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Gothic hafta and banda, all neut. — The same heathen conception
peeps out in the OS. ^r^rt^tgiscapu, reganogi^ac^w, Hel. 79, 13. 103,
3, equivalent to fatum, destiny, the decree and counsel of the gods,
and synonymous with tr^wWgiscapu, Hel. 103, 7, from ivurd, fatum.
And again in ^^dorfogiscapu, Hel. 6Q, 19. 147, 11. We have seen
that metod likewise is a name for the Su]Dreme Being, which the
christian poet of the Heliand has ventured to retain from the



^ The blithe, happy gods ; when people stepped along in stately gorgeous
attire, men thought that gods had appeared : menn hugSn at (psir vseri j^ar
komnir,' Landn. 3, 10. The Vols, saga c. 26 says of SigmrS : 'Ipat hygg ec at
her fari einn af got^mtim,' I think that here rides one of the gods. So in Parz.
36, 18 : ' alda wip nnd man verjach, si ne gesachen nie helt so wiinneclicli, ir
gate im solten sin gelkh ' (declared, they saw never a hero so winsome, their gods
must be like him). The more reason is there for my note on Siegfried (cli.
XV), of whom the Nib. 84, 4 says : der dort su MrUclun gat ' (see SuppL).



GOD. 27

heatlicn poetry. T>nt those gen. plurals regano, metodo again point
to the plurality of the binding gods.

The collection of Augustine's letters contains (cap. 178), in the
altercatio with Pascentius, a Gothic or perhaps a Vandal formula
sihora armcn, the meaning of which is simply /cypte eXerjcrov} Even
if it be an interpolation, and written in the fifth or sixth century,
instead of at the end of the fourth, it is nevertheless remarkaljle
that sihora should be employed in it for God and Lord. Ulphilas
would have said : fniuja armai. The inf. armen, if not a mistake
for arme, might do duty as an imperative ; at the same time there
is a Finn, and Esth. word armo signifying gratia, misericordia. But
sihora, it seems, can only be explained as Teutonic, and must have
been already in heathen times an epithet of God derived from his
victorious might (see Suppl.). Goth, sigis, ON, sigr, OHG. sign,
AS. sigc victoria, triumphus. OSinn is styled sigrgo&, sigtijr,
sigfd&iLr ; and the Christian poets transfer to God sigidrohtin, Hel.
47, 13. 114, 19. 125,6. sigidryhtcn, Cfedm. 33, 21. 48, 20.
sigmetod, Beow. 3544. vigsigor, Beow. 3108.^ elsewhere sigoradryhtcn,
sigorafrcd, sigoraiccaldcnd, sigoragod, sigoracyning. It is even pos-
sible that from that ancient sihora sprang the title sira, sire still
current in Teutonic and Eomance languages.^

The gods being represented as superi and njjjjrcgin, as dwelling
on high, in the sky, uphimin, up on the mountain height (as, ans),
it was natural that individual gods should have certain particular
mountains and abodes assigned them.

Thus, from a mere consideration of the general names for God
and gods, we have obtained results which compel us to accept an
intimate connexion between expressions in our language and con-
ceptions proper to our heathenism. The ' me and God,' the graci-
ous and the angry God, the froho (lord) and the father, the behold- ^
ing, creating, measuring, casting, the images of ans, fastening, band,



^ The Tclieremisses also pray 'juma sirlaga,' and the Tchuvashes 'tora
sirlag,' i.e., God have mercy ; G. J. Mijllors sanil. riiss. gesch. ?, 359. The
Morduins say when it thunders ' pashangiii Porguini pas,' have mercy, god
Porguini ; Georgi description 1, 64.

■■' den sig hat got in siner hant, MS. 2,16".

* Gott. anz. 1833, pp. 471-2. Diez however raises doubts, Roman, gram.
1,41.



28 GOD.

and ragin, all lead both individually, and with all the more weight
collectively, into the path to be trod. I shall take up all the threads
again, but I wish first to determine the nature and bearings of tlie
cultus.



CHAPTER III.
WORSHIP.

The simplest actions by which man expressed his reverence^ for
the gods (see Suppl.), and kept up a permanent connexion with
them, were Prayer and Sacrifice. Sacrifice is a prayer offered up
with gifts. And wherever there was occasion for prayer, there was
also for sacrifice (see Suppl).

Peayer. — When we consider the word employed by Ulpliilas
to express adoration, we at once come upon a correspondence with
the Norse phraseology again. For TrpoaKuveco the Goth, equivalent
is inveita, invait, invitum. Matt. 8, 2. 9, 18. Mk. 5, 6. 15, 19.
Lu. 4, 7-8. John 9, 38. 12, 20. 1 Cor. 14, 25 ; and once for
dcrird^ofxaL, Mk. 9, 15 (see Suppl.). Whether in using this word
the exact sense of 'irpoaKvvr]at<; was caught, may be doubted, if only
because it is invariably followed by an ace, instead of the Greek
dat. In ;Mod. Greek popular songs, irpoa-Kweiv is used of a van-
quished enemy's act of falling to the ground in token of surrender.
We do not know by what gesture inveitan was accompanied,
whether a bowing of the head, a motion of the hand, or a bending
of the knee. As we read, 1 Cor. 14, 25 : driusands ana anda-
vleizn (=antlitz), inveitiS guS; a suppliant prostration like irpoa-
Kvvi]ai<; is not at variance with the sense of the word. An OS.
giwitan, AS. gewitan, means abire ; could inveitan also have signi-
fied merely ffoing up to, approaching ? Paul. Diac. 1, 8 twice uses
accedere. Fraveitan is vindicare. Now let us compare the ON", vita
inclinare,^ which Biorn quotes under veit, and spells, erroneously, I

1 Verehrung, O.H.G. ira, Goth. prob. aiza. The O.H.G. iron is not merely
onr ehren, to honour, but also verehren, revereri (as reverentia is adoration,
cultus) ; A.S. urur'dian, O.S. giu-erthSn. All that comes from the gods or con-
cerns them is holy, for which the oldest Teutonic word is Goth, vtilis, O.H.G.
icth ; but only a few of the O.H.G. documents use this word, the rest preferring
heilac, O.S. has only helag, A.S. hdlig, O.N. heilagr. On the connexion of will
A\ith the subst. ivih, more hereafter. FrSn denotes holy in the sense of
dominicus.

^ Cleasl)y-Vigfusson gives no meaning like inelinare, either under vita 'to
fine,' or under vita ' to wit.' — Trans.



30 WORSHIP.

think, vita. From it is derived vcita (CJotli. vaitjan ?) ; veita lieiSr,
honorem peragere ; veita tiSir, sacra i^eragere ; veitsla, epulum,
Gotli. vaitislo ? ^

The Goth. Uda preces, hidjan precari, rogare, orare, are used
both in a secular and a spiritual sense. The same with OHG.
2)eta iind pittan; but from jieta is derived a petSn adorare, construed
with ace. of the person whom : O.i. 17, 62. ii. 14, 63. nidar-
fallan joh miA Z)e;;on, 0. ii. 4,86-9. 97. iii. 11,25. T. 46, 2. 60,
1. petota inan, Diut. 1, 513'\ But heton can also express a spiri-
tual orare, T. 34, 1, 2, 3. heto-man cultores, 0. II. 14, 68. In
MHG. I find hetcn always followed by the prep, an (see Suppl.) :
biiten an diu abgot, Barl. 72, 4. an ein bilde beten, ibid. 98, 15.
so muoz si iemer me nach gote sin min anehet, she must after God
be my (object ofj adoration, Ben. 146, Our bitten ask, bcten pray,
anbeten adore, are distinct from one another, as bitte request is from
gebet prayer.. The OS. bed6)i is not followed by ace, but by prep.
te : bedon te minun barma, Hel. 33, 7. 8 ; and this of itself would
suggest what I conjectured in my Gramm. 2, 25, that bidjan origin-
ally contained the physical notion of jacere, prosterni, which again
is the only explanation of Goth, badi kXuhSwv a bed, and also of
'the old badu, AS. beado = ca^des, strages.^ — The AS. New Test,
translates adorare by ge-cdff-medan, i.e., to humble oneself. The
MHG. Jiehen, when it signifies supplicare, governs the dat. : gote
flehen, Aegid. 30. den goten vleheu, Parz. 21, 6. Wh. 126, 30.
Tiirl. Wh. 71'' ; but in the sense of demulcere, solari, the ace, Parz.
119, 23. 421, 25. Nib. 499, 8 (see SuppL).^ It is the Goth Mdihan,
fovere, consolari. An OHG. flehon vovere I only know from N.
cap. 8, Bth. 178, and he spells it flehon: ten (ace. quem) wir fie-
hotou. We say ' zu gott flclicn,' but'gott anflehen'. — The Goth.
aihtron 7rpoaev-)(ea6ai,, TrpocraiTelv expresses begging rather than
asking or praying. The OHG. diccan, OS., thiggian, is both
precari and impetrare, while AS. picgan, ON., piggja, is invariably



1 Bopp, Comp. gram. p. 128, identifies inveita with tlie Zend nivaedliayemi
invoco.

^ Wliat was the physical meaning of the Slav, moliti rogare, molitise orare,
Boh. modliti se, Pol. modUc si^ ? The Sloven, moliti still means porrigere,
conf. Lith. meldziu rogo, inf. melsti, and malda oratio. Pruss. madia, conf.
Goth, maj^ljan loqui, maj^leins loquela, which is next door to oratio.

^ Iw. 3315 vlcgete got ; Lut in the oldest MS. vlehete gote.



PRAYER, '31

impetrare, accipere, so that asking has passed over into effectual
asking, getting (see Suppl.).

Another expression for prayer is peculiar to the Norse and AS.
dialects, and foreign to all the rest : dST. hd)i or been, Swed. Dan.
Ion, AS. hen, gen. bene f., Credm. 152, 26, in Chaucer hotie, Engl.
boon; from it, hena supplex, bensian supplicare. Lastly the Icel.
Swed. (hjrlca, Dun. dyrkc, which like the Lat. colere is used alike of
worship and of tillage, seems to be a recent upstart, unknown to
the ON. language.

On the form and manner of heathen prayer we lack informa-
tion ; I merely conjecture that it was accompanied by a looking up
to heaven, bending of the body (of which bidjan gave a hint), folding
of hands, bowing of knees, uncovering of the head. These gestures
grow out of a crude childlike noti.n of antiquity, that the human
suppliant presents and submits himself to the mighty god, his
conqueror, as a defenceless victim (see Suppl.). Precari dsos ccclum-
que snspicere is attested by Tacitus himself. Germ. 10. Genuflec-
tere is in Gothic knussjan, the supplicare of the Eomans was flexo
corpore adorare. Falling down and bowing were customs of the
clirislians too ; thus in Hel. 47, 6. 48, 16. 144, 24 we have : te
Ijedu hntgan. 58, 12 : te drohtine hnigan. 176, 8 : te bedu fdlan.
145, 3 : gihneg an kniobeda. In the S61arlio3 is the remarkable
expression : henni ec laut, to her (the sun) I bowed, Sam. 126" ;
from liUa inclinare. falla a kue ok luta, Vilk. saga cap. 6. nu
sirauk kongsdottir sinn Icgg, ok mrelti, ok sir i loptiff tqyp, (stroked
her leg, and spoke, and looks up to the sky), Vilk, saga cap. 61,
So the saga of St. Olaf tells how the men bowed before the statue
of Thor, hitu J?vi skrimsli, Fornm. sog. 4, 247. fell til iardar fyrir
likneski (fell to earth before the likeness). Fornm. sog. 2, 108.
The Langobards are stated in the Dial. Gregorii ]\I. 3, 28 to have
adored s%d)inissis cervicibus a divinely honoured goat's head. In the
Middle Ages people continued to boiv to lifeless objects, by way of
blessing them, such as a loved country, the road they had traversed,
or the day.^ Latin writers of the time, as Lambert, express urgent
entreaty by iKdibus provolvi ; the attitude was used not only to

1 Dem stige nigen, Iw. 5837. clem wege nigen, Parz. 375, 26. dem lande
nigen, Tri.st. 11532. nigen in daz lant, Wigid. 4018. nigen in elliu lant, Iw.
7755. in die werlt nigen, Fraiuend. 103, 10, den stigen iind wegen segen
tuon, Iw, ^57 (see Suppl,).



32 WORSHIP.

God, but to all whom one wished to hono^^r : neig im uf den fuoz,
Morolt 41^ hie viel sie uf sinen vuoz, Iw. 8130. ouch nise ich ir
unz uf den fuoz, MS. 1, 155\ valle flir si (fall before her), und nige
uf ir fuoz, MS. 1, 54^ buten sich (bowed) weiuende Uf sinen vuoz,
Greg. 355. neig im nider uf die hant, Dietr. 55^ These passages show
that peoj)le fell before the feet, and at the feet, of him who was to
be reverenced : wilt fallan te minun fotun, bedos te minun barma,
Hel. 33, 7. sich bot ze tal (bowed to the ground) gein sinen fiiezen
nieder, Wh. 463, 2} An 0, Boh. song has : ' sie Idanieti bohu,' to
bow before God, Koniginh. hs. 72 ; but the same has also the un-
Teutonic ' se hiti lo celo prede bohy,' to beat one's brow before God.^
Uncovering the head (see Suppl.) certainly was from of old a token
of respect with our ancestors, which, like bowing, was shown to
deity as well as to kings and chiefs. Perhaps the priests, at least
those of the Goths, formed an exception to this, as their name pile-
ati is thus accounted for by Jornandes, quia opertis capitibus tiaris
litabant, while the rest of the people stood uncovered. In a
survival of heathenish harvest-customs we shall find this uncover-
ing further established, ch. VII. In Nicolai Magni de Gow
registrum superstitionum (of 1415) it is said : Insuper hodie
inveniuntur homines, qui cum novilunium prime viderint Jlcxis
gcnibus adorant vel deposito caputio vel piilco, inclinato capite
honorant aUoquendo et suscipiendo.^ An AS. legend of CuSberht
relates how that saint was wont to go down to the sea at

^ Fial in sine fuazi, O. III. 10, 27. an sine fiieze, Karl 14''. The Chris-
tians in the Mid. Ages called it venie fallen, Parz. 460, 10. Karl lOi"*. Berth.
173. Ksrclu-. 2958. 3055. Kneeling and kissing the ground, to obtain abso-
lution : da er uf siner venie lac (lay), Earl. 366, 21. den anger maz mit der langen
venie, Frib. Trist. 2095. venien suochen, MS. 1, 23^. Morolt. 28''. Troj.
9300. terrae osculationibus, quas venias appellant, Pez. bibl. ascet. 8, 440. gie
ze kirchen und banekte (prostrated ?) ze gote siniu glider mit venien und gebet,
Cod. kolocz. 180.

^ The tchelo-bitnaya, beating of the forehead in presenting a petition, was
prohil:)ited in Russia by Catherine II. Conf. pronis vultibus adorare, Hehnold
1, 38.

3 What else I have collected about this practice, may be inserted here :
elevato a capite pileo alloquitur seniorem, Dietm. Merseb. p. 824 (an. 1012).
sublata cxjdare surgens inclinat honeste, Ruodlieb 2, 93. Odofredus in I.
secundo loco digest, de postulando : Or signori, hie colligimus argumentum,
quod aliquis quando veniet coram magistratu debet ei revereri, quod est contra
Ferrarienses, qui, si essent coram Deo, non extraherent sibi capellum vel birretum
de capite, nee tlexis genibus postularent. Pillcus in capite est, Isengrimus 1139.
oster la chape (in saluting), Meon 4, 261. gelUpfet den huot, Ms H. 3, 330.
sinen huot er abenam, hiemit eret er in also, Wigal. 1436. er zSch durch sin
hUbscheit den Imot gezogenlichen abe, Troj. 1775. do stuont er uf geswinde



TEAYEK. 33

niglit, and standing up to his neck in the briny breakers, to sing hia
prayers, and afterwards to kneel doivn on tlie shingles, with palms
stretched out to the firmament.^ Lifting tip and folding of the
hands (see Suppl.) was also jjractised to a master, particularly to a
feudal lord. In Ls. 3, 78 we have ' bat mit zertdnen armen,' prayed
with outspread arms. The Old Bavarian stapfsakcn (denial of
indebtedness) was accompanied by elevation of the hands, EA. 927
(see Suppl.). It is not impossible that the christian converts
retained some heathen customs in praying. In a manuscript, pro-
bably of the 12th century, the prayers are to be accompanied by
some curious actions: so miz (measure) den tihir din herza in modum
crucis, unde von dem hrustlejffile zuo demo nahile, unde miz denne von
eime rippe unz an daz andire, unde sprich alsus. Again : so miz
denne die rehtun hant von deme lengistin vingire unz an daz resti
(wrist), unde miz denne von deme dumin zuo deme minnisten vin-
gire. One prayer was called ' der vane (flag) des almehtigin gotis';
nine women are to read it nine Sundays, ' so ez morginet' ; the
ninth has to read the psalm Domini est terra, in such a posture
' daz ir lih nict more die erde, wan die ellehogin unde diu chnic,'
that her body touch not the ground, except at the elbows and knees;
the others are all to stand till the lighted candle has burnt out ;
Diut. 2, 292-3.

"We cannot now attach any definite meaning to the Gothic
uviliudon ev'^apiareiv ; it is formed from aviliud %api9, which
resembles an 0. Sax. alat, olat gratiae ; does it contain liuS cantus,
and was there moreover something heathenish about it ? (See
Suppl.). The old forms of prayer deserve more careful collecting;
the Norse, which invoke the help of the gods, mostly contain the



gnuoc, ein scliajicl daz er uf trunc von gimmen unci von golcle fin, daz nam er ah
dem houpte sin, Troj. 18635. er zucket ini sin he-piKiU, Ls. 3, 35. er was gereit,
daz er von dem houbt den huot liez vliegen iind spracli, Kolocz. 101. Festus
explains : lucem facere dicuntur Saturno sacrificantes, id est capita detegere ;
again : Saturno fit sacrificiuni ca^jite aperto ; conf. Macrob. Sat. 1, 8. Serv. in
Virg. 3, 407.

i W.TBs gewunod IpSdt he wolde gan on niht to sse, and standan on j^am
sealtum brinime, oiS his swnran, singende his gebedii, and siSSan his cneowu
on J^ani ceosle gebygde, astrchtumhandl)redum toheofenlicmu rodere; Thorpe's
analecta, pp. 7G-7. honiih 2. 138. [I have thought it but fair to rescue the
saint from a perilous position in ■which the German had inadvertently placed
him by making him "wade into the sea up to his neck, and kneel doum to
sing his prayers ". — Trans.] — In the O.Fr. jcu de saint Kicolas, Tervagant
has to be approached on bare elbows and knees ; Legrand fabl. 1, 343.

3



34 WORSHIP.

verb duga with the sense propitium esse: bi(5 ec Ottari oil goS dvga
(I Ot. pray all, &c.), SnBm. 120''. biSja J?a disir duga, Seem. 195*.
Duga means to help, conf. Gramm. 4, 687. There is beauty in the
ON. prayer: biSjom herjafoSr i hugom sitja (rogemus deum in
animis sedere nostris), Ssem. 113*, just as Christians pray the Holy
Ghost to descend : in herzen unsen sdzi, 0. iv. 5, 30 (see SuppL).

Christians at prayer or confession looked toward the Uast, and
lifted up their arms (Bingham lib. xi. cap. 7, ed. hal. 3, 273) ; and
so we read in the Kristinbalkr of the- old Gulathing law: ' ver skulum
Mta austr, oc biSja til ens helga Krists ars ok friSar,' we must bow
east, and pray the holy Christ for plenty and peace (conf. Syntagma
de baptismo p. 65) ; in the Waltharius 1159 : contra orientalem
prostratus corpore partem precatur ; in AS. formulas : edstiveard
ic stande ; and in Troj. 9298. 9642 : keret inch gen orient. The
heathens, on the contrary, in praying and sacrificing, looked North-
VM7'ds : horfa (turn) i nord'r, Fornm. sog. 11, 134. leit (looked) i
norffr, Seem. 94^ beten gegen mitternacht, Keisersperg omeiss 49^
And the North was looked upon by the christians as the unblessed
heathen quarter, on which I have given details in EA. 808 ; it was
unlucky to make a throw toward the north, EA. 57 ; in the Lombard
boundary-treaties the northern tract is styled ' nulla ora,' EA. 544.
These opposite views must serve to explain a passage in the Eoman
de Eenart, where the fox prays christianlg, and the wolf heathenly,
Eeinh. fuchs p. xli.^

As the expressions for asking and for obtaining, pp. 30, 31, are
identical, a prayer was thought to be the more effectual, the more
people it was uttered by :

got enwolde so manegem munde

stn genade niht versagen. Wigal. 4458.
die juncvrouwen baten alle got,

nu ist er so gnsedec unt so guot

unt so reine gemuot,

daz er niemer kunde

so manegem stiezen munde

betelichiu dine versaoen. Iw. 5351.



1 At the abrenuntiatio one had to face the sunset, with wrinkled brow (fronts
caperata), expressing anger and hatred ; but at the confession of faith, to face
the sunrise, Arith eyes and hands raised to heaven ; Bingham lib. xi. caj). 7. §
13.14. Conf. Joh. Olavii synt. de baptismo, pp. 64-5.



SACKIFICE. 35

in (to the nuns) waron de munde so royt,
so wes si god baden,
of syt mit vlize daden,
he id in nummer inkunde
dem rosenroten munde
bedelicher dinge versagen.

Ged. von der vrouwen sperwere, Cod. berol. 184, 54^ Hence :
helfen singen, MS. 1, 57". 2, 42^ Conf. cento novelle 61.^

Sacrifice. — The word opfer, a sacrifice, was introduced into
German by Christianity, being derived from the Lat. offcro. offcrre.'^
The AS. very properly has only the verb offrian and its derivative
offrung (oblatio). In OHG., from ojpfaron, ojiforon there proceeded
also a subst. oipfar, MHG. ophern and cypher ; ^ and from Germany
the expression seems to have spread to neighbouring nations, ON".
offr, Swed. Dan. offer, Lith. apjoiera, Lett, uppuris, Esth. ohiver, Fin.
2ihri, Boh. of era, Pol. ojlara. Sloven, ofer. Everywhere the original
heathen terms disappeared (see Suppl.).

The oldest term, and one universally spread, for the notion ' to
worship (God) by sacrifice,' was hloian (we do not know if the
Goth. pret. was bdiblot or blotaida) ; I incline to attach to it the
full sense of the Gk. Oveiv'^ (see Suppl.). Ulphilas saw as yet no
objection to translating by it ae^eadai and XaTpevecv, Mk. 7, 7.



1 Mock-piety, hj-pocrisy, was branded in the Mid. Ages likewise, by strong
phraseology : er wil gate die fiieze abezzen (eat the feet off), Ls. 3, 421. Fragm.
28». Mones anz. 3, 22. imserm Herrgott die fiiess abbeissen wollen (bite off),
Schmeller 2, 231. den heiligen die fiiss abbeten wollen (pray the saints' feet off
them), Siniplic. 1. 4, 17. herrgottbeisser, Holer 2, 48. herrgottfisler (fiiszler),
Schmid 1, 93. heiligenfresserin, 10 ehen, p. 62. So the Ital. mangiaparadiso,
Fr. mangeur de crucetix, Boh. Pol. liciobrazek (licker of saints). A sham
saint is indifferently termed kapeltrete, tempeltrete, tevipelriune, Mones schausp.
p. 123. 137 (see Suppl.).

- Not from operari, which in that sense was xxnknown to the church, the
Komance languages likewise using It. offerire, Sp. ofrecer, Fr. offrir, never
operare, obrar, ouvrer ; the same technical sense adheres to offerta, ofrenda,
offrande. From oblata come the Sp. oblea, Fr. oublie, and perhaps the MHG.
oblei, unless it is from eulogia, oblagia. From offre and offerta are iV)rmed the
Wei. offryd, Ir. oifrion, aifrion, offrail. Lastly, the derivation from ferre,
offerre, is confirmed by the German phrase ' ein opfer bringen, darbringen.'

^ Ophar, opfcr could hardly be the Goth. ai))r bwpov, in which neither the
vowel nor the consonant agrees. The Wei. ubert, Gael, iobairt, Ir. iodbairt,
(sacrificiixm) probably l)elong also to offerta.

* When Sozomen hist. eccl. 6, 37 in a narrative of Athanaric uses ivpoaKwelv
Ka\ dvfiv, the Gothic would be inveitan juh blutan.



'36 WORSHIP.

Lii. 2, 37; he construes it with an ace. of the person: iDlotan
fraujan is to him simply Deiim colere, with apparently no thought
of a bloody sacrifice. For Xarpeia Eom. 12, 1, he puts Uotinassus,
and for d6o<T€/3/]<; John 9, 31 gxxWostreis. The latter presupposes a
subst, hlostr (cultus, oblatio), of which the S is explained in
Gramm. 2, 208. Ushldteins {iTapdK\r}cnq) 2 Cor. 8, 4 implies a verb
usblotjan to implore. Ccedmon uses the AS. Uotan pret. bleot,
onUotan pret. onbleot, of the Jewish sacrifice, and follows them up
with ace. of thing and dat. of person : blotan sunu (filium sacri-
ficare) 173, 5. onbleot ]?fet lac Gode (obtulit hostiam Deo) 177, 21.
In iElfred's Orosius we have the same Uotan pret. blotte. I derive
from it Uetsian, later blessian, to bless. The OHG. pluozan, pret.
pliez and pluozta, appears only in glosses, and renders libare, litare,
victimare, immolare, Gl. Hrab. 959'' 960^ 966" 968". Diut. 1, 245,
258'\ No case-construction is found, but an ace. of the thing may
be inferred from partic. kaplozaniu immolata. A subst. pluostar
sacrificium, Uuostar, Is. 382. Gl. emni. 411. Gl. jun. 209. T. 56, 4.
95, 102 ^; pluostarhUs idolium, Gl. emm. 402. ^j/oasAils fanum,
phcostrari sacrificator, ibid. 405. It is plain that here the word has
more of a heathen look, and was not at that time used of christian
worship ; with the thing, the words for it soon die out. But its
universal use in Norse heathendom leaves no doubt remaining, that
it Avas equally in vogue among Goths, Alamanni, Saxons, before
their conversion to Christianity. The ON. verb hloia, pret. blet and
blotaGi, takes, like the Gothic, an ace. of the object worshipped ;
thus, Gragas 2, 170, in the formula of the trygdamCd: sva viSa sem
(as widely as) kristnir menn kirkior soekia, heiSnir menu hof hlota
(fana colunt); and in the Edda: Thor hlota, mik hlota, hlota&i 06in.
Seem. Ill'', 113", 141", 165^-: always the meaning is sacrificio vene-
rari. So that in Goth, and ON. the verb brings out more the idea
of the person, in OHG. and AS. more that of the thing. But
even the O.Dan, version of the OT. uses hlothe immolare, Woc^Amadh

^ The Gl. Hrab. 954^* : Laclia, plostar, is incomplete ; in Gl. Ker. 45. Diut.
1, 166" it stands : bacha sacriticat, ploastar jiloazit, or zepar plozit ; so that it is
meant to translate only the Lat. verb, not the subst. bacha {j^aKxri). Or per-
haps a better reading is ' bachat ' for bacchatur, and the meaning is ' non
sacriticat '.

^ Landn. 1,2: blotaCi hrafna jn-ia, worshipped three ravens, who were
going to show him the road ; so, in Sasm. 141% a l)ird demands that cow.s be



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