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waggon. For such colts and bullocks are required in our ancient
law-records at a formal transfer of land, or the ploughing to death
of removers of landmarks.

On the actual procedure in a sacrifice, we have scarcely any
information except from Norse authorities. While the animal
laid down its life on the sacrificial stone, all the streaming blood
(ON. hlaut) was caught either in a hollow dug for the purpose, or
in vessels. With this gore they smeared the sacred vessels and
utensils, and sprinkled the participants.^ Apparently divination
was performed by means of the blood, perhaps a part of it was
mixed with ale or mead, and drunk. In the North the blood-
bowls (hX^wibollar, hloibollar) do not seem to have been large ;
some nations had big cauldrons made for the purpose (see Suppl.).
The Swedes were taunted by Olafr Tryggvason with sitting at home
and licking their sacrificial pots, ' at sitja heima ok sleikja hlot-
holla sina,' Fornm. sog. 2, 309. A cauldron of the Cimbri is noticed
in Strabo 7, 2 : e^o? 8e ri rwv Klfi/Spcov BLrjyovvTaL tocovtov, on
Tal<s jvvai^lv avrcjv avarpaTevovcraLf; irapriKoXovOovv 7rpo/jidvTet<i
lepeiai TroXAor/at^e?, \ev)(eliJiove<i, Kapiraalva'^ e^aTrr/Sa? eViTreTTop-

1 Neue mitth. des thiiv. siiclis. vereins V. 2, 131, conf. II. 10, 292. Od.
3, 382 :

o"oi 8 av iyoi pi^co ^ovv tJvlv, evpvfJLfrconov,

u8fJ.r]TT]i), ijv oi/'tto) vtto ^vyoi/ 'jyayev dui'jp •

TTjv Toi iyui pf^co, )(^pvaov Kfpacriv 7rfpt.)(evas.
^ Oc eingii skyldi tortyna hvurki I'e ne monnuni, neiiia sialft gengi i hurt.
Eyrb. saga, ix 10. And none shoiald they kill (tortima neither beast nor
man, unless of itself it ran a-tilt.

^ Saga Hakonar g6?a, cap. 16. Eyrb. saga p. 10. rauS horgin, reddened
the (stone) altar, Fornald. sog. 1, 413. stalla lata rioSa bloSi, 1, 454. 527.
Stem. 114'^ rioiSutiih bloSinu hl6ttre, Fornald. sog. 1, 512. the Grk ai/xa r«
^o>}i(o TTfpixffiv. conf. E.xod. 24, 8.



56 WORSHIP.

irr^jjiivaL, ^ojcrfia ')(CLkKovv e^ovaat, 'yvfivoTroSe'i • Totf ovv al)(jiaXu)-
T0t9 hia Tov arparoTTeSov avv^VTcov ^t(f>7]peL<; ' Karaare-^aaai 8'
avroii<i rjr^ov eVl k p arr) p a ')(^a\Kovv, oaov d/Kpopecov e'cKoai, • et;^oy
Se ava^dOpav, tjv dva/3d<Ta (jj fidvTt'?) uTre/OTrerr/? tov X e y3 t; t o 9
eXaifiOTo/xeL eKaarov fierecopiadevra' etc he tov 7rpo-)(^eofievov aL/u,aTO<i
et? TOV Kparrjpa, fxavTe'iav Tcvd eiroiovvTo} Another cauldron of
the Suevi, in the Life of St. Cohimban : Sunt etenim inibi vicinae
nationes Suevorum ; quo cum moraretur, et inter habitatores illius
loci progrederetur, reperit eos sacrificium profanum litare velle,
vasque magnum, quod vulgo cwpam vocant, quod viginti et sex
modios amplius minusve capiebat, cerevisia plenum in medio habe-
bant positum. Ad quod vir Dei accessit et sciscitatur, quid de illo
fieri vellent ? Illi aiunt : deo suo Wodano, quem Mercurium
vocant alii, se velle litare. Jonas Bobbiensis, vita Columb. (from
the first half of the 7tli cent. Mabillon ann. Bened. 2, 26). Here
we are expressly told that the cauldron was filled with ale, and not
that the blood of a victim was mixed with it ; unless the narrative
is incomplete, it may have meant only a drink-offering.

Usually the cauldron served to cook, i.e. boil, the victim's flesh ;
it never was roasted. Thus Herodotus 4, 61 describes a boiling
(eyp-eiv) of the sacrifice in the great cauldron of the Scythians.
From this seething, according to my conjecture, the ram was called
smips, and those who took part in the sacrifice sudiiautar (partakers
of the sodden), Gutalag p. 108 ; the boilings, the cauldrons and pots
of witches in later times may be connected with this.^ The distri-
bution of the pieces among the people was probably undertaken by
a priest ; on great holidays the feast^ was held there and then in
the assembly, on other occasions each person might doubtless take



^ ' They say the Cimbri had this custom, that their women marching with
them were accompanied by priestess-proplietesses, gray-haired, wliite-robed,
with a linen scarf buckled over the shoulder, wearing a brazen girdle, and
bare-footed ; these met the prisoners in the camp, sword in hand, and having
crowned them, led them to a brass hasin as large as 30 amphorsB (180 gals) ;
and they had a ladder, which the priestess mounted, and standing over the
basin, cut the throat of each as he was handed up. With the blood that gushed
into the basin, they made a prophecy.'

^ The trolds too, a kind of elves, have a wpiper kettle in the Norw. saga,
Faye 11 ; the christians long believed in a Saturni dolium, and in a large
cauldron in hell (chaudiere, Meon 3, 284-5).

^ They also ate the strong broth and the fat swimming at the top. The
heathen offer their king Hakon, on his refusing the flesh, drecka sot^it and eta
Jlotit ; Saga Hakonar goSa cap. 18. conf. Forum, sog. 10, 381.



SACKIFICE. 57

his share home with him. That priests and people really ate the
food, appears from a number of passages (conf. above, p. 46). The
Capitularies 7, 405 adopt the statement in Epist. Bonif. cap. 25
(an. 732) of a Christian ' presbyter Jovi mactans, et immolatitias
carnes vescens,' only altering it to ' diis mactanti, et immolatitiis
carnibus vescenti'. We may suppose that private persons were
allowed to offer small gifts to the gods on particular occasions, and
consume a part of them ; this the Christians called ' more gentilium
offerre, et ad honorem daemonum comedere,' Capit. de part. Sax. 20.
It is likely also, that certain nobler parts of the animal were
assigned to the gods, the head, liver, heart, tongue} The head and
skin of slaughtered game were suspended on trees in honour of
them (see SuppL).

Whole lurntofferings, where the animal was converted into
ashes on the pile of wood, do not seem to have been in use. The
Goth, allhrunsts ]\Ik 12, 33 is made merely to translate the Gk.
6\o/cavT(o/na, so the OHG. alhrandopher, N. ps. 64, 2 ; and the AS.
hryncgield onhred& rommes bloSe, Coedm. 175, 6. 177, 18 is meant
to express purely a burntoffering in the Jewish sense.^

Neither were incense-offerings used ; the sweet incense of the
christians was a new thing to the heathen. Ulphilas retains the
Gk. tliymiama Lu. 1, 10. 11 ; and our weih-rauch (holy-reek), 0.
Sax. wiroc Hel. 3, 22, and the OK reykelsi, Dan. rogelse are
formed according to christian notions (see SuppL).

While the sacrifice of a slain animal is more sociable, more
universal, and is usually offered by the collective nation or
community ; fruit or flowers, milk or honey is what any household,
or even an individual may give. These Fruit-offerings are therefore
more solitary and paltry ; history scarcely mentions them, but they
have lingered the longer and more steadfastly in popular customs
(see SuppL).

When the husbandman cuts his corn, he leaves a clump of ears
standing for the god who blessed the harvest, and he adorns it with

^ yXo}(T(Ta Koi Koikla (tongue and entrail.-^) lepetov SianeTTpayfifvov, Phitarcli,
Phoc. 1. yXayacras rdfiveiv and eV irvpl /iiuXXeti/, Od. 3, 332. 341. conf. De
linguae usu in sacriliciis, Nitzsch ad Horn. Od. 1, 207. In the folk-tales, who-
ever has to kill a man or beast, is told to bring in proof the tongue or heart,
apparently as being eminent portions.

- aiav. 2}dliti obiet, to kindle an offering, Koniginh. hs, 98.



58 -■ WORSHIP.

ribbons. To this day, at a fruit-gathering in Holstein, five or six
apples are left hanging on each tree, and then the next crop will thrive.
More striking examples of this custom will be given later, in treat-
ing of individual gods. But, just as tame and eatable animals
were especially available for sacrifice, so are fruit-trees (frugiferae
arbores, Tac. Germ. 10), and grains; and at a formal transfer of
land, boughs covered with leaves, apples or nuts are used as earnest
of the bargain. The MHG. poet (Fundgr. II, 25) describes Cain's
sacrifice in the words : ' eine garb er nam, er wolte sie oppheren mit
cheren joch mit agcnen' a sheaf he took, he would offer it with ears
and eke with spikes : a formula expressing at once the upper part
or beard (arista), and the whole ear and stalk (spica) as well.
Under this head we also put the crowning of the divine image, of a
sacred tree or a sacrificed animal with foliage or floioers ; not the
faintest trace of this appears in the Norse sagas, and as little in our
oldest documents. From later times and surviving folk-tales I can
bring forward a few things. On Ascension day the girls in more
than one part of Germany twine garlands of white and red flowers,
and hang them up in the dwellingroom or over the cattle in the
stable, where they remain till replaced by fresh ones the next year.^
At the village of Questenberg in the Ilarz, on the third day in
Whitsuntide, the lads carry an oak up the castle-hill which
overlooks the whole district, and, when they have set it upright,
fasten to it a large garland of branches of trees plaited together,
and as big as a cartwheel. They all shout ' the qucste {i.e. garland)
hangs,' and then they dance round the tree on the hill top - both
tree and garland are renewed every year.^ ISIot far from the
Meisner mountain in Hesse stands a high precipice with a cavern
opening under it, which goes by the name of the Hollow Stone.
Into this cavern every Easter Monday the youths and maidens of
the neighbouring villages carry nosegays, and then draw some
cooling water. No one will venture down, unless he has flowers
with him.^ The lands in some Hessian townships have to pay a
hunch of mayflov)ers (lilies of the valley) every year for rent.* In
all these examples, which can easily be multiplied, a heathen

1 Bragnr VI. 1, 126.

2 Otmars volkssagen, pp. 128-9. What is told of tlie origin of the custom
seems to be fiction.

^ Wigands archiv 6, 317,

* Wigands archiv 6, 318. Casselsches wochenbl. 1815, p. 928*'.



MINNE-DRINKING. 59

practice seems to have been transferred to christian festivals and
offerings.^

As it was a primitive and widespread custom at a iDanquet to
set aside a part of the food for tlie household gods, and particularly
to place a dish of 'broth before Berhta and Hulda, the gods were
also invited to share the festive drink. The drinker, before taking
any himself, would pour some out of his vessel for the god or house-
sprite, as the Lithuanians, when they drank beer, spilt some of it
on the ground for their earth-goddess Zemynele.^ Compare with
this the Norwegian sagas of Thor, who appears at weddings when
invited, and takes up and empties huge casks of ale. — I will now
turn once more to that account ot the Suevic ale-fuh (cupa) in Jonas
(see p. 56), and use it to explain the heathen practice of viinne-
drinking, which is far from being extinct under Christianity. Here
also both name and custom appear common to all the Teutonic
races.

The Gothic man (pi. munum, pret. munda) signified I think ;
gaman (pi. gamunum, pret. gamunda) I bethink me, I remember.
From the same verb is derived the OHG. minna = minia amor,
minnon = minion amare, to remember a loved one. In the ON.
lansuase we have the same man, munum, and also minni memoria,
minna recordari, but the secondary meaning of amor was never
developed.

It was customary to honour an absent or deceased one by
making mention of him at ■ the assembly or the banquet, and
draining a goblet to his memory: this goblet, this draught was
called in ON. crfi dryckja, or again minni (erfi = funeral feast).

At grand sacrifices and banquets the god or the gods were
remembered, and their minni drunk: minnis-ol (ale), Sa^m. 119''
(opposed to ominnis ol), minnis-\\orn, minnis-ixxM (cupful), furo
minni morg, ok skyldi horn dreckia 1 minni hvert (they gave many
a m., and each had to drink a horn to the m.). um golf ganga at
minnom oUum, Egilss. 206. 253. minniol signod' a.som, Olafs helga.



^ Beside cattle and grain? other valuables were offered to particular gods
and in special cases, as even in christian times voyagers at sea e.g., would vow
a silver sliip to their church as a votive gift ; in Swedish folk-songs, offra en
(jryta af malm (vessel of metal), Arvidss. 2, 11(5 ; en giyta af blankaste malm (of
silver) Ahlqvists Ohind II. 1, 214 ; also articles of clothing, e.g. red shoes.

' In the Teut. languages I know of no technical term like the Gk. aivivba,
Xfi'/So), Lat. libo, for drink-offerings (see SiippL).



60 WORSHIP.

saga (ed. holm.) 113. signa is the German segnen to bless, conse-
crate, signa full OSni, Thor. OSins full, MarSar full, Freys fall
drecka, Saga Hakonar goSa cap. 16.18. In the Herrau5s-saga cap.
11, Thor's, OSin's and Freya's minne is drunk. At the burial of a
king there was brought up a goblet called Bragafull (funeral toast
cup), before which every one stood up, took a solemn vow, and
emptied it, Yngl. saga cap. 40 ; other passages have hragarfuU,
Stem. 146^ Fornald. sog. 1, 345, 417. 515. The goblet was also
called minnisvcig (swig, draught), Sa3m. 193^ After conversion
they did not give up the custom, but drank the minne of Christ,
Mary, and the saints : Krists minni, Michaels minni, Fornm. sog.

1, 162. 7, 148. In the Fornm. sog. 10, 1781, St. Martin demands of
Olaf that his minni be proposed instead of those of Thor, OSin, and
the other ases.

The other races were just as little weaned from the practice ;
only where the term minne had changed its meaning, it is trans-
lated by the Lat. amor instead of memoria ;^ notably as early as in
Liutprand, hist. 6, 7 (Muratori II. 1, 473), and Liutpr. hist. Ott. 12:
diaboli in aniorcm vinum bibere. Liutpr. antapod. 2, 70 : amoris
salutisque mei causa bibito. Liutpr. leg. 65 : potas in amo^x heati
Johannis prsecursoris. Here the Baptist is meant, not the Evan-
gelist; but in the Fel. Faber evagat. 1, 148 it is distinctly the
latter. In Eckehard casus S. Galli, Pertz 2, 84: amoreque, ut
nioris est, osculato et epoto, laetabundi discedunt. In the Rudlieb

2, 162:

post poscit vinum Gerdrudis amove, quod haustum
participat nos tres, postremo basia fingens,
quando vale dixit post nos gemit et benedixit.

In the so-called Liber occultus, according to the Munchen MS., at

the description of a scuffle :

hujus ad edictum nullus plus percutit ictum,
sed per clamorem poscunt Gertrudis amorem.

In the Peregrinus, a 13th cent. Latin poem, v. 335 (Leyser 2114) :
et rogat ut potent sanctae Gertrudis amove,
ut possent omni prosperitate frui.

1 The 12th cent, poem Von dem gelouben 1001 says of the institution of
the Lord's Supper, whose cup is also a drink of remembrance to Christians :
den cof nam er mit dem wine, imde scgente darinne ein vil guote mmne. Lout.
loving cuf, Tliom's Ai.ecd. 82.



MINXE-DRINKIXG. 61

At Erelc's departure : der wirt neig im an den fuoz, ze hand truog
cr im do ze heiles gewinne sant Gertrude Tninnc, Er. 4015. The
armed champion 'tranc sant Johannes segcn,' Er. 8651. Hagene,
while killing Etzel's child, says, Nib. 1897, 3 :

nn trinken wir die minne unde gelten skiincges win,

iz mac anders niht gesin

wan trinkt imd geltet Ezeln win ; Helbl. G, 160. 14. 86.

Here the very word gcltcn recalls the meaning it had acquired in
connexion with sacrificing ; conf. Schm. 2, 40. si do zucten di suert
unde scancten eine minne (drew their swords and poured out a m.),
Herz. Ernst in Hoffm. fundgr. 1, 230, 35. minne schenken,
Berthold 276-7. sant Johannis minne geben, Oswald 611. 1127.
1225 (see Suppl.). No doubt the same thing that was afterwards
called ' einen ehrenwein schenken ' ; for even in our older speech
era, ere denoted verehrung, reverence shown to higher and loved
beings.

In the Mid. Ages then, it was two saints in particular that had
minne drunk in honour of them, John tlie evangelist and Gertrude.
John is said to have drunk poisoned wine without hurt, hence
a drink consecrated to him prevented all danger of poisoning.
Gertrude revered John above all saints, and therefore her memory
seems to have been linked with his. But she was also esteemed as
a peacemaker, and in the Latinarius metricus of a certain Andreas
rector scholarum she is invoked :

pia Gerdrudis, quae pacis commoda cudis
bellaque concludis, nos caeli mergito ludis !

A clerk prayed her daily, ' dass sie ilim schueffe herberg guot,' to
find him lodging good; and in a MS. of the 15th cent, we are
informed : aliqui dicunt, quod quando anima egressa est, tunc prima
nocte pernoctabit cum beata Gerdrude, secunda nocte cum arch-
angelis, sed tertia nocte vadit sicut diffinitum est de ea. This
remarkable statement will be found further on to apply to Freya,
of whom, as well as of Hulda and Eerhta, Gertrude reminds us the
more, as she was represented spinning. Both John's and Ger-
trude's minne used especially to be drunk by parting friends,
travellers and lovers of peace, as the passages quoted have shown.
I know of no older testimony to Gertrude's minne (which presup-
poses John's) than that in Paidlieb ; in later centuries we find



62 WORSHIP.

plenty of tliem : der brahte ., mir sant Johans segen, Ls. 3, 336.
sant Johans scgen txvak&n, Ls. 2, 262. ich daht an sant t/(?/^.a?^s
minne, Ls. 2, 264. varn (to fare) mit sant Gertr'Ade minne,
Anigb. 33*^. setz sant Johans ze blirgen mir, daz du komest
gesunt lierwider scliier, Hatzl. 191''. sant Johannes namen
trinken, Altd. bl. 413. sant Gertrude minne, Cod. kolocz. 72.
trinken sant Johannes scgen und scheiden von dem lande, Morolt.
3103. diz ist sancte Johans minne, Cod. pal, 364, 158. S. Johans
segen trinken, Anshelm 3, 416. Johans segen, Fischart gescli. kl.
99^ Simpliciss. 2, 262.^

Those Suevi then, whom Columban was approaching, were pro-
bably drinking Wuotan's minne ; Jonas relates how the saint blew
the whole vessel to pieces and spoilt their pleasure : manifesto
datnr intelligi, diaholum in eo vase fuisse occultatum, qui per pro-
fanum litatorem caperet animas sacrificantium. So by Liutprand's
devil, whose minne is drunk, we may suppose a heathen god to
have been meant, (jcfa priggja sdlda 61 OSni (give three tuns of
ale to OSinn), Fornm. sog. 2, 16. gefa Thor ok 0(5ni 61, ok signa
fidl asum, ibid. 1, 280. drecka minni Thors ok OGins, ibid. 3, 191.
As the North made the sign of Thor's hammer, christians used the
cross for the blessing (segnung) of the cup ; conf. poculum signare,
Walthar. 225, precisely the Norse sig7ia full.

Minne-drinking, even as a religious rite, apparently exists to
this day in some parts of Germany. At Otbergen, a village of
Hildesheim, on Dec. 27 every year a chalice of wine is hallowed by
the priest, and handed to the congregation in the church to drink
as Johannis segen (blessing) ; it is not done in any of the neigh-
bouring places. In Sweden and Norway we find at Candlemas a
dricka eldhorgs skcd, drinking a toast (see Superst. Z:;, Swed. 122).

1 Thomasius de poculo S. Johannis vulgo Johannistrunk, Lips. 1675.
Scheffers HaUans p. 165. Oberlin s. vb. Johannis minn und trunk. Schmeller
2,593. Hannov. mag. 1830, 171-6. Ledeburs archiv 2, 189. On Gertrude
espec, Huyd. op St. 2, 343-5. Clignett's bidr. 392-411. Hoffni. horae belg.
2, 41-8. Antiqvariske annaler 1, 313. Hanka's Bohem. glosses 79'' 132*
render Johannis amor by suxitd mma (holy m.). And in that Slovenic docu-
ment, the Freysinger MS. (Kopitar's Glagolita xxxyii, conf. xliii) is the
combination : da klanyamse, i modlimse, im i tchesti ich piyem, i obieti nashe
im nesem (ut genutiecttmius et precemur eis et honores eorum bibamus et obli-
gationes nostras illis feramus); tchest is honor, Ti^rj, cultus, our old era ; but
I also find slava (fame, glory) used in the sense of minne, and in a Servian
song (Vuk, 1 no. 94) wine is drunk ' za slave bozhye ' to the glory of God. In
the Finnish mythology is mentioned an Ukkon malja, bowl of Ukko ; malja =
Swed. skal, strictly scutella, potatio in memoriam vel sanitatem.



MINNE-DRINKING. 63

Now that Suevic cnpa filled with beer (p. 75) was a hallowed
sacrificial cauldron, like that which the Cimbri sent to the emperor
Augustus.^ Of the Scythian cauldron we have already spoken,
p. 75 ; and we know what part the cauldron plays in the Hymis-
qviSa and at the god's judgment on the seizure of the cauldron (by
Thor from giant Hymir). Nor ought we to overlook the ON.
proper names Ashctill, Thorhctill (abbrev. Thorkel) AS. Oscytcl
(Kemble 2, 302) ; they point to kettles consecrated to the as and
to Tlior.

Our knowledge of heathen antiquities will gain both by the
study of these drinking usages which have lasted into later times,
and also of the shapes given to laked meeds, which either retained
the actual forms of ancient idols, or were accompanied by sacrificial
observances. A history of German cakes and bread-rolls might
contain some unexpected disclosures. Thus the Indicul. superstit.
26 names simidacra de consparsa farina. Baked figures of animals
seem to have represented animals that were reverenced, or the
attributes of a god.^ From a striking passage in the Fridthiofssaga
(fornald. sog. 2, 86) it appears that the heathen at a disa blot halced
images of gods and smeared them with oil : ' satu konur viS eldinn
ok bokuSu goSin, en sumar smurSu ok J?erSu meS dukum,' women
sat by the fire and baked the gods, while some anointed them with
cloths. By Fri(5]?iof's fault a baked Baldr falls into the fire, the fat
blazes up, and the house is burnt down. According to Voetius de
superstit. 3, 122 on the day of Paul's conversion they placed a
figure of straw before the hearth on which they were baking, and
if it brought a fine bright day, they anointed it with butter ; other-
wise they kicked it from the hearth, smeared it with dirt, and
threw it in the water.

Much therefore that is not easy to explain in popular offerings
and rites, as the colour of animals (p. 54), leading the boar round
(p. 51), flowers (p. 58), minne-drinking (p. 59), even the shape
of cakes, is a reminiscence of the sacrifices of heathenism (see
Suppl.).

^ eneii-^av ra 2f/3n(TTa) 8S)pov rov Upmrarov Trap' avroi^ Xe^rjra, tlie most
sacred cauldron tney had, Strabo VII. 2.

- Baking in the shape of a boar must have been much more widely spread
than in the North alone, see below, Fn'j's boar ; even in France they baked
cochelins lor New Year's day, Mem. de I'ac. celt. 4, 429.



64 WORSHIP.

Beside prayers and sacrifices, one essential feature of the
heatlien cultus remains to be brought out : the solemn carryinfj
about of divine images. The divinity was not to remain rooted to
one spot, but at various times to bestow its presence on the entire
compass of the land (see ch. XIV). So Nerthus rode in state (in-
vehebatur populis),and Berecynthia (ch. XIII), so Fro travelled out
in spring, so the sacred ship, the sacred plough was carried round
(ch. XIII Isis). The figure of the unknown Gothic god rode in its
waggon (ch. VI). Fetcliing-in the Summer or May, carrying-out
Winter and Death, are founded on a similai»view. Holda, Berhta
and the like beings all make their circuit at stated seasons, to the
heathen's joy and the christian's terror ; even the march of
Wuotan's host may be so interpreted (conf. ch. XXXI. Frau
Gaudeu). When Fro had ceased to appear, Dietrich with the ber
(boar) and Dietrich Bern still showed themselves (ch. X. XXXI),
or the sonargoltr (atonement-boar) was conveyed to the heroes'
banquet (ch. X), and the boar led round the benches (p. 51),
Among public legal observances, the progress of a newly elected
king along the highways, the solemn lustration of roads, the beating
of bounds, at which in olden times gods' images and priests can
hardly have been wanting, are all the same kind of thing. After
the conversion, the church permanently sanctioned such processions,
except that the Madonna and saints' images were carried, particu-
larly when drought, bad crops, pestilence or war had set in, so as to
bring back rain (ch. XX), fertility of soil, healing and victory ; sacred
images were even carried to help in putting out a fire. The Indicul.
paganiar. XXVIII tells ' de simulacra quod per camjyos portant' on
which Eccard 1, 437 gives an important passage from the manuscript
Vita Marcsvidis (not Maresvidis) : statuimus ut annuatim secunda
feria pentecostes patronum ecclesiae in parochiis vestris lo7i(/o
amUtu circumfcrentes et domos vestras lustrantes, et pro gcntilitio
amlarvali in lacrymis et varia devotione vos ipsos mactetis et ad
refectionem pauperum eleemosynam comportetis, et in hac curti
pernoctantes super reliquias vigiliis et cantibus solennisetis, ut
praedicto mane determinatum a vobis amhitum pia lustratione com-
plentes ad monasterium cum honore debito reportetis. Confido
autem de patroni hujus misericordia, quod sic ah ea gyrade terrae



Online LibraryJacob GrimmTeutonic mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 7 of 46)