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sacriticed to him ; the victim itself is ON. hlot, and we are told occasionally :
feck at bloti, ak bloti niiklu, offered a sacrifice, a great sacrifice, Landn. 2, 29.


lihamina.blotelsd holocaustum, Molbech's ed. pp. 171. 182. 215. 2-1'J.
Also the O.Swed. Uplandslag, at the very beginning of the church-
balkr has : sengin skal affgiiSum hlotcc, with dat. of person, implying
an ace. of the thing. — The true derivation of the word I do not know.^
At all events it is not to be looked for in bloS sanguis, as the dis-
agreeing consonants of the two Gothic words plainly show; equally
divergent are the OHG. pluozan and pluot from one another ;
besides, the worship so designated was not necessarily bloody. A
remarkable passage in the Livonian rhyming chronicle 4683 tells of
the Sameits (Schamaits, Samogits) :

ir hluotcldii der warf zuo hant
sin loz nach ir alden site,
zuo hant er Uiiotete alles mite
ein quek.

Here, no doubt, an animal is sacrificed. I fancy the poet retained
a term which had penetrated from Scandinavia to Lithuania with-
out understanding it himself ; for bluotkirl is merely the O.Swed.
blotkarl, heathen priest ; the term is foreign to the Lithuanian

A few more of these general terms for sacrifice must be added
(see SuppL). — OHG. antheiz (hostia, victima), Diut. 1, 240^ 246,
258. 278'' ; and as verbs, both aiitheizon and inheizan (immolare),
Diut. 1, 246. 258.— OHG. msaken (litare), Gl. Hrab. 968^ insaket pirn
(delibor), ibid. 959" 960*, to which add the Bavarian stapfsaken,
liA. 927 ; just so the AS. onseegan, Cod. exon. 171, 32. 257, 23.
onsecgcm to fibre (devote as sacrifice), Cisdm. 172, 30. fiber
onscegde, 90, 29. 108, 17. tifer onsecge, Ps. 65, 12. lac onsecge
Cod. exon. 254, 19. 257, 29; lac onscegde, Ca^dm. 107, 21. 113,
15. Cod. exon. 168, 28. gild onscegde, Csedm. 172, 11. and
onscegdnes (oblatio). — As inheizan and onseegan are formed
with the prefix and-, so is apparently the OHG, ineihan pini
(delibor), Hrab. 960*, which would yield a Goth, anddllcan ; it is

^ Letter for letter it agrees ^vitli (fiXoiSda) I light up, burn, which is also ex-
pressed in 6{jco and the Lat. sulUo ; Imt, if the idea of bumt-olfering was
originally contained in blotan, it must have got obscured very early.

-Even in AlIIG. the word seems to have already become extinct; it
may survive still in tenns referring to place, as blot:.graben, 6/o<;.'garten in
Hessen, conf. the phrase ^blotzcn miissen,' to have to fork out (sacrifice) money.
An old knife or sword also is called blotz (see SuppL).


from this OHG. ineihhan, which I think Graff 1, 128 has misread
ireihan, that a later neihhan immolare, libare Graff (2, 1015) seems
to have risen by aphseresis (Gramm. 2, 810), as neben from inebeu ;
conf. eichon (dicare, vindicare), Graff 1, 127. To this place also
belongs the OHG. 'pifelahan (libare, immolare), Diut. 1, 245. 248.
— All this strictly denotes only the ' on-saying,' dedication, conse-
cration of the offering ; and it follows from the terminology at least
that particular objects were selected beforehand for sacrifice.^
Thus antheiz is elsewhere simply a vow, votum, solemn promise,
inthcizan vovere ; hence also the AS. onsecgan has determinative
substantives added to it.

In the same sense hmdan (offerre) seems to have been in use
very early, AS. lac Icbcodan, Ciedm. 173, 9. ON. hodn (oblatio).
From this biudan I derive Muds (mensa), ON. hioffr (discus), AS.
leod (mensa, lanx), OHG. plot, from its having originally signified
the holy table of offerings, the altar.

The Goth, fidlafalijan (with dat. of pers.) prop, to please, give
satisfaction, is used for Xarpeveiv, Lu. 4, 8 (see SuppL). — In Mk. 1,
44. Lu. 5, 14 athairan adferre, Trpoa^ipeiv, is used of sacrifice ; and
in AS. the subst. bring by itself means oblatio ; so Wolfram in
Parz. 45, 1 says : si hrahtcn opfer vil ir goten, and Tundgr. II. 25 :
ein lam zopphere hrdhtc. — It is remarkable that the Goth, salj'an,
which elsewhere is intransitive and means divertere, manere [put
up, lodge, John 1, 39. 40] is in Lu. 1, 9. Mk. 14, 12. 1 Cor. 10,
20. 28 used transitively for Ovfitdv and dueLv, and hunsla saljan,
John 16, 2 stands for Xarpelav Trpoaipepeiv, which brings it up to
the meaning of OHG. and AS. sellan, ON. selja, tradere, to hand
over, possibly because the solemn presentation included a personal
approach. The OHG. ingangan (obire) is occasionally applied to
worship : piganc (ritus), Diut, 1, 272\ afgoda hegangan, Lacomblet
1, 11. — Gildan, Jceltan, among its many meanings, has also to do
with worship and sacrifice ; it was from the old sacrificial banquets
that our guilds took their name. OS. waldandes (God's) geld, Hel.
3, 11. 6, 1. that geld lestian, Hel. 16, 5. AS. hvjnegicld, holo-
caustum, Credm. 175, 6, 177, 18. gild onsecgan, 172, 11. Abel's
offering is a gield, 60, 5. deofolgield, idololatria, Beda 3, 30. Cod.

1 So the O.Boh. ohiecati obiet (Koniginh. lis. 72) is strictly opfer verheissen,
to promise or devote an offering.


exon. 245, 29. 251, 24. hse^engield, Cod. exon. 243, 23. OHG.
heida,n]ceU sacrilegiurn : gote ir gdt bringent, Warn. 2906. offer-
nncffJielstar, sacrificium, Is. 395. dbiu blostar iro ghelstro, Is. 382.
— Peculiar to tbe AS. dialect is the general term Idc, neut., often
rendered more definite by verbs containing tbe notion of sacrifice :
onbl^ot ]78et lac gode, CcX<lm. 177, 26. drybtne Idc brohton, 60, 2.
Idc bebeodan, 173, 9. Idc onsregde, 107, 21. 113, 15. ongan Idc,
90, 19 (see Suppl.). Tbe word seems to be of the same root as the
Goth. masc. laiks (saltatio), OHG. leih (Indus, modus), ON. leikr,
and to have signified at first the dance and play that accompanied a
sacrifice, then gradually the gift itself.^ That there was playing
and singing at sacrifices is shown by the passages quoted further
on, from Gregory's dialogues and Adam of Bremen,

The following expressions I regard as more definite (see Suppl.),
Ulph. in Eom. 11, 16 renders d7rapxv> the offering of firstfruits at
a sacrifice, delibatio, by ufarskafts, which I derive not from skapan,
but from skaban (shave) radere, since dirapxal' were the first
clippings of hair off the victim's forehead, Odyss. 14, 422. 3, 446.
If we explain it from skapan, this word must have passed from its
meaning of creare into that of facere, immolare. — The Goth, vitod
is lex, the OHG. icizot (Graff 1, 1112. Fundgr. 1, 398^) both lex
and eucharistia, the Fris. vitat invariably the latter alone ; just as
zakon in Serv. has both meanings [but in Euss. only that of lex].
—Ulph. translates dvaia by Goth, hunsl, Matt. 9, 13. Mk. 9, 49.
Lu. 2, 24 ; then again Xarpeiav Trpoa^epetv in John 10, 2 by hunsla
saljan, where the reference is expressly to killing. And dvo-iaaWjptov
is called hunslastniSs, ]\latt. 5, 23-4. Lu. 1, 11. But the corre-
sponding AS. husd, Engl, hoiisd, allows of being applied to a
Christian sacrament, and denotes the eucharist, hilsdgong the
partaking of it, Msc/fa^t the sacred vessel of sacrifice ; conf. CiTedni.
260, 5 hiisdhtu halegu for the sacred vessels of Jerusalem. Like-
wise the OK hihl in the Norw. and Swed. laws is used in a
christian, never in a heathen sense. No hunsal is found in OHG.;
neither can I guess the root of the word. — Twice, however, Ulph.

1 Sci-v. frilCg offering, -what is laid before, prilozhiti to offer ; Sloven, dar,
darina, daritva = Swpov. [Euss. clarii sviatiiye = Soipa "lepa means the
eucharist.] The Sloven aldov, bloodless oflering, eeenis not to be Slavic, it
resembles Huns,', aldozat. evaia is rendered in 0. Slav, by zhrtva (Kopitar's
Glagol. 72<=), in^Russ. by zhertva [fr. zhariti to roast, burn I or zlu-ati devour,
zhera glutton ?].


renders Ovata by sducfs, pi, saudeis, Mk. 12, 33. Rom. 12, 1. I sup-
suppose he thought of the sacrifice as that of an animal slaughtered
and boiled ; the root seems to be siuSan to seethe, and the ON. has
sauffr a ram, probably because its flesh is boiled.^ In Eph. 5, 2 we
have ' hu7isl jah sdud' ' side by side, for irpocr^opav koI Ovaiav, and
in Skeir. 37, 8 gasaljands sik hunsl jah sauS. — The OHG. zepar is
also a sacrifice in the sense of hostia, victima, Hymn. 10, 2. 12, 2. 21,
5. Gl. Hrab. 965^ Diut. 240'^ 272'' (see Suppl). We could match
it with a Goth, tihr, if we might venture on such an emendation of
the unique dihr Scopov, Matt. 5, 23 (conf. Gramm. 1, 63). My con-
jecture that our German ungeziefer (vermin), formerly ungezihcr,-
and the O.Er. atoivre also belong to this root, has good reasons in
its favour. To this day in Franconia and Thuringia, ziefer, gezicfcr
(insects) not only designate poultry, but sometimes include even
goats and swine (Reinwald henneb. id. 1, 49. 2, 52. conf. Schm. 4,
228). "Wliat seems to make against my view is, that the A.S. tihcr
cannot even be restricted to animals at all, Ceedm. 90, 29. 108, 5.
172, 31. 175, 3. 204, 6. 301, 1. ^igntiher, 203, 12. ^igoxtifer, Cod.
exon. 257, 30 ; on the contrary, in 60, 9 it is Cain's offering of
grain that is called titer, in distinction from Abel's gield ; and in
^Ifr. gl. 62^^ we find wmtifer, libatio. But this might be a later
confusion ; or our ungezieiev may have extended to weeds, and con-
sequently zepar itself would include anything fit for sacrifice in
plants and trees.^ Meanwhile there is also to be considered the
ON. tafn, victima and esca ferarum. — Lastly, I will mention a
term peculiar to the ON. language, and certainly heathen : forn,
fern, victima, hostia, fdrna, immolare, or instead of it fornfcera,
conf. Fornm. sog. 1, 97 2, 76. this forna at the same time, according
to Biorn, meaning elevare, tollere. AS. forn porcus, porcaster (?).

^ Rom. 12, 1. 'present your bodies a Krwigr .sauS' was scarcely a happy
combination, if sauSs conveyed the notion of something boiled ! Can nothing
be made of s6t5jan satiare sootlie (Milton's ' the soothest shepherd ' = sweetest,
Goth. sutista).P Grimm's law of change in mutes has many exceptions : pater
father fseder vater (4 stages instead of 3, so mater) ; sessel a settle, and sattel
a saddle, both from sit sat ; treu true, but trinken drink, &c. — Trans.

^ Titur. 5198, ungezihere stands for monster ; but what can ungeziheU mean
in Lanz. 5028 vor grozem ungezibele 1 nibele 1

^ Caidm. 9, 2 : ^pa, seo tid gewat ofer tiher sceacan middangeardes. This
passage, whose meaning Thorpe himself did not rightly seize, I understand
thus : As time passed on over (God's) gift of this earth. The inf. sceacan (elabi)
depends on gewat ; so in Judith anal. 140, 5 : gewiton on fleam sceacan, began
to flee ; and still more freq. gewiton gangan.


If tlio 6 did not hinder, we could identify it with the adj. fom
vetus, fom sorcerer, fornccskia sorcery, and the OHG. furnic
antiquiis, prisons, canus (Graff 3, 628) ; and in particular, use the
same glosses for the illustration of baccha pluostar. Fom would
then be the term apphed by the christians to heathen sacrifices of
the former olden time, and that would easily glide into sorcery, nay,
there would be an actual kinship conceivable between z'epar and
zoupar (zauber, magic), and so an additional link between the
notions of sacrifice and sorcery, knowing as we do that the verbs
garaican, wihan and perhaps zouivan [AS. gearwian to prepare,
Goth, veihan to consecrate, and taujan to bring about] are appli-
cable to both, though our OHG. karo, haraiui victima, Graff 4, 241
(Germ, gar, AS. gearw, yare) expresses no more than what is made
ready, made holy, consecrated."^ We shall besides have to separate
more exactly the ideas vow and sacrifice, Mid. Lat. votum and census,
closely as they border on one another : the vow is, as it were, a
private sacrifice.

Here then our ancient language had a variety of words at its
command, and it may be supposed that they stood for different
tilings ; but the difficulty is, to unravel what the differences in the
matter were.

Sacrifice rested on the supposition that human food is agreeable
to the gods, that intercourse takes place between gods and men.
The god is invited to eat his share of the sacrifice, and he really
enjoys it. Not till later is a separate divine food placed before him
(see Suppl.). The motive of sacrifices was everywhere the same :
either to render thanks to the gods for their kindnesses, or to
appease their anger ; the gods were to be kept gracious, or to be
made gracious again. Hence the two main kinds of sacrifice :
(!/ia7i/j-oirerings and si?i-offerings.2 When a meal was eaten, a head of

1 The Skr. kratu sacrifice, or accord, to Benfey 2, 307 process, comes from
kri facerc , and in Latin, facere. (agnis, vitula, Virg. eel. 3. 77) and operarl were
used of the sacred act of sacrifice ; so in Grk, pi^^iv — e'pSfti/, Bu'ot. peBdnv of
olfering the liecatomb, and fpSeti/ is epyeiv, our ivirken, ivoric , iinppj^fiv Od. 17,
211. Biieiv, pi(eiv, 8pav, AtlienaJUS 5, 403, as 8pqv for Oveiv, so dpuais = dvcria.
The Catluilic priest also uses conficcre, im-JioTc for consecrare (Ciesar. heisterbac.
9, 27) ; compare the ' alicpiid i)lus novi facere ' in Burcard of Worms 10, 16
and p. 193'=. The Lat. cujcre signified the slaughtering of the victim.

- &'«7ui-opl'er, strictly, conciliatory offerings ; but as these were generally
identical witli .S/f»rf-opfer, sin-offerings, I have used the latter expression, as
short and familiar. — Tiians.


game killed, the enemy conquered (see Suppl), a firstling of the cattle
born, or grain harvested, tlie gift-bestowing god had a first right to
a part of the food, drink, produce, the spoils of war or of the chase
(the same idea on which tithes to the church were afterwards
grounded). If on the contrary a famine, a failure of crops, a
pestilence had set in among a people, they hastened to present
propitiatory gifts (see Suppl.). These sin-offerings have by their
nature an occasional and fitful character, while those performed to
the propitious deity readily pass into periodically recurring festivals.
There is a third species of sacrifice, by which one seeks to know
the issue of an enterprise, and to secure the aid of the god to whom
it is presented (see Suppl.). Divination however could also be
practised without sacrifices. Besides these three, there were special
sacrifices for particular occasions, such as coronations,, births,
weddings and funerals, which were also for the most part coupled
with solemn banquets.

As the gods show favour more than anger, and as men' are
oftener cheerful than oppressed by their sins and errors, thank-
offerings were the earliest and commonest, sin-offerings the more
rare and impressive. Whatever in the world of plants can be laid
before the gods is gay, innocent, but also less imposing and effective
than an animal sacrifice. The streaming blood, the life spilt out
seems to have a stronger binding and atoning power. Animal
sacrifices are natural to the warrior, the hunter, the herdsman,
while the husbandman will offer up grain and flowers.

The great anniversaries of the heathen coincide with po-
pular assemblies and assizes.^ In the' Ynglinga saga cap. 8 they
are specified thus : J?a skyldi biota i moti vetri (towards winter) til
ars, enn at miSjum vetri biota til groSrar, it J^riSja at sumri, J?at
var sigrblot (for victory). In the Olafs helga saga cap. 104 (Fornm.
sog. 4, 237) . en jjat er siSr ]?eirra (it is their custom) at hafa blot
a haustum (autumn) ok fagna ];a vetri, annat blot hafa ]?eir at
miSjum vetri, en hit ]?riSja at sumri, ];a fagna ];eir sumari ; conf. ed.
holm. cap. 115 (see Suppl.). The Autumn sacrifice was offered to
welcome the winter, and til ars (pro annonae ubertate) ; the Mid-
winter sacrifice til groSrar (pro feracitate) ; the Summer one to
welcome the summer, and til sigrs (pro victoria). Halfdan the Old

1 RA. 245. 745. 821-5.


held a great midwinter sacrifice for the long duration of his life and
kingdom, Sn. 190. But the great general blot held at Upsal every
winter included sacrifices ' til ars ok friSar ok sigrs,' Fornm. sog. 4,
154. The formula sometimes runs ' til arbotar ' (year's increase),
or ' til friSar ok vetrarfars goSs (good wintertime). In a striking
passage of the Gutalagh, p. 108, the great national sacrifices are
distinguished from the smaller offerings of cattle, food and drink :
' firi J?ann tima oc lengi eptir si];an tro];u menu a hult oc a
hauga, vi ok staf-gar|7a, oc a haij^in gu]? blotajm J?air synum oc
dydrum sinum, oc fdcjyi mi]? riiati oc tnundgcdi, jjat gier]?u J^air
eptir vantro sinni. Land alt hafj^i sir hoystu hlotan mi]? fulki,
ellar hafjn liuer Jjrijjiungr sir. En smeri ]?ing hafjju mindri
hlotan med, Jilepi mati oc mungati, sum haita siipnautar : ])i et
J^air s%i]yu allir saman.'

Uaster-Jlrcs, Mayday-fires, Midsummer-fires, with their numerous
ceremonies, carry us back to heathen sacrifices ; especially such
customs as rubbmg the sacred flame, running through the glowing
embers, throv/ing flowers into the fire, baking and distributing large
loaves or cakes, and the circular dance. Dances passed into plays
and dramatic representations (see ch. XIII, drawing the ship, ch.
XXIII, and the witch-dances, ch. XXXIV).. Afzelius 1, 3
describes a sacrificial play still performed in parts of Gothland,
acted by young fellows in disguise, who blacken and rouge their
faces (see ch. XVII, sub fine). One, wrajDt in fur, sits in a chair as
the victim, holding in his mouth a bunch of straw-stalks cut fine,
which reach as far as his ears and have the appearance of sow-
bristles : by this is meant the boar sacrificed at Yule, which in
England is decked with laurel and rosemary (ch. X), just as the
devil's offering is with rue, rosemary and orange (ch. XXXIII). —
The great sacrificial feast of the ancient Saxons was on Oct. 1, and
is traced to a victory gained over the Thuringians in 534 (see ch.
VI) ; in documents of the Mid. Ages this high festival stills bears
the name of the gemcinwoche or common week (see ch. XIII, Zisa),
Wiirdtwein dipl. magimt. 1 praef. III-V. Scheffers Haltaus p. 142.'
conf. Hofers ostr. wb. 1, 306. Another chronicle places it on Sept.
25 (Ecc. fr. or. 1, 59) ; Zisa's day was celebrated on Sept. 29, St.
Michael's on the 28th; so that the holding of a harvcst-ofering nmst
be intended all through.— In addition to the great festivals, they
also sacrificed on special occasions, particularly when famine or


disease was rife ; sometimes for long life : ' biota til langlifl,' Landn,
3, 4; or for favour (thockasaeld) with the people: ' Grimr, er
blotinn var dauSr (sacrificed when dead) fiir thokkasaeld, ok kallaGr
kamban', Landn. 1, 14. 3, 16. This epithet Jcamhan must refer to
the sacrifice of the dead man's body ; I connect it with the OHG.
jnchim^ida funus, r^Iid. Dut. hiitiban comere, Diut. 2, 207*. conf.
note to Andr. 4.

Human Sacrifices are from their nature and origin expiative ;
some great disaster, some heinous crime can only be purged and
blotted out by human blood. AVith all nations of antiquity they
were an old-established custom ^ ; the following evidences place it
beyond a doubt for Germany (see Suppl.). Tac. Germ. 9 : Deorum
maxime Mercurium colunt, cui certis diebus Jmmanis quoque liostiis
litare fas habent. Germ. 39 : stato tempore in silvam coeunt,
caesoque puUice (in the people's name) homine celebrant barbari
ritus horrenda primordia. Tac. Ann. 1, CI : lucis propinquis bar-
barae arae, apud quas tribunos ac primorum ordinum ccnturiones
mactaverant. Tac. Ann. 13, 57 : sed bellum Hermunduris pros-
perum, Cattis exitiosius fuit, quia victores diversam aciem Marti ac
Mercurio sacravere, quo voto equi, viri, cuncta victa occidioni
danUir. Isidori chron. Goth., aera 446 : quorum (regum Gothi-
corum) unus Eadagaisus . . . Italiam belli feritate aggreditur,
promittens sangwincm Christianorum diis suis litare, si vinceret.
Jornandes cap. 5: quem Martem Gothi semper asperrima placavere
cultura, nam victimae ejus mortcs fuere caidorum, opinantes bellor-
um praesulem aptius humani sanguinis effusione placandum.^
Orosius 7, 37 of Eadagaisus, whom he calls a Scythian, but
makes him lead Goths to Italy : qui (ut mos est barbaris
hujusmodi generis) sanguinem diis suis proimiare dcvovcrat.^

^ Lasaulx die siilmopfer der Griechen u. Eomer, Wurzburg 1841, pp.

- Conf. C?es. de B. Gall. 6, 17 on the worship of Mars among the Gauls ;
and Procop. de B. Goth. 3, 14 on the Slavens and Antes : Bebv yih yap i'va tov
TTji aaTpanris drjjjLiovpyov unavTcov Kvpiov povov avTov vopl^ovatv flvai, Kal dvovcriv
avTo) [iuas re Ka\ Upela anavTa. . . . aX\ eVetSai/ avrols iv tvoctlv iJStj 6
6i'ii/aTos fir], T] voam ciXovcxi, rj es TvoKepov KaditTTCipevois, eTrayyeWovrai ptv, rjv
dtafPvycocri, Qvaiav ro) 6«o avrt rrji '^v)(^rjs avTiKa TTOirjcrav, 8ia(pvy6i/T€s de
dvovaiv onep VTrea^ovTO, /cat o'iourai ti)v acorrjpiav ravrr^s Si) t^s Bvaias avrols

^ Of him Avigustine says, in sermo 105, cap. lO : Rhadagaysus rex Goth-
oruiu , . . Romae . . . Jovi sacrijlcahat quotidie, nuutialjaturc|ue
ubique, qnod a sacriliciis non desisteret.

teAuniFiuE. 45

Trocopius de bello Goth. 2, 15 of the Thulites, i.e. Scandinavians :
6vovai Se ivSeXex^cTT^^TO, lepela iravra koI ivayl^ovai. rcov Se
lepeicov crcpicrt, to KciXkiaTOV dv6 pcoir 6<i iariu, ovrrep av So p ta-
XoiTov ■7roi7](Tatvro ir pwrov. tovtov yap ra> "Apet Ovovaiv,
eVel Oeov avTov vo/mi^oucrt niytarov elvai. Ibid. 2, 14, of tlie
Heriili : ttoXvv rwa voixl^ovTe<i deojv ofiiXov, o&? Sr] koX
dvd p(07r (ov 6uaiai<; IXdaKeaOai, oaiov avToU iSoKet eivat. Ibid.
2, 25, of the ah^eady converted Franks at their passage of the Po :
eirtka^ofjievoi, he Tri<i <ye(pvpa<; ol ^pdyyot, tt a 1 8 a 9 re Kau yvvai-
Ka<i Twv TotOcov, ov<i7rep evTavOa evpov lepevov re /cat avrcDv
rd a-cofxara i^ Tov irorajxbv dupoOivia rov 7ro\e/j,ov epptir-
Tovv. ol /Sdp^apoi yap ovroi, Xpiariavol yeyov6Te<i, rd iroWd t^?
'KaXai.d^ ho^T]^ <^v\dcraovaL, Ovaiaiq re XP^I^^^°^ dvdpcoircov
Kol dWa ovx ocTia lepevovre'?, ravrj] re ra? /xavreia'i irocovfievoi.
Sidonius ApoUinaris 8, 6 of the Saxons: mos est remeaturis
decimum quemque captorum per aequales et cruciarias poenas,
plus ob hoc tristi quod superstitioso ritu necare. Capitul. de partib.
Saxon. 9 : si quis hominem diabolo sacrificaverit et in hostiam, more
paganorum, daemonibus oUulerit. Lex Frisionum, additio sap. tit.
42 : qui fanum effregerit . . . immolatur diis, quorum tempi a
violavit ; the law affected only the Frisians ' trans Laubachi,' who
remained heathens longer. What Strabo relates of the Cimbri, and
Dietmar of the Northmen, will be cited later. Epist. Bonif 25 (ed.
Wlirdtw.) : hoc quoque inter alia crimina agi in partibus illis
dixisti, quod quidam ex fidelibus ad immolandum paganis sua
vemtndcnt mancipia ; masters were allowed to sell slaves, and
christians sold them to heathens for sacrifice. Tlie captive prince
Graecus Avar de (a) Suevis pccudis more litatus (ch. XIII, the
goddess Zisa).^ For evidences of human sacrifice among the Norse,
see Miiller's sagabibl. 2, 560. 3, 93. As a rule, the victims were
captive enemies, purchased slaves or great criminals ; the sacrifice
of women and children by the Franks on crossing a river reminds
of the Greek Sta^aT7]pLa ; - the first fruits of war, the first prisoner

1 Adam of Bremen de .■'itu Daniae cap. 24, of the Litlinanians : draconc:^>
adorant cum volucribus, qiiibus etiam vivos litcmt homines, quos a mercatoribus
emunt, diligenter omnino probates, iie mactilam in corpore habeant.

2 Hence in onr own Iblk-tales, the first to cross the bridge, the first to
enter the new bnihling or tlie country, pays with his life, Avhich meant, falls a
sacrifice. Jornandes cap. 25, of thcHiins : ad Scythiam properant, et quantos-
cwuitie prius in iwjressu Scytharum habuere, Utavere Vidorine.


taken, was supposed to bring luck. In folk-tales we find traces of
the immolation of children ; they are killed as a cure for leprosy,
they are walled up in basements (oh. XXXV, XXXVI, end) ; and
a feature that particularly points to a primitive sacrificial rite is,
that toys and victuals are handed in to the child, while the roofing-in
is completed. Among the Greeks and Romans likewise the victims
fell amid noise and flute-playing, that their cries might be drowned,
and the tears of children are stifled with caresses, ' ne flebilis hostia
immoletur '. Extraordinary events might demand the death of
kings' sons and daughters, nay, of kings themselves. Thoro offers

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