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her eldest line of kings to Scemingr, the son of OSinn by Ska8i,
previously tlie wife of NiorSr ; some write Semingr, which means
pacificator, and would lead to FriSgeir again. SkaSi was daughter
to the iotunn Thiassi, and the SigurSardrapa (-killing) calls
SigurSr LaSaiarl ' afspringr Thiassa,' (Th. progenies). — The Her-
rauSssaga cap. 1 makes Hringr spring from Gavti, and him from
OSinn : this Gcvutr or Gauti (conf. Ing and Ingo, Irniin and Irmino),
Goth. Gauts, OHG. Koz, AS. Geat, whether surname, son or
ancestor of OCinn, cannot belie his divinity (conf. p. 367) ; and his
son Godwulf too, confounded by some with Folcwalda (p. 165, last
table), looks mythical. It is from Gduts tliat the Gautos (Koza, Tav-
roi) professed to be descended, these being other than the GuJ^ians
(Tac. Gothones, ForOot), but related to them nevertheless, for the
Gothic genealogy starts witli the same Gauts at the head of it. —
Again, Sigrlami is called OSin's son, Fornald. sog. 1, 413. But who
can ' Bous (gen. Boi), Othini ex Pdnda filius ' be in Saxo Gram. 46 ?
Possibly Biar, Biaf, Beav = Beowulf, to whom we are coming (see

Another OSinsson, Skioldr, is the famed ancestral hero of the
Danes, from whom are derived all the Skioldungar (Sn. 146) ; he
may have been most nearly related to the people of Schonen, as in
the Fornm. sog. 5, 239 he is expressly called Skanunga go5 (see p.
161), and was probably worshipped as a god. In Saxo Gram, he
does not take the lead, but follows after Humblus, Dan* and
Lother ; Skiold himself has a son Gram,^ from whom come Hadding

1 A toten of victory ? as the vanquished had to present such dust (EA.

2 The AS. name Frodheri stands yet farther away (Beda 2, 9 § 113).

3 Saxo 122 mentions one hero he^otten by Thurr : Haldunus Biarggrammus
apud Sueones magni Thor filius existimatur. And I know of no other but this

■* Don, in Saxo's view the true ancestor of the Danes, is called in the
Rigsmal iJanr, and placed together with Dmifr, Saan. 106''.

^ Elsewhere Gramr is the jimiier name of a particular sword, while the
appellative gramr denotes king.


and then Frotho ; but the AS. genealogy places its Scild after
^cectf, and singularly makes tlieni both ancestors of OSinn. From
Scedf descends Sccldwa, from him consecutively Beaio, Tcctiva, Gcdt,
and after several more generations comes Wdden last. The ON.
version of the lineage is in harmony with this ; and even in the
Gothic pedigree, which only begins with Gduts, we may suppose a
Sktiufs, Skildva, Taitva to have preceded, to whom the OHG. names
Scoup, Scilto, Zeizo would correspond. — None however is so
interesting as Sceldwa's son, the Anglo-Saxon Bcaiv, called by the
Scandinavians Biar, Biaf, but in the living AS. epos Beowulf. It
is true, the remarkable poem of that name is about a second and
younger Beowulf, in whom his forefather's name repeats itself ; but
fortunately the opening lines allude to the elder Beov/ulf, and call
his father Scild (Goth. Skildus, agreeing with Skioldr) a Scefing, i.e.,
son of Scedf. Beaw is a corruption of Beow, and Beow an abbrevia-
tion of Bcoundf: it is the complete name that first opens to us a
wider horizon. Beowulf signifies bee-wolf (OHG. PiawolfT), and
that is a name for the woodpecker, a bird of gay plumage that hunts
after bees, of whom antiquity has many a tale to tell.^ Strange to
say, the classical mythus (above, pp. 206, 249) makes this Picus a
son of Saturn, inasmuch as it either identifies him with Zeus who
is succeeded by a Hermes, or makes him nourisher of Marss sons
and father of Faunus. We see Picus (Picumnus) interwoven into
the race of Kronos, Zeus, Hermes and Ares, the old Bohemian
Stracec = picus into that of Sitivrat, Kirt and Radigost, as Beowulf
is into that of Gcdt and Woden. If the groups differ in the details
of their combination, their agreement as wholes is the more
trustworthy and less open to suspicion. And just as the footprints
of Saturn were traceable from the Slavs to the Saxons and to
England, but were less known to the Northmen, so those of the
divine bird in Stracec and Beowulf seem to take the same course,
and never properly to reach Scandinavia. The central Germans
stood nearer to Roman legend, although no actual borrowing need
have taken place.

What a deep hold this group of heroes had taken, is evidenced
by another legend. Scedf {i.e., manipulus frumenti) takes his name

1 Can tlie name in Upper Germany for the timliis or oriolus galbnla,
Birolf, Pirolf, bnither Pirolf (Frisch 1, 161), possibly stand for Bmcolf (or
Biterolf) ? Tlie Serbs call it Urosh, and curiously this a^^'ain is a hero's name.
Conf. the Finn, lu-os [with heros i], p. 341.



from the circumstance, that when a boy he was conveyed to the
country he was destined to succour, while aslecjy^ on a sheaf of corn
in the boat. The poetry of the Lower Ehine and Netherlands in
the Mid. Ages is full of a similar story of the sleeinng youth whom
a swan • conducts in his ship to the afflicted land ; and this swan-
knight, is pictured approaching out of paradise, from the grave, as
iTg^mSjWhose divine, origin is beyond question. Helias, Gerhart or
Loherangrin of the thirteenth century is identical then with a Scof
or Scoup of the seventh and eighth, different as the surroundings
may have, been, for the song of Beowulf appears to have transferred
to Scild what belonged of right to his father Scedf. The beautiful
story of the swan is founded on the miraculous origin of the swan-
brothers, which I . connect with that of the Welfs ; both however
seem to be antique lineage-legends of the Franks and Swabians, to
which the proper names are mostly wanting. Had they been
preserved, many another tie between the heroes and the gods would
come to light.2 — Further, to Sceldwa or Skioldr belongs obviously
the name Schiltunc in the Tirol and Parzival,^ as the name Schil-
hunc, Nib. 88, 3, points to a race of Scilpungd, corresponding to the
AS. Scilfingas, ON. Scil/ingar, of whom Skelfir, Scilfe, Scilpi is to
be regarded as the ancestor. This Skelfir the Fornald. sog. 2, 9
makes the father of Skioldr, so that the Shilfinga and Shioldinga
a3tt fall into one. Either Scelf is here confounded with Scef, or
Scef must be altered to Scelf, but the frequent occurrence of the
form Sceaf, and its interpretation (from sheaf), seem alike to forbid
this (see Suppl.).

As the Skioldungar descend from Skioldr, so do the Giukungar
from Ghiki = Gihika, Kipicho, with whom the Burgundian line
begins : if not a god himself (p. 137), he is a divine hero that carries
us back very near to Wuotan. The Gibichensteine (-stones) more-
over bear witness to him, and it is to the two most eminent women
of this race that Grimhildensteine, Brunhildensteine are allotted.*

1 Umborwesende ? Beow. 92.

^ The ship that brought Sceaf and the swan-knight carries them away
again at last, but the reason is disclosed only in later legend : it was forbidden
to inquire into their origin, Parz. 825, 19. Conr., Schwanritter 1144-73.

^ Zeitschr. fiir deut. alterth. 1,7. '

* Brunehildestein, lectulus Brunihilde, Kriemhiltenstein, Cviemildespil
(Heldensage p. 155) ; Krimhilte graben (Weisth. 1, 48) ; in loco Grimhiltaperg
noniinato (Juvavia p. 137) ; de Crinihilteperc, MB. 7. 498.


Frau Vote however appears as ancestress of the stock.^ It has not
been so much noticed as it ought, that in the Lex Burg. Gislahari
precedes Gnndahari by a whole generation, whilst our epic
(Xibelungen) makes Giselhere Gunthere's younger brother, and the
Edda never names him at all. The Law makes no mention of any
brothers, and Gisolher the young has merely the name of his elder
kinsman. Gemot (from ger = gais) and Gisdher seem to be
identical (conf. Gramm. 2, 46). But the Norse Guttormr can
hardly be a distortion of Godomar, for we meet with him outside of
the legend, e.r/., in Landn. 1, 18. 20, where the spelling GuSormr
(Guntwurm) would lead us to identify him with Gunthere, and in
Saxo Gram, are found several Guthormi (see Suppl.). Then Hagano
the one-eyed, named from hagan (spinosus, Waltharius 1421), is
' more than heroic '}

Even deeper reaching roots must be allowed to the Welisungs ;
their name brings us to a divine Valis who has disappeared (conf,
the ON. Vali, p. 163), but the mere continuance of an OHG.
Welisunc is a proof of the immemorial diffusion of the Volsunga-
saga itself (see Suppl.). How, beginning with Wuotan, it goes on
to 8igi, Sigimunt, Sigifrit, Sintarfizilo, has been alluded to on p.
367, and has already been treated of elsewhere.^ "With Sigfrit
stands connected Hclfrich, Chilpericus, ON. Hialprekr. It is
worthy of note, that the AS. Beowulf calls Sigfrit Sigemund, and
Signumdr is a surname of OSinn besides.* Such a flood of
splendour falls on Siegfried in the poems, that we need not stick at
triiles ; his whole nature has evident traces of the superliuman :
brought up by an elf Eegino, beloved by a valkyr Brunhild,
instructed in his destiny by the wise man Gripir, he wears the
helmet of invisibility, is vulnerable oidy on one spot in his body,
as Achilles was in the heel, and he achieves the rich hoard of the
Nibelungs. His slavin*^ of the dragon Eafnir reminds us of TIvdcDu^

1 Haupts zeitschr. 1, 21.

2 Laulinuinn's examination of the whole Nibelung legend, p. 22.
^ Ilaupts zeitschv. 1, 2 — 6.
* In the Cc " ' "

Magn. lex. G43

I suppose on the ground of the inscriptt. in Grutcr Iviii. 5 : Marti Segomoni
sacrum ... in civitate Se([uanorum ; and ii. 2 : Diis deabus omnibus
Veturius L.L. Securius (al. Segomunus) pro se quisque (see Suppl.).

5 Ahnost the same, granting a change of tfi into /(as in tirjp, 4>'']p) I of f'ur
a standing for Greek J there are more examples : fnasu, blasu = nvfi/a, (pXvo).

.s zeitschr. 1, 2 — 6.

J Copenh. ed. of the Edda, Sajm. 2, 889 Sigemon, and in Finn
G43 Scgemon, is said to have been a name of the Celtic Mars ;
a the ground of the inscriptt. in Gruter Iviii. 5 : Marti Segomoni

372 . HEROES.

whom Apollo overcame, and as Python guarded the Delphic oracle,
the dying Fafnir prophesies.^ We must take into account LoSfdfnir
Saem. 24, 30. Sinfiotli, who, when a boy, kneads snakes into the
dough, is comparable to the infant Hercules tested by serpents.

Through Siegfried the Prankish Welisungs get linked to the
Burgundian Gibichungs, and then both are called Nibelungs.

Among Gothic heroes we are attracted by the Ovida and
Cnivida in Jornandes cap, 22, perhaps the same as Offa and
Cnehha in the Mercian hue. But of far more consequence is the
great Gothic family of Amals or Amalungs, many of whose names
in the Jornandean genealogy seem corrupt. The head of them all
was Gapt, which I emend to Gaiit (Gauts), and so obtain an allusion
to the divine office of casting [giessen, ein-guss, in-got] and meting
(pp. 22. 142) ; he was a god, or son of a god (p. 164), and is even
imported into the Saxon lines as Gedi, Wodelgeat, Sigegeat (p. 367).
In this Gothic genealogy the weak forms Amala, Isarna, Ostro-
gotha, Ansila, confirm what we have observed in Tuisco, Inguio,
Iscio, Irmino ; but those best worth noting are Amcda, after
whom the most powerful branch of the nation is named, Ei^mana-
ricus and Theodcricus. Ermanaricus must be linked with Irmino
and the Herminones, as there is altogether a closer tie between
Goths and Saxons (Ingaevones and Herminones) as opposed to the
Franks (Iscaevones), and this shows itself even in the later epics. —
Amongst the Amalungs occur many names compounded with
vulf, which reminds us of their side-branch, the Wiiltings ; if it be
not too bold, I would even connect Isarna (Goth. Eisarna) with
Isangrim. To me the four sons of Achiulf seem worthy of
particular notice : Ansila, Ediulf, Vuldulf, and Hermenrich. Of
the last we have just spoken, and Ansila means the divine ; our
present concern is \yith. Ediulf and Viddidf. I find that Jornandes,
cap. 54, ascribes to the Scyrians also two heroes Edica and Vulf;
the Eugian Odoacer has a father EiicJio and a brother Aonulf ; and

^ The epithet sveinn (Sw. sven, Dan. svend) given to the Norse Sigurd'r
appears ah-eady in Fafnir's addiess ' sveinn ok sveinn ! ' and in the headings to
ch.' 142-4 of the Vilk. saga. The same hei'o then is meant by the Sivard
snaresvtnd (foitis pner) of the Danish folk-song, who, riding on Grani,
accompanies to Askereia (see ch. XXXI), and by Svend Fcldivg or Fiillincj of
the Danish folk-tale (Thiele 2, 64-7. Muller's sagabibl. 2, 417-9). He drank
out of a horn handed to him by elvish beings, and thereby acquired the strength
of twelve men. Swedish songs call him Hven Fdrling or Foiling ; Arvidsson
1, 129. 415.


the legend on the origin of the Welfs has the proper names

Iscnhart, Irmeninul, WeJf and Etico constantly recurring. Now,

welf is strictly catulus (huelf, whelp, OX. hvelpr),and distinct from

wolf ; natiiral history tells us of several strong courageous animals

that are brought into the world blind ; the Langobardic and

Swabian genealogies play upon dogs and wolves being exposed ; and

as Odoacer, Otachcr (a thing that has never till now been accounted

for) is in some versions called Sipicho, ON. Bicki, and this means

dog (bitch), I suspect a similar meaning in Edica, Eticho, Ediulf,

Odacar, which probably affords a solution of the fable about the

' blind Schwaben and Hessen ' : their lineage goes back to the blind

Welfs. In the genealogy Ediulf is described as brother to Ermen-

rich, in later sagas Bicki is counsellor to lormunrekr ; the Hilde-

brandslied has but too little to say of Otacher. Then Vuldulf also

(perhaps Vuldr-ulf) will signify a glorious beaming wolf (see

Suppl.). — As Siegfried eclipsed all other Welisungs, so did Diefcrich

all the Amalungs ; and where the epos sets them one against the

other, each stands in his might, unconquered, unapproachable.

Dieterieh's divine herohood comes out in more than one feature, e.g.,

his fiery breath, and his taking the place of Wuotan or Ero (p.

213-4) at the head of the wild host, as Dietriclibcrn or Bernhard.

The fiery breath brings him nearer to Donar, with whom he can be

compared in another point also : Dietericli is wounded in the

forehead by an arrow, and a piece of it is left inside him, for which

reason he is called the deathless ;^ not otherwise did the half of

Hrungnir's hein (stone wedge) remain in Thor's head, and as

Groa's magic could not loosen it, it sticks there still, and none shall

aim with tlie like stones, for it makes the piece in the god's forehead

stir (Sn. 109 — 111).^ This horn-like stone was very likely shown

in images, and enhanced their godlike appearance.

The renowned race of the Billings or Billungs, whose mythic

roots and relations are no longer discoverable, was still flourishing

in North Germany in the 10-1 1th centuries. The first historically

certain Billing died in 967, and another, above a liundred years

older, is mentioned.^ The Cod. Exon. 320, 7 says : ' Billing weold

1 Simon Keza, chron. Hungaror. 1, 11. 12. Heinr. vou Miiglein (in
Kwachic.li p. 8) ; conf. Deutsche lieldeiisage p. 164.

" Hence tlie proverb : seint losnar hein i hoftJi Thors.


3 Weilekin<rs Hermann duke of Saxony, Luneb. 1817, p. 60. Conf. the
iles IJillinc, coinca Billiiigus in docs, of 961-8 in Hiifei-s zeitschr. 2, 239. 344,
id the OHG. form Billuiigius in Zeuss, Trad, wizenb. pp. 274. 287. 305.


Wernum/ he belongs therefore to the stock of Werina, who were
near of kin to the Angles. There was a Billinga hseS (heath) near
Whalley, and London has to this day a Billingsgate. In OHG. we
find a man's name Billxmc (Ried nos. 14. 21-3, a.d. 808. 821-2). If
we take into account, that a dwarf Billingr occurs in the Edda, Ssem.
2* 23% a hero Pillunc in Rol. 175, 1, and Billunc and Nidunc coupled
together in the Eenner 14126-647, the name acquires a respectable
degree of importance (see Suppl.). The derivative Billinc implies
a simple bil or bili (lenitas, placiditas), from which directly [and
not from our adj. billig, fair] are formed the OHG. names Pilidrut,
Pilihilt, Pilikart, Pilihelm ; to which add the almost personified
Billich (equity) in Trist. 9374. 10062. 17887. 18027, and the ON.
goddess Bil, Sn. 39 ; the II in Billung could be explained through
Biliung. Just as OSinn in Ssem. 46^ is called both Bileygr (mild-
eyed) and Baleygr (of baleful eye), so in Saxo Gram. 130 a BUvisus
(aequus) stands opposed to Bcilvisus (iniquus).

5. Okentil. Wielant. Mimi. Tell, &c.

In addition to the heroes ascertained thus far, who form part of
the main pedigree of whole nations, and thence derive weight and
durability, there is another class of more isolated heroes ; I can only
put forward a few of them here.

We have still remaining a somewhat rude poem, certainly
founded on very ancient epic material, about a king Orcndcl or
Erentel, whom the appendix to the Heldenbuch pronounces the
first of all heroes that were ever born. He suffers shipwreck on a
voyage, takes shelter with a master fisherman Eisen^ earns the
seamless coat of his master, and afterwards wins frau Breide, the
fairest of women : king Eigcl of Trier was his father's name. The
whole tissue of the fable puts one in mind of the Odyssey : the ship-
wrecked man clings to the plank, digs himself a hole, holds a bough
before liim ; even the seamless coat may be compared to Ino's veil,
and the fisher to the swineherd, dame Breide's templars would be
Penelope's suitors, and angels are sent often, like Zeus's messengers.
Yet many things take a different turn, more in German fashion,
and incidents are added, such as the laying of a naked sword
between the newly married couple, which the Greek story knows
nothing of. The hero's name is found even in OHG. documents :

1 Who is also found apparently in a version of the Lay of king Oswald.


Orcndil, Meiclielb. Gl; OrcntU, Trad. fuld. 2, 24 2, 109 (Scliannat
308) ; Orcndil a Bavarian count (an. 843 in Eccard's Fr. or. 2, 3G7)-
a village Orcndclsal, now Orendensall, in Holieulolie, v. Haupts
zeitsclir. 7, 558. — But the Edda lias another myth, wliich was
alluded to in speaking of the stone in Thor's head. Groa is busy-
conning her magic spell, when Thorr, to requite her for the
approaching cure, imparts the welcome news, that in coming from
lotunheim in the North he has carried her husband the bold
Orvandill in a basket on his back, and he is sure to be home soon ;
he adds by way of token, that as Orvandil's toe had stuck out of the
basket and got frozen, he broke it off and flung it at the sky, and
made a star of it, which is called 6rvandils-td. But Groa in her
joy at the tidings forgot her spell, so the stone in the god's head
never got loose, Sn. 110-1. Groa, the growing, the grass-green, is
equivalent to Breide, i.e., Berhta (p. 272) the bright, it is only
another part of his history that is related here : Orvandill must
have set out on his travels again, and on this second adventure
forfeited the toe which Thorr set in the sky, though what he had
to do with the god we are not clearly told. Beyond a doubt, the
name of the glittering star-group is referred to, when AS. glosses
render ' jubar ' by earendel, and a hymn to the virgin Mary in Cod.
Kxon." 7, 20 presents the following passage : .

Eala Earendel, engla beorhtast,

ofer middangeard monnum sended,

and s6i5fa?sta sunnan leoma >

torlit ofer tunglas, ]?u tida gehwane

of sylfuni l^e symle inlihtes !
i.e., jubar, angelorum spleudidissime, super orbem terrarum
hominibus misse, radie vere solis, supra stellas lucide, qui omni
tempore ex te ipso luces ! Mary or Christ is here addressed under
the heathen name of the constellation. I am only in doubt as to
the right spelling and interpretation of the word ; an OHG. orentd
implies AS. earendel, and the two would demand OaST. aurvendill,
eyrvendill ; but if we start with ON. orvendill, then AS. earendel,
OHG. erentil would seem preferable. The latter part of the
compound certainly contains entil = wentil,^ The first part should

> Whence did Matthesius (in Frisch 2, 439*) get his " Pan is the heathens'
JVendel and head bagpiper " ? Can the word refer to the metamorphoses of the '
flute-playing demigod l In trials of witches, "Wendelis a name for the devil,
Mones anz. y, 124.


be either ora, earo (auris), or else ON", or, gen. orvar (sagitta).
Now, as there occurs in a tale in Saxo Gram., p. 48, a Horveudilus
filius Gervenclili, and in OHG. a name Kerwentil (Schm. 2, 334)
and Gerentil (Trad. fuld. 2, 106), and as geir (hasta) agrees better
with or than with eyra (auris), the second interpretation may com-
mand our assent ;^ a sight of the complete legend would explain the
reason of the name. I think Orentil's father deserves attention
too : Eigil is another old and obscure name, borne for instance by
an abbot of Fulda who died in 822 (Pertz 1, 95. 356. 2, 366.
Trad. fuld. 1, 77-8. 122). In the Ehine-Moselle country are the
singular Eigelstcine, Weisth. 2, 744 (see Suppl.).^ In AS. we find
the names Aeyhs burg (Aylesbury), Aeglcs ford (Aylesford), Aegles
Jjorp ; but I shall come back to Eigil presently. Possibly Orentil
was the thundergod's companion in expeditions against giants.
Can the story of Orentil's wanderings possibly be so old amongst
us, that in Orentil and Eigil of Trier we are to look for that Ulysses
and Laertes whom Tacitus places on our Ehine (p. 365) ? The
names shew nothing in common.^

Far-famed heroes were Wieland and Witticli^ whose rich
legend is second to none in age or celebrity. Vidigoia (Vidugauja)
of whom the Goths already sang, OHG. Witugouivo as well as
Witicho, ]\IHG. Witcgouwe and Witege, AS. Wudga, in either form
silvicola, from the Goth, vidus, OHG. witu, AS. wudu (lignum,
silva), leads us to suppose a being passing tlie bounds of human
nature, a forest-god. Erau Wachilt, a mermaid, is his ancestress,
with whom he takes refuge in her lake. At the head of the whole
race is placed king Vilkinus, named after Vulcanus as the Latin
termination shews, a god or demigod, who must have had another
and German name, and who begets with the merwoman a gigantic
son Vadi, AS. Wada (Cod. Exon. 323, 1), OHG. Wato, so named I
suppose because, like another Christopher, he waded with his child
on his shoulder through the Grcenasund where it is nine yards

^ And so Uhland (On Tlior, p. 47 seq.) expounds it : in Groa lie sees the
i;;powth of the crop, in Orvandill the sprouting of the blade. Even the tale in
Saxo he brings in.

2 The false spelling Eichelstein (acorn-stone) has given rise to spurions
legends, Mones anz. 7, 368.

3 1 have hardly the face to mention, that some make the right shifty Ulysses
father to Pan, our Wendel above.

** The still imprinted M.Dutch poem, De kinderen van Limburg, likewise
mentions JVilant, JVedege and Mimminc,


deep (l)etween Zealand, Falster and Moen) ; the Danish hero Wate
iu Gudruu is identical with him; the AS. Wada is placed toward
Ilelsingen. Old English poetry had much to tell of liim, that is
now lost : Chaucer names ' Wades boot Guingelot,' and a place in
Northumberland is called Wade's gap ; Wffitlingestret could only
])e brought into connexion with him, if such a spelling as
"\Va3dling could be made good. — Now, that son, whom Vadi carried
through the sea to apprentice him to those cunning smiths the
dwarfs, was Wielant, AS. Weland, Welond, ON. Volundr, but in
the Vilk. saga Vclint, master of all smiths, and wedded to a swan-
maiden Hervor alvitr. The -rightful owner of the boat, which
English tradition ascribes to Wada, seems to have been Wieland ;
the Vilk. saga tells how he timbered a boat out of the trunk of a
tree, and sailed over seas. Lamed in the sinews of his foot, he
forged for himself a winged garment, and took his flight through
the air. His skill is praised on all occasions, and his name coupled
with every costly jewel, Vilk. saga cap. 24. Witeche, the son he
had by Baduhilt, bore a hammer and tongs in his scutcheon in
honour of his father ; during the IMid. Ages his memory lasted
among smiths, whose workshops were styled JVicland's houses,^ and
perhaps his likeness was set up or painted outside them ; the
ON. ' Volundar hus ' translates the Latin labyrinth ; a host of
similar associations must in olden times have been generally
diffused, as we learn from the names of places : Welantes gruoba
(pit), .MB. 13, 59 ; Wielantes heim, MB. 28^ 93 (an. 889) ; Wiclan-

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