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that is chiefly spoken of, and once ' grimmar ur&ir ' dira fata, is
used impersonally, Ssem. 216^. — These three virgins allot to every
man his term of life, ' sha'pa monnum aldr ; shop i ardaga (year-
days),' Sn. 18. Ssem. 181^ I have elsewhere (EA. 750) shown
the technical pertinence of the term shapa to the judicial office of
the norns,* to whom for the same reason are ascribed domr and

1 Fornald. sog. 1, 32 Hkuld, daughter of an alfkoiia ; also in Saxo Gram. p.
31, Sciilda, n. prop.

'^ Conf. Jamieson sub v. weird (weerd, weard). Chaucer already substitutes
fatal sustrin for weirdsysters (Troil. 3, 733. Leg. of gd worn. 2619). In Engl,
dictionaries we find wayward sisters explained by parcae and furiae ; wardsisters
would create no diliicultv, but tvaijivard means capricious, and was once imy-
ivarden, in which the warden suggests the Dan. vorren, vorn (Gramm. 2, 675).
What AS. form can there be at the bottom of it? [wa = woe is the usual etym.]

3 Tliis brunnr deserves attention, for the wayfaring wives and fays of the
Mid. Ages also appear haliitnally at fountains, as the muses and goddesses
of song haunted the same, and particular goddesses, esp. Holda, loved wells and
springs (p. 268). Altogether it is hard often to tell which dame Hohla
resembles more, an ancient goddess or a wise-woman.

* Conf AS. wyrda gcsMift, C;edm. 224, 6. wyrda gesceajm, Cod. exon. 420,
25. OS. wunUKiiscapii, (decreta foti), Hel. 113, 7 ; and the OHG. term scep-
hetitd, MHG. schqtfe (Ottoc. 119^') and schcpfcr ; the poet, also a vates, was iu


gyi&r, SjBm. 273'' ; ' liotar nornir skopo oss langa J?ra,' dirae parcae
creaverunt nobis longiim moerorem 217'' ; ' nornir heita ]?8er er
nauS sJcajm, Skaklskaparmal p. 212.'* In the same sense ' nornir
visa,' Ssem. SS'', they give us to ivit judgment, and are ivise. Hence to
them, as to judges, a seat is given : ' a noma stoli sat ek niu daga '
127^*. They approach every new born child, and utter his doom ;
at Helgi's birth, it is said in Saem. 149 :

uott var i boe, nornir qvamo,
Jjoer er oSlingi aldr um sJcopo :
J?ann baSo fylki froegstan verSa,
ok BuSlunga beztan ]?yckja.
snero ]?cer af afli drlogpdito,
]7a er borgir braut i Bralundi ;
])ceT um. greiddo gullinsimo,
ok und manasal miSjan/esto.
]?oer austr ok vestr enda falo,
];ar atti lofSungr land a milli :
bra nipt Nera a norSrvega
einni fcsti. ey baS hon halda.

This important passage tells us, that norns entering the castle at
night spun for the hero the threads of his fate, and stretched the
golden cord (pdttr = daht, docht, = s%mi) in the midst of heaven ;
one norn hid an end of the thread eastward, another westward, a
third fastened it northward; this third one is called 'sister of Neri'.^
Their number, though ^.not expressly stated, is to be gathered from
the threefold action. All the region between the eastern and
western ends of the line was to fall to the young hero's lot ; did
the third norn diminish this gift, when she Hung a band northward,
and bade it hold for aye ? (see Suppl.).

It seems the regular thing in tales of norns and fays, for the
advantages promised in preceding benefactions to be partly neutral-
ized by a succeeding one.

The Nornagestssaga cap. 11 says; : There travelled about in the

OHG. scuof, OS. scop, from the same root. The AS. word metten I connect
with metod (creator, see p. 22). In Bogth. p. 101 (Rawlinson) a varia lectio
has ' \>k graman mettena,' the unkind fates.; the ' metodo giscapu ' in Hel. 66,
19. 67, 11 answer to those ' ivyrda gesceapu,' and the gen. plurals 'metodo,
wyrda ' imply that not one creator, but several are spoken of. Vintler .calls
them ' diernen, die dem menschen erteilen,' maids that dole out to man.
1 Conf. nipt Nara, Egilssaga p. 440.

NOPiNI. 409

land ' volvur,' who are called ' spdJconui\ wlio foretold to men their
fate, ' spaSu monnuni aldr ' or ' orlcig '. People invited them to
their houses, gave them good cheer and gifts. One day they came
to Nornagest's father, the babe lay in the cradle, and two tapers were
burnino- over him. When the first two women had gifted him, and
assured him of happiness beyond all otliers of his race, the third
or youngest norn, ' hin yngsta nornin,' who in the crowd had been
pushed off her seat and fallen to the gi'ound, rose up in anger, and
cried 'I cause that the child shall only live till the lighted taper beside
him has burnt out '. The eldest .volva quickly seized the taper, put
it out, and gave it to the mother with the warning not to kindle it
again till the last day of her son's life, who received from this the
name of Norns-guest. Here volva, spdkona and norn are perfectly
synonymous ; as we saw before (p. 403) that the volur passed
through the land and knocked at the houses,'^ the nornir do the very
same. A kind disposition is attributed to the first two norns, an
evil one to the .third. This third, consequently Sktdd, is called
'the youngest,' they were of different ages therefore, Urd'7- being con-
sidered the oldest. Such tales of travelling gifting sorceresses
were .much in vogue all through the Mid. Ages (see Suppl.).^

^ I have elsewhere shown in detail, that the journey inf:^ hou.se-visiting ]\Iuse
dame Aventiiire is an inspiring and prophetic norn, and agrees to a featiue
with, the ancient conception ; see my Kleine schriften 1, 102.

^ Nigellus Wirekere, in his JSpeculum stultorum (comp. about 1200), relates
a fable (exemplum) :

I bant tres hominum curas relevare sorores,
(^uas nosf (dales dicimiis esse elects.
Thay travel through the land, to remedy the oversights of nature. Two of the
sisters, soft-hearted and impulsive, want to rush in and help at the first ap-
pearance of distress, but are restrained by the third and more intelligent one,
whom they address as domina, and revere as a higher poMer. First they fall
in with a Ijeautiful noble maiden, who has all good things at her command, and
yet complains ; she is not. helped, for she can help herself. Then they find in
the forest a modest maid laid up in bed, because sore feet and hips hinder her
from walking ; she too obtains no help from the goddesses ; excellently
endowed in mind and body, she must bear her misfortune patiently. At last
in the neighbourhood ,Qf a town the sisters come upon a poqr rough peasant
lass :

Exiit in bivium ventrem purgare puella

rustica, nil reverens inverecunda dea- ,

vestibus elatis retro nimiumque rejectis,

poplite dellexo crure resedit humi,
una manns foenum, panis tenet altera frustum ;
this one, at the suggestion of the thii'd sister, when .the first two have tunicd
.away, is heaped witli the gifts of fortune by the goddesses :

Haec;mea multotiens genitrix narrare solebat,
CUJU3 me certe non meminisse pudet.


The Edda expressly teaches that there are good and had norns
(goSar ok illar, grimmar, liotar), and though it names only three,
tliat there are more of them :. some are descended from gods, others
from elves, others from dwarfs, Sn.. 18. 19, Sasm. 187-8. Why
should the norns be furnished with dogs ? grey noma, Seem, 273^

We see, throughout this Eddie description, things and persons
are kept clearly apart. Destiny itself is called orlog., or else naud'r
(necessitas), aldr (aevum) ; the norns have to -manage it, espy it,
decree it, pronounce it (see SuppL). And the other dialects too had
possessed the same term : OHG. iirlac, AS. orlceg, MHG. urlouc
(Gramm. 2, 7. 87. 789. 790),, OS. orlag, orlegi, aldarlagu (Heh 103,
8. 113, 11. 125, 15);^ it was only when tlie heathen goddesses
had been cast off, that the meanings of the words came to be con-
founded, and the old flesh-and-blood wurt, wm-ff, ivyrd to pale into
a mere impersonal urlac.

In the same relation as norn to orlog, stands parca to fatum
(from fari, like qviSr from qveSa qvaS, quoth), and also alcra, fioipa
to avarjKri (nauSr) or e'lfiapixevq. But when once the parcae had
vanished from the people's imagination, the Eomance language (by
a process the reverse of that just noticed amongst us) formed out
of the abstract noun a new and personal one, out oifatum an Ital.
fata, Span, liada, Prov. fada (Eayn. sub v.), Fr. fee.^ I do not know
if this was prompted by a faint remembrance of some female beings
in the Celtic faith, or the influence of the Germanic norns. But
these fays, so called at first from their announcing destiny, soon
came to be ghostly wives in general, altogether the same as our
idisi and volur.^ How very early the name was current in Italy,
is proved by Ausonius, who in his Gryphus ternarii numeri brings
forward the ' tres Charites, tria Fata', and by Procopius, who

^ From legan (to lay down, constituere), like the AS. lage, ON. log (lex) ;
therefore urlac, fundamental law. The forms urlouc, urliuge have significantly
been twisted round to the root liugan, louc (celare).

" Conf. nata, nee ;. amata, aimee ; lata, lee. Some MHG. poets say feie
(Hartni. Wolfr.), sine/eie, Haujjt's zeitschr. 2, 182-3, others /ewe (Gotfr. Conr.).

3 OFr. poems call them, in addition to fees, divesses (Marie de Fr. 2, 385),
duesses (Meon 4, 158. 165), duesse and fee (Wolf, lais 51) y.puceles Men eure'es
(Meon 3, 418), franches puceks senees (3, 419) ; sapaudes (wise-women, from
sapere 1), Marie de Fr. 2, 385. Enchanting beauty is ascribed to them all :
' plus bela que fada,' Ferabras 2767 ; conf. 16434. A book of H. Schreiber
(Die feen in Europa, Freib. 1842) throws much light on the antiquities of fay-
worship. Houses, castles and hills of the fays remind us of the wise-women's
towers, of the Venus-hill and Holla-hill, and of giant's houses. In Irish,
siahrog, sighbrog, is first a fays' house, theu the fay community.


mentions (De bello Goth. 1, 25, ed. Bonn. 2, 122) a building in tlie
Ptoman Forum called ra rpia (fyara (supra p. 405, note) with the
remark : ovtco yap 'Pco/xalot Ta<; /j,o2pa<; vevofxiKacn Koktlv?- At
that time therefore still neuter; but everywhere the number tlirce,
in norns, moirai, parcae and fays (see Suppl.).-

About the Eomance fays there is a multitude of stories, and
they coincide with the popular beliefs of Germany. Pok|uet de
Eomans sings :

Aissim fadero trcs serors

en aquella ora qu'ieu sui natz,

que totz temps fos enamoratz,
Guilhdei. Poitou :

Assi fuy de nueitz/c/f/a?'^; sobr'un puegau.

(so was I gifted by night on a mount).
Marcabrus :

Gentil fada

vos adastret, quan fas nada

d'una bevitat esmerada,
Trc fate go past, laughing, and give good gifts, Pentam. 1, 10. 4, 4 ;
the first fate bestow blessings, the last one curses 2, 8 ; Pervonto
builds a bower for three sleeping fcde, and is then gifted 1, 3 ; trc
fate live down in a rocky hollow, and dower the children who
descend 2, 3. 3, 10 ; fate appear at the birth of children, and lay
them on their breast 5, 5 ; Cervantes names ' los siete castillos de
las siete fadasl Don Quix. 4, 50 ; ' siete fadas vaefadaron en brazos
de una ama mia,' Eom. de la infantina ; there are seven fays in the
land, they are asked to stand godmothers, and seats of honour are
prepared at the table : six take their places, but the seventh w^as
forgotten, she now appears, and while the others endow with good
things, she murmurs her malison (La belle au bois dormant) ; in
the German kindermarchen (Dornroschen) it is twelve wise icomen,
the thirteenth had been overlooked. Sa in the famed forest of

1 Accorclinf,'ly I do not derive fata from cfxlns (speech), or (^aroj spoken,
thougli the Latin verb is of course the same word as (/jj^/xi. Conf. Ducange sub
V. Fadus, and Lobeck's Aghioph. 816. Fatuus and I'atua are also connected.

- Lersch in the Bonner jb. 1843. 2,129 — 131 separates tlie three parcae
from the three fata, because in sculptures they have dilferent adjuncts : the
Roman jiarcae are represented -writing (p. 406), the Grecian moirai weaving, the
tria fata simply as women with horns of plenty. But almost everything in the
doctrine of fays points to a common nature with our idises and norne, and
works of art fall into the background before the fulness of literature.


Brezeliande, by the fontaine cle Barendon, dames faees in white
apparel shew themselves, and begift a child, but one is spiteful
and bestows calamity (San Marte, Leg. of Arthur p. 157-8. 160).
At Olger's birth six vnse ivomcn appear, and endow ; the last is
named Morgue. In the Children of Limburg {Mones anzeiger
1835, 169), when Ectrites falls asleep in a meadow beside a fountain
and a lime-tree, three wayfaring v)ivcs approach, and foretell the
future. The OFr. romance of Guillaume an court nez describes
ho^v Eenoart falls asleep in a boat, and three fays come and carry
]nm off. In Burchard of Worms they are still spoken of as three
sisters or pareae, for whom the people of the house spread the
table with three plates and three knives ; conf . the ' praeparare
mensas cum lapidibus vel epulis in domo'. In the watches of
the night the fatuae come to children, wash them and lay them
down by the fire (see Suppl.). In most of the tales there appear
three fays, as well as three norns and three pareae ; occasionally
seven and thirteen ; but they also come singly, like that ' weirdlady
of the wood,' and with proper names of their own.^ French

"^ La fata in Giierino meschino p. m. 22.3. 234 — ^8; Morganda fatata,fata
Morgana, Morghe la fee (Noiiv. Renart 4810); 'diu frouwe de la rosrhe bise
(black rock), die gesach nieman, er scliiede dan vro, riche luide wise,' whom
none saw but he went away glad, rich and wise, Ben. 144. MsH. 1, 118=».
Monnier's Culte des esprits dans la Sequanie tells of a fee Arie in Franche-
comte, who ap2>ears at country (esp. harvest) feasts, and rewards diligent
spinnere ; she makes the fruit fall off the trees for good .children, and
distributes nuts and cakes to them at Christmas, just like Holda and Berhta.
I believe her to be identical with the Welsh Arianrod, daughter of Don and
sister of Gwydion (Woden), in Croker 3, 195.; her name contains arian
(argentum), so that she is a shining one, and it is also used of the .milky way.
A jeu composed in the latter half of the 13th centitry by Adam de la Halle of
Arras (pubL in Tlieatre fran^. au moyen age, Paris 1839, p. 55 seq.) gives a
pretty fidl account of dame Morgue et sa compaignie. They ,are beautiful
women (beles dames parees), who at a fixed time of the year seek a night's
lodging at a house, where dishes are set on the table for them ; men that look
on must not speak a word. Beside Alorgue la sage there appear (p. 76-7) two
other fays, Arsile and Maglore, and the last, on sitting down, notices that no
Icnife has been laid for her, while the others praise the beauty of theirs.
Maglore cries out in anger : 'Suije li pire ? pen me prisa qvii estavli, ni avisa
que toute seule a coutel faille '. Arsile tries to pacify her, and says, it is fitting
that we give a present to those who have arranged this place so prettily.
Morgue endows one with riches, Arsile .with the poetic art, but Maglore says ;

De mi certes naront il nient,:

bien doivent falir a don bel,

puisque jai fali a coutel

honni soit qui riens leur donra 1
Morgue however insisting on a gift, Maglore bestows on one fellow a bald
head, and on the other a calamitous journey :


tradition brings to light a close connexion between fays and our
giant-maidens : the fays cany enormous blocks of stone on their
heads or in their aprons, while the free hand plies tlie spindle ;
wlien the fay who was doing the building part had linished her
task, she called out to her. sisters not to bring any more, and these,
though two miles off, lieard the cry and dropped their stones, which
buried themselves deep in the ground ; when the fays were not
spinning, they carried four stones at once. They were good-
natured, and took special care of the children whose fates they
foretold. They went in and out of the neiglibours' houses by the
chimney, so that one day the most careless one among them burnt
lierself, and uttered a loud wail, at which all the fays of the
neighbourhood came running up. You never could deceive them :
once, when a man put his wife's clothes on and nursed the baby^
the fay walked in and said directly : ' non, tu n'es point la belle
d'hier an soir, tu ne files, ni ne vogues, ni ton fuseau n'enveloppes \
To punish him, she contented herself with making the apples that
were baking on the hearth shrink into peas.

Of such stories there are plenty ; but nowhere in Eomance or
German folk-tales do we meet, as far as I know, with the Norse
conception of twining and fastening the cmd, or the Greek one of
spinning and cutting the thread of life. Only one poet of the Mid,
Ages, Marner, has it 2, 173^:

zwo scliepfer fldhtcn mir ein sell,

da bi diu dritte saz (the third sat by) ;

diu zerbrachz (broke it) : daz was min unheil.

But this seems borrowed from the Eoman view of breaking off the
thread (rumpat, p. 406, note). Ottokar makes the schcpferi

ains comperront cliier le coutel

qu'il ouvlierent chi a metre.
Then before daybreak the fays depart to a meadow, their place of meeting, for
they shun to meet the eyes of men by day. Here we see plainly enough the
close resemblance of these three fays to the three nonis. The French editor
wrongly understands coutel of a cloth spread for the fay ; the passage in
Burciiard of Wonns removes all doubt. If Maglore be a corruption of
Mandaglore, Mandagloire, as the mandragora is elsewhere called, a close
connexion may be established with Alrune, Ohun. Morgue is shortened from
Morgan, which is the Breton for merwoman (from nior, the sea, and gwen,
splendens femina). One might be tempted to connect Morgan with that
inexplicalde ' norn,' as the ON. morni stands for morgni ; but the norn has
nothing to do with the morning or the sea (see Su]>pl.).

1 II. Schreiber, Feen in Europa pp. 11. 12. 10. 17. Michclct 2, 17.


(creating) impart all success in good or evil. The ' banun festan '
in Hild. lied is hardly to be explained by the fastening of a thread
of death.

If we compare the aSTorse mythus with the Greek, each has
taken shape in its own independent way. In Homer it is the
personified Alaa} that spins the thread for the newborn :

aaaa ol Alaa

yeivo/xevq) iTrevrjcre Xlvut, ore fitv re/ce fn]T7]p. II. 20, 127 ;
' what things Aisa span for him at birth with her thread '. But in
Od. 7, 197 other spinners (two) are associated with her :
aaaa ol Alaa KaTaK\co6e<i re /3apelac

lyeivo/xevcp vi]aavTO Xivco, ore jjllv T€Ke fJ'^jrrjp •
' M'hat Aisa and the Kataklothes unkind span '. Hesiod {dair. 258)
makes three goddesses stand beside the combatants, KKwOm,
Ad-)(eaL<i, "ATpoTTO'i, the last small of stature, but eldest and most
exalted of all. But in Theog. 218 he names them as

KX(o6(ti re Adyealv re Kal "ArpoTTov, a'lre /Bporotaiv

lyeLvo/iievoiai SiSovaiv exeiv djaOov re KaKov re •
' who give to mortals at birth to have both good and ill ; ' and in
almost the same w^ords at 905. The most detailed description is
given by Plato (De republ. 617 Steph. 508 Bekk.) : The three
fioipai are daughters of ^AvdyKT] (necessity), on whose knees the
spindle (drpaKro^) turns ; they sit clothed in white and garlanded,
singing the destiny, Lachesis ra rye'yovora, Klotho ra ovra, Atropos
ra fieXKovra : just the same relation to past, present and future as
the norns have, though the Greek proper names do not themselves
exj)ress it. Kkwddo (formed like Av^m, GaWco, Arjro), Mop/xM,
Top<y(jii) spins (from Kkwhw spin, twine), Lachesis allots (from
Xa-xelv), "Arpo7To<;, the unturnable, cuts the thread. It must not be
overlooked, that Hesiod sets up the last, Atropos, as the mightiest,
while with us AVurt the eldest produces the most powerful impres-
sion. Latin writers distribute the offices of the parcae somewhat
differently, as Apuleius (De mundo p. 280) : Clotlio ^9?-acsen?'is
temporis habet curam, quia quod torquetur in digitis, momenti

1 I think ala-a is the OHG. era, our ehre, for which we should expect a
Gothic aiza, aisa (as aistan is aestimare) : era = honor, decus, dignitas, what
is fair and fitting, what is any one's due ; kut ala-av, ex dignitate, to each his
meed. If this etymology holds, we understand why frau Ere waa personified
(see Suppl.).

NOKNI. 415

praesentis indicat spatia ; Atropos practcriti latum est, quia quod
in fuso perfectuni est, praetcriti^ temporis habet speciem ; Lacliesis
futuri, quod etiain illis quae futura sunt finem suum deus dederit
(see Suppl.). Isidore's opinion was quoted on p. 405.^ The Nor-
nagestssaga bears a striking resemblance to that of Meleager, at
whose birth three moirai tell his fortune : Atropos destines him to
live only till the billet then burning on the liearth be burnt out ;
his mother Altliaca plucks it out of the fire.^ Our modern tales
here exchange the norns or fates for death, Kinderm. no. 44.
Another tale, that of the tlirce spinners (no. 14), depicts them as
ugly old women, who come to help, but no longer to predict ; they
desire to be bidden to the marriage and to be called cousins.
Elsewhere three old women foretell, but do not spin.^ A folk-tale
(Deutsche sagen no. 9) introduces two maidens spinning in a cave
of the mountain, and under their table is the Evil one (I suppose
the third norn) chained up ; again we are told of the roof-beam on
which a spinnirig ivifc sits at midnight.* We must not forget the
AS. term which describes a norn as iveaving, ' Wyrd gcwdf
(p. 406) ; and when it is said in Beow. 1386 : ' ac him Dryhten
forgeaf wigspeda gewiofu' (ei Dominus largitus est successuum
bellicorum texturas), this is quite heathen phraseology, only
putting God in the place of Wyrd. Gottfried (Trist. 4698), in
describing Blicker of Steinach's purity of mind, expresses himself
thus :

ich wsene, daz infeinen

ze wunder haben gespunnen

und haben in in ir hrunnen

geliutert und gereinet ;

* I ween that fays spun him as a wonder, and cleansed him in their
fountain '.

Saxo Gram. p. 102 uses the Latin words parca, nympha, but
unmistakably he is describing norns : ' Mos erat antiquis, super

^ The Hymn to Mercury 550-561 names individually some other ^oipm.
still three in nuud)er, winrjod maidens dwelling on Parnassus, their heads
besprinkled with white meal, who prophesy when they have eaten fresh divine
food (ijSelni/ t5a)Sr]v) of honey. Otherwise they are called dptai.

- Apollodonis i. 8, 2.

3 Altd. wl). 1, 107-8-9-10. Norske eventyr no. 13. Rob. Chambci-s p.
54-5. Miillenliotl's Schleswigh. s. p. 410. Pentamer. 4, 4.

* Jul. Schmidt, Reichenfels p. 140.


futuris liberorum eventibus farcariim oracula consultare. Quo
ritu Fridlevus Olavi filii fortmiam exploraturus, nuncnpatis
solenniter votis, deorum aedes precabundiis accedit, ubi introspecto
saccllo^ iernas sedes totidem nt/vqjJiis occiipari cognoscit. Quanim
prima indulgentioris aninii liberalem puero forniam, uberemqiie
humani favoris copiam erogabat. Eidem secunda beneficii loco
liberalitatis excellentiam condonavit. Tertia vero, protervioris
ingenii invideutiorisque studii femina, sororum indulgentiorem
aspernata consenstim, ideoque earum donis officere cupiens, futuris
pueri moribus parsimoniae crimen affixit.' Here they are called
sisters, which I have found nowliere else in OK authorities ; and
the third nymph is again the illnatured one, who lessens the boons
of the first two. The only difference is, that the norns do not
come to the infant, but the father seeks out their dwelling, their
temple (see Suppl.).^

The weaving of the norns and the spindle of the fays give us
to recognise domestic motherly divinities ; and we have already
remarked, that their appearing suddenly, their haunting of weUs
and springs accord with the notions of antiquity about frau Holda,
Berhta and the like goddesses, who devote themselves to spinning,
and bestow boons on babes and chiklren.^ Among Celts especially,

^ They had a temple then, in which their oracle was consiilted.
2 The Lettish Laima, at the birth of a child, lays the sheet imder it, and
determines its fortune. And on other occasions in life they say, ' taip Laima
leme,' so Fate ordained it ; no doubt Laima is closely connected with lemti
(ordinare, disponere). She runs barefooted over the hills (see ch. XVII,
Watersprites). There is also mentioned a Dchlda (nursing-mother, from debt
to suckle). A trinity of jmrcae, and their spinning a thread, are unknown to
the Lettons ; conf. Stender's Gramm. p. 264. Ehesas dainos pp. 272. ;309.
310. — The Lithuanians do know a IVerjKya (spinner). The Ausland for 1839,

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