cutting his way ' in Widukind.

So now the road is paved to the conclusions we desire to draw :
German legend knew of an Iringes ivcc on earth and in heaven, so
did AS. legend of a double Wictlinga-stnet, and so was the road
to Eome and St. James set in the firmament as well. These
fancies about tcays and vjains, we know, are pagan, and indicate
god-myths. The Thuringian Inivrit, originally Trmanfrit, it is
reasonable to suppose, is the same as Irman, Irmi7i (conf. Sigfrit,
Sigmunt, Sigi), and the Hcrmunduri = Irman-duri are plainly con-
nected with the Durings (Thuringians) : so that Irman assumes a
peculiar significance in Thuringian tradition. If this would but
tell us of an Irmines wee, all would come riglit.

It does tell, however, in three or four places, of an Iringcs ivec.
The names Irinc and Irmin, apart from the alliteration which
doubtless operated in the ancient lay, have nothing in common; the
first has a long i^ and of themselves they cannot have represented

1 As already quoted, Deutsch. heldens. p. 117.

^ Or iu, as some roots shift from the fourth to the fifth vowel-series (like
liirat and hiurat, now both heirat and heurat; or tir and tyr, p. 19G), so lurinc
(('Xl)anded into luwarinc, as tiie OHG. poss. pron. iur into iuwar) ; so in the
1(5- 17th cent. Eirimj alternates with Euring. A few MSS. read Hiring for
Iring, like Hirniin for Irmin, but 1 have never seen a Heuring for Euring, or
it miglit have suggested a Haxon hcvenring, as the rainbow is called the ring of
lieaven. An old AS. name for Orion, EhuriYrung, EhirtSring, seems somehow
connected, es2)ecially with the luwsring above.


one another. Now, either the legend has made the two friends
change places, and transferred Irmin's way to Iring, or Iring (not
uncommon as a man's name too, <?.^.,Trad. Fuld. 1, 79) is of him-
self a demigod grown dim, who had a way and wain of his own, as
well as Irniin. Only, Irmin's worship seems to have had the
deeper foundations, as the image of the Irmansul sufficiently
shows. As the name of a place I find Iringcs 'pure (burg), MB. 7,
47. 157. 138. 231. Iringisperc (berg) 29, 58.

Up to this point I have refrained from mentioning some Norse
traditions, which have a manifest reference to the eartlily hero-
path. It had been the custom from of old, for a new king, on as-
suming the government, to travel the great highway across the
country, confirming the people in their privileges (EA. 237-8).
This is called in the 0. Swed. laws ' Eriksgatu ridha,' riding Eric's
road.i Sweden numbers a host of kings named Erik (ON. Eirikr),
hut they are all quite historical, and to none of them can be traced
this custom of the Eriksgata. With the royal name of Erik the
Swedes must from very early times have associated the idea of a
god or deified king ; the vita Anskarii written by his pupil Eim-
bert, has a remarkable passage on it (Pertz 2, 711). When the
adoption of Christianity was proposed to king Olef about 860, a
man of heathen sentiments alleged, ' Se in conventu deorum, qui
ipsam terram possidere credebantur, et ab eis missum, ut haec regi
et populis nunciaret : Vos, inquam,^ nos vobis propitios diu habuis-
tis, et terram incolatus vestri cum multa abundantia nostro
adjutorio in pace et prosperitate longo tempore tenuistis, vos quo-
que nobis sacrificia et vota debita persolvistis, grataque nobis vestra
fuerunt obsequia. At nunc et sacrificia solita subtrahitis, et vota
spontanea segnius offertis,^ et, quod magis nobis displicet, alienum
deum super nos intro ducitis. Si itaque nos vobis propitios habere
vultis, sacrificia omissa augete et vota majora persolvite, alterius
quoque dei culturam, qui contraria nobis docet, ne apud vos reci-
piatis et ejus servitio ne intendatis. Porro, si etiam plures decs

1 The venerable custom still prevcailed in the 15-16th cent. : 'statuta pro-
vincialium generose confirmavit et sigillavit in equitatu qui dicitur Eriksgata,'
Diarium Vazstenense ad an. 1441 (ed. Benzel, Ups. 1721) p. 86. 'Rex
Christoferus Sueciae et Daciae equitatum fecit c[ui dicitur Eriksgata secundum
leges patriae,' iliid. ad an. 1442. Even Gustavus Vasa rode his Eriksgata.

- For inquimixs, as elsewliere inquit for inquiunt.

^ Votum, what ah. individual offers, as opposed to the sacrificium presented
publicly and jointly ; coi^ supra, p. 57.


habere dcsideratis, et nos vobis non sulUcimus, Ericum, quondiuii
re<Tem vestvum, nos unanirnes in collcijium nostrum asciscinms} ut
sit unus de nunicro dcomm.' — I have transcribed the wliole passage,
because it aptly expresses the attitude of the pagan party, and the
liikewarmness already prevailing towards their religion : the
heathen priests thought of adding a fresh hero to their throng of
gods.2 This seems to exclude all later Erics from any claim to the
Eriksgata ; probably there were mixed up even then, at least in
Himbert's mind, traditions of a divine Erik.

It can no longer remain doubtful now, what god or divine liero
lies hidden in this Erik. I had at one time thought of Er (Mars),
because the form Erctag is met with a few times for Ertag (p. 124),
but the short vowel in Er, and the long one in Irinc, Eirikr, are
enough to warn us off. Instead of Eriksgata we also meet with
Riksgata, and this points decidedly to Hic/r, the earthly name of
the god Heimdallr, who in the Edda walks the green roads (groenar
brautir) of earth, to beget the three races of men. In the green
earthly roads are mirrored the white and shining paths of heaven.^
Then the problem started on p. 234, whether the ON. form Bigr
arose out of Iringr by aphoeresis and syncope, now finds a solution
approaching to certainty. Heimdallr dwells in Himinbiorg on the
quaking roost (Bifrost), the rainbow, which is the bridge or path by
which the gods descend from heaven to earth. The rainbow is the
celestial ring, as the galaxy is the celestial road, and Heimdallr
keeper of that road, Heimdallr is Etgr = Iring, walking the earth
and translated to the skies ; now we compreliend, why there lived
among the nations many a various tale of Eriksgcda, Iringesvjec,
Iringesstrdza, and was shifted now to one and now to the otlier
celestial phenomenon. Iring, through Inwaring, borders on Ehur-
ffrung the old name of Orion (see Suppl.). And if our heroic
legend associates Irmenfrit, i.e., Irmin with Iring, and Irmiu-street
alternates with Iring-street, then in the god-myth also, there must
have existed points of contact between Irmin z=OSinn and Iring =
Heimdallr: well, Heimdallr was a son of O'Sinn, and the Welsh milky
way was actually named after Gwydion, i.e., Woden. From the
IrminsCd four roads branched out across the country, Eriksgata

^ So king Ilakon is admitted into the society of fjods, ITennuSr and Bragi
go to meet him : ' siti Hakon met) heiSin goS ' (Hakonarmal).
'•^ Dahhnann guesses it may be the Upsul Erik (d. 804).
3 Aitd. blatter 1, 372-3.


extended in four directions, four such highways are likewise known
to English tradition, though it gives the name of Ermingestret to
only one, and bestows other nriythic titles on the rest. Of Irniin
and of Iring, both the di\'ine personality and the lapse into hero-
nature seem to be made out.

2. Maeso. Gambaro. Suapo,

Now that I have expounded the primeval triad of Germanic
races, I have to offer some conjectures on the sevenfold division.
Pliny's quintuple arrangement seems not so true to fact, his Vindili
are Tacitus's Vandilii, his Peucini not referable to any founder of a
race. But Tacitus to his first three adds four other leading races,
the IMarsi, Gambrivii, Suevi and Vandilii, in whose names there
exists neither alliteration nor the weak form as a mark of deriva-

The Marsi between Rhine and Weser, an early race which soon
disappears, in whose country the Tanfana sanctuary stood, lead up
to a hero Maiso, whom we must not mix up with the Eoman Mars
gen. Martis, nor with Marsus the son of Circe (who in like manner
gives name to an Italian people, Gellius 16, 11. Pliny 7, 2.
Augustine in Ps. 57). The Marsigni = Marsingi, a Suevic people,
acknowledged the same name and origin. The proper name Marso
occurs in Mabillon no. 18, in a deed of 692, also in the polyp t.
Irminonis p. 158^ 163^ but seldom elsewhere. Mersihwrg and
Jfa?'seburg, Pertz 8, 537. 510, seem to belong here, while some
other names given above, p. 201, are open to doubt; I do not
know if a MHG. phrase, obscure in itself, is at all relevant : ' zuo
alien maoscn varn,' MS. 1, 25% which may signify, to go to all the
devils, expose oneself to every danger ; conf. ' einen marscn man,'
Crane 2865. The Gothic marzjan (impedire, offendere) might seem
allied to the root, but tliat would liave been merrian, merran
in OHG.

The name of the Gambrivii I assign to the root gambar,
kambar strenuus, from which also is derived the name of Gamhara,
ancestress of the Langobards. There may have been likewise a
hero Gambaro. And the forest of Gambreta (instead of Gabreta) .
is worth considering. Gambara's two sons are called Ibor = OHG.
Epur, AS. Eofor, OJST. lofur, i.e. aper, boar, and Ajo : all the three
names appear to be corrupt in Saxo Gram.


Ought we to assume for the Suevi, OHG. Suapa, an eponymous
hero Suevo, Suapo, and perhaps connect with him an old legend of
a mountain ? Pliny 4, 13 places in the land of the ' gens Ingae-
vonum, quae est prima Germaniae,' a certain 'Scvo mons immensus'
I'eaching to the Sinus Codanus ; and Solinus, following him, says
22, 1 : ' Mons Scvo ipse ingens . . . initium Germaniae facit,
hunc Inguaeones tenent ; ' but Isidor (Orig. 10, 2) makes out of it :
' dicti autem Suevi putantur a monte Suero, qui ab ortu initium
Germaniae facit ', From this evidently is taken the account of the
immigrating Swaben in the Lay of Anno 284: 'si sluogen iri
gecelte (pitched their tents) ane dem berge Sncho (so several read
for Suedo), dannin wurdin si geheizin Suabo '} In the Low
(German psalms 57, 17 mons coagulatus is rendered ' berg sueuot'
which is perhaps to be explained by the legend of the lebirmer
[liver-sea, Tacitus's mare pigrum ? Germ. 45. Agr. 10]. It seems
more to the point, that in Sicm. 164-8 the Scfa fioll (fells, moun-
tains, of the Sevs) are mentioned in those very Helga-songs, one of
which sings of Svafalund, king Svafnir and the valkyr Scava. A
V after s is frequently dropped, and the readings Sevo, Suevo can
thus be reconciled. Suapo then would be a counterpart to Etzel
and Fairguns (pp. 169, 172) ? The AS. Swe2)pa, or rather Swtef-
(licg, can hardly be brought in here.

Tacitus's Vandilii and Pliny's Vindili stand in the same relation
to each other as Arminius and Irmin, Angrivarii and Inguiones ;
both forms come from winding and wending, out of which so many
mythic meanings flow. Wuotan is described under several names
as the wender, wanderer [Germ, wandeln ambulare, mutare].

On the slight foundation of these national names, IMarsi,
Gambrivii, Suevi and Vandilii, it is unsafe as yet to build. Tacitus
connects these with Mannus, but the heroes themselves he does not
even name, let alone giving any particulars of them.

3. (Hercules), (Ulysses). Alcis.

Clear and definite on the other hand are the historian's notices
of another I'amous hero : Fuisse apud eos et Hcrculem memorant,
j>rimumque omnium virorum fortium ituri in proelia canunt, Germ.

' Kaiserchr. 285 : sin j:;ecelt liiez cr slalien do uf oiiiiii lifir dor heizit
Swero, \on dem berge iSwcro sint t>ie allc gchcizeu Swabo. Fur Swlto read
iiwevo (see Suppl.).


3. Speaking of sacrifices in cap. 9, after mentioning ^lercuring
first, he immediately adds : Herculem ac Martem concessis animali-
Lus placant, the demigod being purposely put before even Mars,
Chapter 34 tells us of the ocean on the coast of the Frisians, then
says : Et superesse adhuc Ilerculis columnas fania vulgavit, sive
adiit Hercules, sen quidquid ubique magnificum est, in claritateni
ejus referre consensimus. Nee defuit audentia Druso Germanico,
sed obstitit oceanus in se simul atque in Herculem inquiri. Mox
nemo tentavit, sanctiusque ac reverentius visum de actis deorum
credere quam scire. The Annals 2, 12 name a ' silva Hcrcjdl
sacra,' between the Weser and Elbe in the land of the Cheruscans ;
while the Peutinger Table puts a ' castra Herctdis ' near Novio-
magus (Nimwegen). All this means something, it all points to
some demigod who is identified, not unadvisedly, with that of the
Iiomans. Hercules, whose deeds were accomplished in countries
widely remote, is thouglit to have visited Germany also, and the
Gaditanian pillars at one end of Europe have a counterpart in the
Frisian ocean on another side of it. In the German battle-song
the praise of Hercules is sounded first, victims are slain to him as
to the highest gods, to him a wood is consecrated. Of pillars,
even Widukind still knows something, by his speaking of Hirmin's
effigies columnarum (pi.), not columnae. Was the plural irman-
suli (p. 115) more exact than irmansul, and had the image several
pillars ? Did tlie Roman in liis Hermin and Herminones think of
Herakles and Hercules, whose name bore plainly on its face the
root "Hpa, Hera ? was that why he retained the aspirate in Her-
minones and Hermunduri, and not in Arminius ? An approxima-
tion of sound in the names of the two heroes, Roman and German,
may surely be presupposed. The position of Herculis silva and
columnae does not indeed agree with that of the Herminones, but
the worship of such a hero was sure to spread far and not to be
confined to the particular race to which he gave his name. In
the German Irman, Irmin, it seems correct for the aspirate to
be wanting, as in Arminius ; in Cherusci it is indispensable, and
therefore the Romans never wa-ote Herusci.

If in this ' Hercules ' we wish to see one of the gi-eat gods
themselves, we must apparently exclude Mercury and Mars, from
whom he is distinguished in cap. 9, i.e., Wuotan and Zio. And for
supposing him to mean Donar, i.e., Jupiter (as Zeuss does, p. 25), I


■see no other ground than tliat the Norse Thorr, like Hercules,
performs iuuuniurable heroic deeds, hut these may equally be
placed to the credit of Irmin, and Irniin and the thundergod have
nothing else in common. Yet, in favour of 'Hercules' being Donai',
we ought perhaps to weigh the AS. sentences quoted on p. 161,
note ; also, that Herakles was a son of Zeus, and a foe to giants.

I had thought at one time that Hercules might stand for
Sahsnot, Seaxneat, whom the formula of renunciation exalts by the
side of Thunar and Wodan ; 1 thought so on the strength of
' Hercules Saxanus,' whose surname might be explained by saxum
= sahs. But the inscriptions In which we meet with this
Hercules Saxanus extend beyond the bounds of Germany, and
belong rather to the Eoman religion. Our Sahsnot has with more
justice been assigned to Zio (p. 203), with whom Hercules cannot
be connected. I now think the claims of Irrain are better founded:
as Hercules was Jupiter's son, Irmin seems to have been Wodan's ;
and he must have been the subject of the battle-songs (ituri in
proelia canunt), even of those which Tacitus understood of Ar-
minius (canitur adhuc) ; though they would have suited Mars too,
p. 207 (see Suppl).

It is a harder matter to form an opinion about the ' Ulysses ' :
Ceterum et Iflixcm quidam opinantur longo illo et fabuloso errore
in hunc oceanum delatum adisse Germaniae terras, Asciburgium-
que, (piod in ripa Rheni situm hodieque incolitur, ab illo consti-
tutum nominatumque ; arani quin etiam Ulixi consecratam, adjecto
Laertae patris nomine, eodem loco olim repertam ; Tac. Germ. 3.
In Odysseus people have seen OSinn, in Asciburg Asburg ; but if
Woden stood for the god Mercury, it cannot here mean the hero,
still less can Askiburg be traced to the ases, a purely Norse form,
which in these regions would have been anscs. When Tacitus
makes Ulixes the founder of Asciburg, nothing is simpler than to
suppose him to have been Tsco, Escio, Asko (p. 350) ; and if it was
Isco tliat set the Eomans thinking of Ul-ixes, how it helps to esta-
blish the sc in Iscaevones ! Maiinus the father of Isco may have
suggested Laertes, inasmuch as \a6<i people, and \ao<i stone, are
mixed up in the creation of the first man (the origo gentis) out of
stone or rock (see ch. XIX) ; in the same way Asco grew up out of
the tree (ash), and hpu<i and ireTpt) stand together in the mytlms,


not without meaning. As lint from liotan, \a6<i seems to come
from the same root as Xao<f, \aa<;}

The interpretatio Eomana went more upon analogies of sense
than of sound ; so, in dealing with Castor and Pollux, I will not
take them for the brothers Hadu and Phol = Baldr (see SuppL).
These Gemini, however, are the very hardest to interpret ; the
passage about them was given on p. 66, and an attempt was made
to show that alx referred to the place where the godlike twins were
worshipped : I confess it does not satisfy me. Our antiquity has
plenty of hero brothers to show, but no twins with a name like
Alci, if this plural of Alcus is the true form. It occurs to me, that
one of OSin's names is Idlkr (Srem. 46'' 47''), and jolk in tlie
Vermland dialect means a boy.^ This comes more home to us than
the Samogitic AUjir (angelus est summorum deorum, Lasicz, p. 47),
towards which the dictionaries offer nothing but alga, reward.
Utterly untrustworthy is any comparison with the Slav deities
Lei and Polel, themselves as yet unsupported by authority (see

4. Beowulf, Sigfrit, Amalo, Ermenrich, Dietericii, &c.

From the above specimens in Tacitus we may conclude that all
the Teutonic races had a pretty fully developed Heroology ; and if
our ancient stores of native literature had been still accessible to us,
we might have gained a much closer insight into its nature and its
connexion as a whole. As it is, we are thrown upon dry genealogies,
dating from many centuries after, and touching only certain races,
namely the Goths, Langobards, Burgundians, but above all, the
Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians. We may learn from them the
connexion of the later kings with the ancient gods and heroes, but
not the living details of their myths. Yet we could be content, if
even such pedigrees had also been preserved of the Franks and
other nations of continental Germany.

The Anglo-Saxon genealogies seem the most important, and the

1 " Ulixes = Loki, Sn. 78. For Laertes, whose name Pott 1, 222 explains
as protector of the people, conf. Ptolemy's AaKi(3ovpyLov." Extr. from SuppL,
vol. ill.

2 Almqvist, Svcnsk spraklara, Stockh. 1840, p. 38.5\

3 In Lith. lele h pupa, akies lele pupilla, Icilas butterfly.


Appendix gives them in full [but sec above, p. IG;")]. All the
families branch out from Woden, as most of the Greek do from
Zeus ; it was a proud feeling to have one's root in the highest of
all gods. Prominent among his sons are Saxnedt and Bccldceg, who
were themselves accounted divine; but several other names can
claim a place among the earliest heroes, e.g., Sifjerjcdt and Wodcl-
gcuV- (both akin to the Gothic Gduts), Fredwine, Wiiscfred, Scefvgd,
Westcrfalcna ; and many are fallen dim to us. Cdscre, which in
other AS. writings is used for cyning,^ seems to be a mere
appellative, and to have acquired the character of a proper name
after the analogy of the Roman casar (?). All these genealogies
give us barely the names of the god's sons and grandsons, never
those of their mothers or grandmothers; and the legend, which
ought like the Greek ones to give life to the relationship, is the
very thing we miss.

Some of the Norse traditions gain in value, by being taken with
the genealogies. The Volsungasaga sets out with OGin's being the
father of Sigi, but all particulars of the relationship are withheld ;
Hcrir the son of Sigi is in the immediate keeping of the highest
gods, and so on. Another time, on the contrary, we are informed,
Sn. 84 — 86, how OSinn under the name of Bolvcrkr (OIIG. Palo-
wurcho ?) became servant to the giant Baugi, in order to get at the
divine drink, which the giant's brother Suttungr kept, guarded by
his daughter Gunnloo; l)L'tween her and the god took place sundry
passages of love, dimly liintcd at by Saemund also 12*^ 23^'^ 24=',
but we are nowhere told what heroes were begotten in the three
nights that OSiim passed with the giant's daughter. Gunnloff
belongs to the race of giants, not of men, which is also the case
with Ger&r whom Freyr wooed, and perhaps with others, who are
not reckoned among the asynjor. The Greeks also held that from
the union of gods with titans' daughters might spring a hero, or
even a god (like Tyr, p. 208).— Only Saxo, p. m, and no other
authority, tells us of a Norwegian king and hero ' Frogcrus, ut
quidam ferunt, Otliino patre natus,' to whom the gods gave to be
invincible in fight, unless his adversary could grasp the dust from

1 OHG. WuotUfjoz (Zeitschr. f. d. alt. 1, uTT), conf. wiietclii above, p. 132,
and W'odel-beer, p. 156 (see Siippl.).

- In Boetli. ;}8, 1 Aganieinnon is stj-lcd casore, ami Ulysses cyning [in the
Pref., Ranlgot, Ealleric, Tlieodric are cyningas, the emperor always ca^ere] ; in
a doc. in Kenible 2, 304 Eadred is 'cyning and casere '.

"368 HEROES.

under liis feet/ wliicli the Danish king Frotho by fraufl contrived to
do. Can this Froger be the AS. FreofSegCir, FreCegar in the Wessex
genealogy, who had Brond for father, Ba^klrcg for grandfather,
Woden for great-grandfather ? The ON. table of lineage seems to
mix up FrioSegar with FroSi, his adversary .^ According to the
Formali of the Edda, p. 1 5, and the Yngl. saga c. 9, Norway traced

Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 38 of 46)