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ze Diiringen noch ze Sachscn Of Thuringia nor of Saxony
enkunde niht gewahsen There could not grow

bezzer obez uf rise. Better fruit on bough.

The allusion is surely to sacrificed animals, or firstfruits of the
chase, hung up on the trees of a sacred wood ? Either the story is
based on a more ancient original, or may not the poet have heard
tell from somewhere of heathenish doings going on in his own day
among Saxons and Tliuringians ? (see Suppl.).

And in other poems of the Mid. Ages the sacredness of the
ancient forests still exerts an after-influence. In Alex. 5193 we
read ' der edelc wait frone ' ; and we have inklings now and again,
if not of sacrifices offered to sacred trees, yet of a lasting indestruc-
tible awe, and the fancy that ghostly beings haunt particular trees.
Thus, in Ls. 2, 575, misfortune, like a demon, sat on a tree ; and in
Altd. w. 3, 161 it is said of a hollow tree:

da sint heiligen inne. There are saints in there,

die hoerent aller liute bet.^ That hear all people's prayers

(see Suppl.).

^ From the notion of a forest temple the transition is easy to payinj^ divine
honours to a sinL'le tree. Festus has : delubrum liistis delibratiLs (staff with


Still more immistakably does this forest cultus prevail in the
North, protected by the longer duration of heathenism. The great
sacrifice at Ledera described by Dietmar (see p. 48) was performed
in the island which, from its even now magnificent beech- woods,
bore the name of Scclundr, sea-grove, and was the finest grove in all
Scandinavia. The Swedes in like manner solemnized their festival
of sacrifice in a grove near Upsala ; Adam of Bremen says of the
animals sacrificed: Corpora suspenduntur in lucum qui proximus
est templo ; is enim lucus tam sacer est gentibus, ut singulae
arlores ejus ex morte vel tabo immolatorum divinae credantur. Of
HloSr HeiSreksson we are told in the Hervararsaga cap. 16
(fornald. sog. 1, 491), that he was born with arms and horse in the
Jiolij wood (a mork hinni helgu). In the grove Glasislundr a bird
sits on the boughs and demands sacrifices, a temple and gold-horned
cows, Ssem. 140-1. The sacred trees of the Edda, Yggdrasil and
M'Wiamei&r, Ssem. 109% hardly need reminding of.

Lastly, the agreement of the Slav, Prussian, Finnish and Celtic
paganisms throws light ujjon our own, and tends to confirm it.
Dietmar of Merseburg (Pertz 5, 812) affirms of the heathen temple
at Eiedegost ; quam undique sylva ab incolis intacta et venerabilis
circumdat magna; (ibid. 816) he relates how his ancestor Wibert
about the year 1008 rooted up a grove of the Slavs : litcum Zuti-
bure dictum, ab accolis td deum in omnibus lw7ioratum, et ab aevo
antique nunquam violatum, radicitus eruens, sancto martyri
Eomano in eo ecclesiam construxit. Zutibure is for Sveti bor =
holy forest, from bor (fir), pine-barren ; a Merseburg document of
1012 already mentions an ' ecclesia in Scutibure,' Zeitschr. f.
archivkunde, 1, 162, An OIST. saga (Fornm. sog. 11, 382) names a
hlotlundr (sacrificial grove) at Straela, called Boku, Helmold 1, 1
says of the Slavs ; usque hodie profecto inter illos, cum cetera

bark peeled off) qiiem venerabantur pro deo. Names given to particular trees
are at the same time names of goddesses, e.g. ON. Hlin, Gna. It is worthy of
notice, that the heathen idea of divine figures on trees has crept into christian
legends, so deeply rooted was tree worship among the peo^^le. I refer doubters
to the story of the Tyi-olese image of grace, which grew up in a forest tree
(Deutsche sageu, no. 348). In Carinthiayou find iladonna figures fixed on the
trees in gloomy groves (Sartoris reise 2, 165). Of like import seem to be the
descriptions of wonderful maidens sitting inside hollow trees, or perched on the
boughs (Marienkind, hausmarchen no. 3. Eomance de la infantina, see ch.
XVI.). Madonna in the wood, ]\Iar. legend, 177. Many oaks with Madonnas
in Normandy, Bosquet 196-7.


omnia comraunia sint cum nostris, solus proliibetur accessus hicorum
ac fontium, quos autumaut pollui christiauorum accessu. A song
in the Koniginhof MS. p. 72 speaks of the grove {hain, Boh. hai,
liag, Pol. gay, Sloven, gaj ; conf. gains, gahajus. Lex Eoth. 324,
kaheius, Lex Bajuv. 21, G) from which the christians scared away
the holy sparrow.^ The Esth. sallo, Finn, snlo means a holy wood,
especially a meadow with thick nnderwood ; the national god Thara-
])ila is described by Henry the Letton (ad. ann. 1219): in confinio
Wironiae erat mons et silva 2y^dchcrrima, in quo dicebant indigenae
magnum deum Osiliensium natum qui Tharapila- vocatur, et de
loco illo in Osiliam volasse, — in the form of a bird ? (see Suppl.).
To the Old Prussians, Romove^N^'s, the most sacred spot in the land,
and a seat of the gods ; there stood their images on a liohj oak hung
witli cloths. No unconsecrated person was allowed to set foot in
the forest, no tree to be felled, not a bough to be injured, not a
beast to be slain. There were many such sacred groves in other
parts of Prussia and Lithuania.^

The Vita S. Germani Autisiodorensis (b. 378, d. 448) written
by Constantius as early as 473 contains a striking narrative of a
IKcirtrec which stood in the middle of Auxerre and was honoured
by the heathen.* As the Burgundians did not enter Gaul till the
beginning of the 5th century, there is not likely to be a mixture in
it of German tradition. But even if the story is purely Celtic, it
deserves a place here, because it shows how widely the custom
prevailed of hanging the heads of sacrificial beasts on trees.^ Eo
tempore (before 400) territorium Autisiodorensis urbis visitatione
propria gubernabat Germanus. Cui mos erat tirunculorum potius
industriis indulgere, quam christianae religioni operam dare, is
ergo assidue venatui invigilans ferarum copiam insidiis atque artis
streuuitate frequentissime capiebat. Erat autem arhor pirus in

' Brzetislav burnt down the heathen groves and trees of the Bohemians in
109.3, Pelzel 1, 76. The Poles called a sacred grove roZ; and nroczysJco, conf.
Russ. roshtclia, grove [root rek role = fari, fatum ; roshtcha is from rosli, rasti
= glow]. On threat of hostile invasion, they cut rods (wicie) from the grove,
and sent them round to summon their neighbours. Mickiewicz 1, oG.

'- Conf. 'furupid in Formn. sog. 11, 385; but on Slav nations conf. Schief-
ner on Castren 329.

^ Joh. Voigts gesch. Preussens 1, 595 — 597.

* Acta sanctor. BoUand. July 31, p. 202 ; conf. Legenda aurea, cap. 102.

^ Huic (Marti) praedac primordia vovebantur, huic truncis suspendebantur
exuviae, Jurnandes cap. 5.


itrhe media, amcenitate gratissima : ad cujus ramusculos ferarum ab
eo deprehensarum capita pro admiratione venationis niniiae depen-
dchant. Quern Celebris ejusdem civitatis Amator episcopus his
frequens compellebat eloquiis : ' desine, quaeso, vir honoratorum
spleiididissime, haec jocularia, quae Christianis ofFensa, Paganis vero
imitanda sunt, exercere. hoc opus idololatriae cultura est, non chris-
tianse elegantissimae disciplinae.' Et licet hoc indesinenter vir deo
dignus perageret, iile tamen nullo modo admonenti se adquiescere
voluit aut obedire. vir autem domini iterum atque iterum eum horta-
batur, nt non solum a consuetudine male arrepta discederet, verum
etiam et ipsam arhorem, ne Christianis offendiculum esset, radici-
tus exstirparet sed ille nullatenus aurem placidam applicare voluit
admonenti. In hujus ergo persuasionis tempore quodam die Ger-
manus ex urbe in praedia sui juris discessit. tunc beatus Amator
opportunitatem opperiens sacrilcffam arhorem cum caudicibus ab-
scidit, et ne aliqua ejus incredulis esset memoria igni concreman-
dam illico deputavit. oscilla^) vero, quae tanquam trophaea cujus-
dam certaminis umbram dependentia ostentabant, longius a civitatis
terminis projici praecipit. Protinus vero fama gressus suos ad
aures Gennani retorquens, dictis animuni incendit, atque iram suis
suasionibus exaggerans ferocem effecit, ita ut oblitus sanctae
religionis, cujus jam fuerat ritu atque munere insignitus, mortem
beatissimo viro minitaret.

A poem of Herricus composed about 876 gives a fuller descrip-
tion of the idolatrous j)eartree :

altoque et lato stabat gratissima quondam
urbe jpirus media, populo spectabilis omni ;
non quia pendentum flavebat honore pirorum,
nee quia perpetuae vernabat munere frondis :

^ Virg. Georg. 2, 388 : tibiqiie (Bacche) oscilla ex alta suspenduut mollia
pinu. In the story, however, it is not masks that are hung up, but real heads
of beasts; are the ferarum imagines in Tac, Hist. 4, 22 necessarily images ?
Does osciUa mean caj^ita oscillantia ? It appears that when they hung up the
heads, they propped open the moiith with a stick, conf. Isengr. 645. Reinardus
3, 293 (see Suppl.). Nailing birds of prey to the gate of a burg or barn is well
known, and is practised to this day. Hanging up horses' heads was mentioned
on p. 47. The Grimnismal 10 tells ns, in OSin's mansion there hung a wolf
outside the door, and over that an eagle ; were these mere simulacra and insignia 1
Witechind says, the Saxons, when sacrificing, set up an eagle over the gate : Ad
orientalem portam ponuntaquilam, aramque Victoriae construentes ; this eagle
seems to have been her emblem. A dog hung up over the threshold is also
mentioned, Lex. Alam. 102.


sed deprensarum passim capita oMo, ferai^m
arhoris ohscoenae patuiis haercntia ramis
praebebant vano plausum spectacula vulgo.
horrebant illic trepidi ramalia ccrvi
et dirum frendentis ap)ri, fera spicula, denies,
acribus exitium meditantes forte molossis.
tunc qiioque sic variis arbos induta tropaeis
fundebat rudibus lascivi semina risus-

ft was not the laughter of the multitude that offended the christian
priests ; they saw in the practice a performance, however degene-
rate and dimmed, of heathen sacrifices.^

Thus far we have dwelt on the evidences which go to prove
that the oldest worship of our ancestors was -connected with sacred
forests and trees.

At the same time it cannot be doubted, that even in the earliest
times there were temples built for single deities, and perhaps rude
images set up inside them. In the lapse of .centuries the old forest
worship may have declined and been superseded by the structure
of temples, more with some populations and less with others. In
fact, we come across a good many statements so indefinite or incom-
plete, that it is impossible to gather from them with any certainty
whether the expressions used betoken the ancient cultus or one
departing from it.

The most weighty and significant passages relating to this part
of the subject seem to be the following (see Suppl.) :

Tac. Germ. 40 describes the sacred grove and the worship of
Mother Earth ; when the priest in festival time has carried the
goddess round among the people, he restores her to her sanctuary :
satiatam conversatione mortalium deani templo reddit.

Tac. ann. 1, 51 : Caesar avidas legiones, quo latior populatio
foret, quatuor in cuneos dispertit, quinquaginta millium spatium
ferro flammisque pervastat ; non sexus, non aetas miserationem

■• St. Benedict found at Montecassino vetustissinmm fanuni, in quo ex
antiqiio more gentilium a stulto rusticano populo Apollo colebatur, circumquaque
enini in cultuni daemoniorum luci succreverant, in quilius adluic eodem tempore
infideliuni insana multitudo sacrificiis saciile^'is insudaliat. Greg. Ma<.,'. dialogi
2, 8. These were not German heathens, but it proves the custom to have been
the more universal.


attulit: profana simul et sacrcij et celehcrrimum illis gentibus
templum, quod Tanfanae^ vocabant, solo aequantur. The nation to
which this temple belonged were the Marsi and perhaps some
neighbouring ones (see SuppL).

Vita S. Eugendi abbatis Jurensis ("t circ. 510), auctore monacho
Condatescensi ipsius discipulo (in Actis sanctor. BoUand. Jan. 1, p.
50, and in Mabillon, acta Ben. sec. 1, p. 570) : Sanctus igitur
famulus Christi Eugendus, sicut beatonim patrum Eomani et
Lupicini in religione discipulus, ita etiam natalibus ac provincia
extitit indigcna atque concivis. ortus nempe est hand longe a vico
cui vetusta paffanitas ob celebritateni clausuramque fortissimam
siiperstitiosissimi templi Gallica lingua Isarnodori, id est, ferrei ostii
indidit nomen : quo nunc quoque in loco, dchihris ex parte jam
dirutis, sacratissime micant coelestis regni culmina dicata Christi-
colis ; atque inibi pater sanctissimae prolis judicio jDontificali
plebisque testimonio extitit in presbyterii dignitate sacerdos. If
Eugendus was born about the middle of the 5th century, and his
father already was a priest of the christian cluirch which had been
erected on the site of the heathen temple, heathenism can at the
latest have lingered there only in the earlier half of that century,
at whose commencement the West Goths passed through Italy into
Gaul. Gallica lingua here seems to be the German spoken by the
invading nations, in contradistinction to the Eomana ; the name of
the place is almost pure Gothic, eisarnadai'iri, still more exactly it
might be Burgundian, Isarnodori.^ Had either "West Goths or
Burgundians, or perhaps even some Alamanns that had penetrated
so far, founded the temple in the fastnesses and defiles of the Jura?^
Tlie name is \vell suited to the strength of the position and of the
building, which the christians in part retained (see Suppl.).

A Constitutio Childeberti I of about 554 (Pertz 3, 1) contains
the following : Praecipientes, ut quicunque admoniti de agro suo,
ubicumque fuerint simidacra construda vel idola daemoni dedicata

1 An inscription foimd in Neapolitan territory, but supj)osed by Orelli
2053 to have been made by Ligorius, has ' Tamfanae sacrum ' (Gudii inscript.
iintiq. p. Iv. 11, de Wal p. 188) ; tlieword is certainly Geiman, and formed like
Hludana, Sigana (Sequana), Liutana (Lugdunum), Eabana (Eavenna), &c.

" Yet the Celtic forms also are not far removed, Ir. iaran, Wei. haiarn,
Armor, uarn (ferrum) ; Ir. doras, Wei. dor (porta) : haearndor = iron gate,
•luoted in Davies's Brit. Mythol. pp. 120, 560.

^ Frontier mountains held sacred and made places of sacrifice by some
nations ; Ritters erdkunde 1, aufl. 2, 79. vol. 2, p. 903.


ab hommibus, factum non statim abjecerint vel sacerdotibus haec
destruentibus prohibuerint, datis fidejussoribus nou aliter discedant
nisi in nostris obtutil:»us praesententur.

Vita S, Eadegundis (t 587) the wife of Clotaire, composed by a
contemporary nun Baudonivia (acta Bened, sec. 1, p. 327) : Dum
iter ageret (Eadegundis) seculari pompa se comitante, interjecta
longinquitate terrae ac spatio, fanuiii quod a Francis colebatur in
itinere beatae reginae quantum miliario uno proximum erat. hoc
ilia audiens jussit famulis fanuin igne comburi, iniquum judicans
Deum coeli contemni et diabolica machinamenta venerari. Hoc
audientes Franci universa multitudo cum giadiis et fustibus vel
omni fremitu conabantur defendere. sancta vero regina immobilis
perseverans et Christum in pectore gestans, equum quem sedebat
in antea {i.e. ulterius) non movit antequam et fanum perureretur
et ipsa orante inter se populi pacem firmarent. The situation of
the temple she destroyed I do not venture to determine; Eadegund
was journeying from Thuringia to France, and somewhere on that
line, not far from the Ehine, the fanum may be looked for.

Greg. Tur. vitae patrum 6 : Eunte rege (Theoderico) in Agrip-
pinam urbem, et ipse (S. Gallus) simul abiit. erat autem ibi fanum
quoddam diversis ornamentis refertum, in quo barbaris (1. Barbarus)
opima lihamina exhibens usque ad vomitum cibo potuque repleba-
tur. ibi et simulacra ut deum adorans, membra, secundum quod
unumquemque dolor attigisset, sculpebat in ligno. quod ubi S.
Gallus audivit, statim illuc cum uno tantum clerico properat, ac-
censoque igne, cum nullus ex stultis Paganis adesset, ad fanum
applicat et succendit. at illi videntes fumum dehd)ri ad coelum
usque conscendere, auctorem incendii quaerunt, inventumque eva-
ginatis giadiis prosequuntur ; ille vero in fugam versus aulae se
regiae condidit. verum postquam rex quae acta fuerant Paganis
minantibus recognovit, blandis eos sermonibus lenivit. This Gallus
is distinct from the one who appears in Alamannia half a century
later ; he died about 553, and by the king is meant Theoderic I of

Vita S. Lupi Senonensis (Duchesne 1, 562. Bouquet 3, 491) :
Pex Chlotarius virum Dei Lupum episcopum retrusit in pago quodam
Neustriae nuncupante Vinemaco (le Vimeu), traditum duci pagano
{i.e. duci terrae), nomine Bosoni Landegisilo (no doubt a Frank)
quem ille direxit in villa quae dicitur Andesagina super fluvium



Auciam, ubi erant templa fanatica a decurionihus cidta. (a.D.
614.) Andesagina is Anseuiie, Aiicia was afterwards called la
Bresle, Briselle.

Beda, hist. eccl. 2, 13, relates how the NorthumLrian king
Eadwine, baptized 627, slain 633, resolved after mature consultation
wdth men of understanding to adopt Christianity, and was especially
made to waver in his ancient faith by Coifi (Coefi) his chief heathen
priest himself: Cumque a praefato pontifice sacrorum suorum
quaereret, quis aras et fana idolorum cum septis quihus erant cir-
cumdata primus profanare deberet ? respondit : ego. quis enim ea,
quae per stultitiam colui, nunc ad exemplum omnium aptius quam
ipse per sapientiam mihi a Deo vero donatam destruam ? . . .
Accinctus ergo gladio accepit lanceam in manu et ascendens
emissarium regis (all three unlawful and improper things for a
heathen priest), pergebat ad idola. quod aspiciens vulgus aesti-
mabat eum insanire. nee distulit ille. mox ut appropinquabat ad
fanum, profanare illud, injecta in eo lancea quam tenebat, multum-
que gavisus de agnitione veri Dei cultus, jussit sociis destruere ac
succendere fanum cum omnibus septis suis. ostenditur autem locus
ille quondam idolorum non longe ab Eboraco ad orientem ultra
amuem Dorowentionem et vocatur hodie Godmundinga ham, ubi
pontifex ipse, inspirante Deo vero, polluit ac destruxit eas, quas
ipse sacra verat, aras.^

Vita S. Bertuffi Bobbiensis (t 640) in Acta Bened. sec. 2, p.
164 : Ad quandam viUam Iriae fluvio adjacentem accessit, ubi
fanum quoddam ariorihus consitum videns allatum ignem ei admovit,
congestis in modum pirae lignis. Id vero cernentes fani cultores
Meroveum apprehensum diuque fustibus caesum et ictibus . con-
tusum in fiuvium iUud demergere conantur. — The Iria runs into
the Po ; the event occurs among Lombards.

Walafridi Strabonis vita S. GaUi (f 640) in actis Bened. sec. 2
p. 219, 220 : Venerunt (S. Columbanus et Gallus) infra partes
Alemanniae ad fiuvium, qui Lindimacus vocatur, juxta quem ad
superiora tendentes pervenerunt Turicinum. cumque per littus
ambulantes venissent ad caput lacus ipsius, in locum qui Tucconia
dicitur, placuit Hlis loci qualitas ad inhabitandum. porro homines

iThe A. S. translation renders arae hj wigbed (see p. 67), fana by heargas,
idola by deofolgild, septa once by hegas (hedges), and the other time by getymbro.
The spear hurled at the hearg gave the signal for its demolition.


ibidem commanentes crudeles erant et inipii, simulacra colentes,
idola sacrificiis venerantes, observantes aiiguria et divinationes et
multa quae contraria sunt cultui divino superstitiosa sectantes.
Sancti igitur homines cum coepissent inter illos liabitare, docebant
eos adorare Patrem et Filium et Spiritum sanctum, et custodire
fidei veritatem. Beatus quoque Gallus sancti viri discipulus zelo
pietatis armatus fana, in quibus dacmoniis sacrificahant, igni suc-
cendit et quaecumque invenit oblata demersit in lacum. — Here
follows an important passage which will be quoted further on ; it
says expressly : cumque ejusdem templi solemnitas ageretur.

Jonae Bobbiensis vita S. Colunibani (-f- 615) cap. 17. in act.
Bened. 2, 12. 13 : Cumque jam multorum monachorum societate
densaretur, coepit cogitare, ut potiorem locum in eadem eremo
{i.e. Vosago saltu) quaereret, quo monasterium construeret. in-
venitque castrum firmissimo munimine olim fuisse cultum, a supra
dicto loco distans plus minus octo niillibus, quem prisca tempora
Luxovium nuncuj^abant, ibique aquae calidae cultu eximio constru-
ctae habebantur. ibi imaginum lapidearum densitas vicina saltus
densabat,^ quas ctdfu miserahili rihique profano vetusta Paganorutii
tempora honorabant. — This Burgundian place then (Luxeuil in
Frauche Comte, near Vesoul) contained old Eoman thermae
adorned with statues. Had the Burcfundian settlers connected
their own worship with these ? The same castrum is spoken of
in the

Vita S. Agili Eesbacensis (f 650), in Acta Ben. sec. 2, p. 317 :
Castrum namque intra vasta eremi septa, quae Vosagus dicitur,
iwoxoXj fanaticorum cnltui olim dedicatum, sed tunc ad solum usque
dirutum, quod hujus saltus incolae, quamquam ignoto praesagio,
Luxovium [qu. lux ovium ?] nominavere. A church is then built
on the heathen site : ut, ubi olim prophano ritu veteres cohicrunt
fana, ibi Christi figerentur arae et erigerentur vexilla, habitaculum
Deo militautium, quo adversus aerias potestates dimicareut superni
Eegis tirones. p. 319 : Ingressique (Agilus cum Eustasio) hujus
itineris viam, juvante Christo, Warascos praedicatori accelerant,
qui agrestium fanis decepti, quos vulgi faunos vocant, gentiliurn

^ The nniltitiule of statues made the adjoining wood thicker ? Must we not
supply an ace. copiam or speciem after imag. lapid. 1 [vicina saltus densabat
evidently means '■crowded the adjoining part of the wood . So in Ovid: densae
foHis buxi. — Traxs.]


quoqiie errore seducti, in perfidiam devenerant, Fotini seu Bonosi
virus infecti, quos, errore depulso, matri ecclesiae reconciliatos veros
Christi fecere servos.

Vita S. Willibrordi (f 789), in Acta Bened. sec. 3, p. 609 :
Pervenit in confinio Fresonum et Danorum ad quandam insulam,
quae a quodam deo suo Fosite ab accolis terrae Fositesland appel-
latur, quia iu ea ejusdem dei fana fuere constructa. Qui locus a
paganis tanta veneratione liabebatur, ut nil iu eo vel animalium
ibi pascentium vel aliarum quarumlibet rerum gentilium quisquam
tangere audebat, nee etiam a fonte qui ibi ebulliebat aquam liaurire
nisi tacens praesumebat.

Vita S. WiUehadi (f 793), in Pertz 2, 381 : Unde contigit, ut
quidam discipulorum ejus, divino coni]3uncti ardore,/rt.?ia in morem
gentilium circumquaquc ercdct coepissent evertere et ad nihilum,
prout poterant, redigere ; quo facto barbari, qui adliuc forte
perstiterant, furore nimio succensi, irruerunt super eos repente cum
impetu, volentes eos funditus iuterimere, ibique Dei famulum
fustibus caesum multis admodum plagis affecere. — This happened
in the Frisian pagus Thrianta (Drente) before 779.

Vita Ludgeri (beginning of the 9th cent.) 1,8 : (In Frisia) Paganos
asperrimos . . . niitigavit, ut sua iilum deluhra clestruere coram
oculis paterentur. Inventum in fanis aurum et argentum pluriraum
Albricus in aerarium regis intulit, accipiens et ipse praecipiente
Carolo portionem ex illo. — Couf. the passage cited p. 45 from the
Lex Frisionum.

Folcuini gesta abb. Lobiensium (circ. 980), in Pertz 6, 55 : Est
locus intra terminos pagi, quem veteres, a loco ubi sicperstitiosa
gentilitas fanum Marti sacravcrat, Fanum Martinse dixeruut. — This
is Famars in Hainault, not far from Valenciennes.

In all probability the sanctuary of Tanfana which Germanicus
demolished in a.d. 14 was not a mere grove, but a real building,
otherwise Tacitus would hardly have called the destruction of it a
' levelling to the ground '. During the next three or four centuries
we are without any notices of heathen temples in Germany. In
the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, as I have shown, we come
upon castra, templa, fana among Burgundians, Franks, Lombards,
Alamanns, Anglo-Saxons, and Frisians. By fanum {whence fana-
ticus) seems often to have been understood a building of smaller


extent, and by templum one of larger ; the Indiculus superstit. xxxi.
4 has : ' de casulis (huts), i.e. fanis ' (see Suppl.). I admit that
some of the authorities cited leave it doubtful whether German
heathen temples be intended, they might be Roman ones which
had been left standing ; in which case there is room for a twofold
hj'^pothesis : that the dominant German nation had allowed certain
communities in their midst to keep up the Eoman-Gallic cultus, or
that they themselves had taken possession of Eoman buildings for
the exercise of their own religion^ (see Suj^pl.). No thorough

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