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Jacques W. (Jacques Wardlaw) Redway.

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anthracite coal comes from three small areas in Pennsyl-
vania ; these, it is estimated, will be exhausted in about



INDIJSTRIAL KEGIOXS OF UNITED STATES 371

one liimcli-ed years. The supply of bituminous coal is prac-
tically imlimited. Much of the coal-supply is used as
house fuel, but by far the greater part is used in the manu-
facture of iron and in producing steam.

Coal is derived from woody fibre that in time past was
subjected to heat and pressure away from contact with the
air. Most of the vegetable matter accumulated in the
swamps of the Carboniferous Age. The coal measures
of the Pacific Coast, however, are of much more recent
origin, and formed during the Tertiary period.

Petroleum, or rock oil, occurs in various places, usually




A GATEWAY OF COMMERCE

near but not always in the coal-fields. The refined oil of
commerce is shipped to almost every part of tlie woild,
and is even an article of caravan trade iji Africa. The
principal wells of the United States are in Western Penn-
sylvania, Eastern Ohio, and West Virginia. There is also
a productive region in Southern California. Natural gas
occurs in the same general area, but the gas and the oil
do not seem to be associated. The gas is used for house
fuel and for making steam. The sup])ly, much oi wliich
has been wasted, is becoming exhausted.

Iron ore occurs in very many parts of the Uuitotl States,



372 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

but it is available only wlieu it can be shipped to places
where coal is cheaply obtained. The Gogebic and Ke-
weenaw deposits on Lake Superior, Iron Mountain in Mis-
souri, and the deposits of the Appalachian Mountains are
the chief supplies. The iron is obtained from the ore by
smelting the latter with coal or coke. The " pig-iron "
resulting is then converted into steel ingots by the Besse-
mer process, and the ingots are rolled into rails, plates,
and billets, and other structural material.

Gold is abundant in the Western Highlands. It is
obtained mainly by crushing the quartz rock in which it
occurs and " amalgamating " or dissolving the gold in
quicksilver, or by the use of other solvents. In Alaska
and in parts of California most of the gold is free, being
mingled with gravel. It is obtained by " washing " the
latter away with water, thereby leaving the gold, which is
much heavier, to be taken up by the quicksilver. Silver
also occurs in the Western Highlands. Cop2)er occurs in
the Rocky Mountains, but the principal part of the prod-
uct comes from the Lake Superior region. It is mainly
used for tlie transmission of electric power. One of the
two quicksilver-producing regions of the world is in Cali-
fornia and this state yields about half the output.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.— Repeat the list of physiographic
and industrial regions enumerated in the first page of this chapter.

Why is the New England Plateau ill-adapted to grain-farming ? How
does topography become a factor in the economic production of grain ?

State the various ways in which coal is used as power, both on land
and at sea.

Study the furniture and equipments of the school-room and make a
list of the industries there represented. Trace the geographic source
of the raw material employed ; where is each manufactured ?

Explain how the topography of the northern prairies has affected the
development of farming machinery.

Explain why cotton growing is limited to its present latitude. In



INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF UNITED STATES 373

what way has cotton-growing affected the social conditions of the peo-
ple of the Southern States ?

Explain how and why the topography of the Western Highlands is a
barrier to commerce.

Explain how and why the geographic distribution of industries has
resulted in the enormous development of railways.

Describe three railway routes across the Continent ; two water routes
from Chicago to tide water.

How does the grade of a railway affect the cost of transporting freight ?

Obtain from the Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C.,any bulletin
or publication explaining the kinds and uses of buoys and range lights
employed in harbors.

Trace the course of a deep draught steamship entering the main
channel of New York Harbor, with reference to the range lights. {S^e
map, p. j6g.)

COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE

Powell. — Physiogi-aphy of the United States, pp. 33-100.

Davis. — Physiography of the United States, pp. 269-304.

McGee. — The Piedmont Plateau, National Geographic Mag-
azine, vii., 2G1.

Hewe.s. — Statistical Railway Studies, American Railirays,
pp. 42.5-449.

NOTES

' There has been a constant movement of people from the up-
land farms either to the cities or else to the more fertile regions
of the west.

' In manufacturing and commercial regions there is a greater
amount J9er capita paid for education and higher average daily
wages than in any otlier part of tlie country.

' By manufacturing the cotton in the region where it is grown
there is i^aved the transportation of the cott<m from the lield to
the mills, many miles distant.

*The United States now leads in the manufacture of rails.
Nearly all of the (i.OOO miles of steel rails that span Siberia were
made in the rolling mills of Pennsylvania.

'Alfalfa is a hardy ami rapidly growing species, very do.sely
related to clover. It is fully as nutritious as clover and grows
more rapidly.



374 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

' In several pLaees the Columbia River has cut its channel deep
into the flood of lava. In one place there is disclosed a forest
which was overwhelmed by the lava. The trees are felled, but
the wood is in a good state of preservation.

' At times the beds of some of the larger streams, such as Hum-
boldt and Carson Rivers, are dry in the day but contain a con-
siderable amount of water at night, when, by reason of lower tem-
perature, evaporation is lessened.

* On the whole there seems to be a slight gain in the volume of
the lake. Pyramid, Carson, and Winnemucca Lakes, in recent
times dry, are now filling up. Their waters contain not much
more than three per cent, of salt.

* At the time of the last filling of the basin the water was
extremely salt, and its temperature was nearly 120" F. Because
of its altitude — more than three hundred feet lower than the
Colorado River — at several times there have been propositions to
turn the river into the sink and thus make an inland sea.
Evaporation is so great, however, that the entire volume of the
Colorado would fill but a small part of the basin, nor would
there be any outflow from the sink to the Gulf.

'" The camels were first imported by Jefferson Davis, at the
time when he was Secretary of War. As pack animals they were
successful. A camel could carry twice as much as the best pack
mule, and carry it twice as far in a day. The pack mules and
horses were in mortal terror of the camel, however, and the rifle
of the packer in time put an end to the experiment — and prac-
tically to the camel.

"The excess of wheat is exported mainly to Europe, by way
of Cape Horn. The completion of the Nicaragua Canal will
bring San Francisco nearer to London than its rival wheat mar-
ket, Calcutta, now is.

'^ Forest fires probably rank first in the destruction of timber.
The railways make the heaviest demand on the oak, which is em-
ployed as ties. Between the railways and the tanneries the
Pennsylvania Appalachians are nearly shorn of oak and hem-
lock. The paper-makers also use an enormous amount of tim-
ber in the manufacture of paper pulp.

'^Only a small portion of this area, however, is productive.
The coal measures of China probably surpass those of the United
States.



APPENDIX



The Elemexts of the Solar System



Name.


Distance from
Sun, in Miles;. ■■"


Time of
Revolution.


Diameter in
Miles.


Number of
Satellites.


Density
Water=l


Sun






860,000

2,992

7,660

7,918

4,211

20—300

86,000

70,500

31,700-^

34,500-'




1 4


Mercurj'


37,750,000

06,750,000

92,300.000

141,000,000

250,000,000

480,000,000

881,000.000

1,771,000,000

2,775,000,000


88 days
224 "
365i- "

1.9 yrs.

4.4' '^
11.8 "
29.5 "
84 "
164 "




6 8''


Venus '




4 8''


Earth

Mars

Asteroids . . .


1
2


5.6
4.2


Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune ....


5
9
4
1


1.4
0.7
1.3'^
LP



' The periodic time of the asteroids varies from 3.1 years to 7.8 years ; the approximate

average is 4.4 years.

" These values are approximate.



II

Deep I^orings

The following are the greatest artificial depths yet obtained,
that at Monongahela probably e.xtonding as far below sea-level
as any others. The two deepest borings in the world were
both sunk in Germany, at Government expense, to ascertain
the thickness of the coal measures, and also whether other
beds underlay those that were known. The deeper <>\' the
two and the greatest depth yet attained is in the coal-iields of
Upper Silesia, at the little mining town of Paruschowitz, where
the diamond drill has pcnctrMtcd to the deptii of {jj)70 feet.

37r»



376 APPENDIX

The second greatest depth is that at Schladebach, near Leipsic,
where the drill was sent down to 0,265 feet. With the excep-
tion of the borings on the Monongahela and Wheeling and
the deeper of the two wells sunk at St. Louis, all the drilled
holes that have reached an exceptionally great depth are in
Germany. Here is a list of the deepest bore-holes ;

Feet.

Paruschowitz, Upper Silesia 6,570

Schladebach, near Leipsic 6,265

Monongahela (thus far sunk) 5,532

Wheeling, W. Va 4,920

Sperenberg (gypsum beds near Berlin) 4,559

Lieth, near Altona 4,388

Eu, near Stassfurt 4,241

Lubtheen, in Mecklenburg 3,949

St. Louis, Mo 3,843

Stennewitz, near Halle 3,644

Inowrazlaw, Posen 3,624

Friedrichsaue, near Aschersleben 3,542

Many thousands of wells have been sunk in this country
chiefly in the search for petroleum or natural gas, but most of
them are not over 1,000 to 2,000 feet deep. The greater part
of the artesian wells in the country vary from 200 to 1,000
feet. The average depth of the many thousands of artesian
wells sunk for irrigation in the western half of the country is
not far from 210 feet.

It is in our copper-mining shafts on Lake Superior that we
take first rank in this form of excavation. Work on No.
5 Tamarack shaft on Houghton Peninsula began in 1895, and
it will not be completed until 1901, when, it is expected, it
will be the deepest shaft in the world. It will not be sunk
to a greater depth, for from this level the company can ob-
tain all the ore at that end of its property. There is but little
uniformity, however, in the rate at which the heat increases ;
it varies from one degree (F.) in fifty to one in every seventy
or eighty feet of descent. In some cases the heat is due in
part to chemical changes in the rock. — O. C. Adams, in The
New York Sun.



APPENDIX



377



III
Heights of Plateaus, Ranges, and Peaks



Plateaus



Feet.



Abyssinian 6,500— 7,500

Allegheny 1,000— 1,500

Australian 4,500— 5,500

Bolivian 12,000—14,000

Brazilian 2,800— 2,500

Colorado 4,500— 6,000

Columbia 4,000— 5,000

Dekkan 2,000— 2,500

Guiana 2,000— 3,000



Heights of the Land.

Iberian

Iran

Mexican .

Mongolian

New England

The " Plains,"

The Pamirs

Tibet



Feet.
1,000— 1,500
2,000— 2,500
5,000— 6,000
7,000— 8,000
3,000— 4,000
1,000— 1,200
5,000— 6,000
10,000—14,000
15,000—17,000



Ranges



Feet

Alps 7,000— 9,000

Altai 6,000— 7,000

Andes 12,000—15,000

Apennines 3,500— 4,000

Appalachian 1,500 — 2,500

Atlas 8.000—10,000

Balkan 4.000— 5,000

Blue (Oregon). . . . 4,000— 4,500

Carpathian 4,500— 6,000

Cascade 7,500-10,000

Caucasus 9,000—11,000

Coast (California) . 2,500— 3,500



Feel.



Coast (Canada) 4,500— 8,000

Dragon (So. Africa). 4,000— 5,000

Himalaya 16,000—19,000

Hindu kush 16,000—18,000

Jura 2, .500— 3,500

Karakorum 18.000—19,000

Ozark 1,200— 1,500

Pyrenees 7,500— 9,000

Rocky (U. S.) 6,000— 7,000

" (Canada) 9,000-10,000

Tian Shan 17,000—18,000

Ural 2,000— 4,000



Peaks



Feet.

Aconcagua .23,900'

Ararat 17,260

Blanc 15,744'^

Ben Nevis 4. .368'

Chimhorazo ( volcano i 20.500

Cotopaxi (volcano) 16. 3(H)

Dap.sang 28,3-10

Dcmavend (volcano) 18.800

Etna (volcano) 10,875"

Elbruz 18,.''>26'

Everest 29,000''

Fremont Peak 13,790



Feet.



Fujiyama (volcano) 14,177

Hekia (volcano) 5,100

Hood 11,900

Kenia 18,000

Kilima Njaro 20,000"

Kilauea (volcano) Hawaiian

Islands 4,000

Logan 19,.500

Marcy, New York 5,467'

McKinley, Alaska 20,464'

Mauna Kea (volcano), Ha-
waiian Islands 14,000



' riighest in South America. » PoBPibly highest in the world.

^ Iliirbest in Euroiie. • llighent in AdirondiickH.

' nighest in Uritich Islen. ' Probably highesi in Norrh America.

* Higbeet in Caucasnn. " Possibly highest in Alrioi.

• Varies with each eruption.



378



APPENDIX



Peaks {^Continued)



Feet.

Mauna Loa (volcano) 13,(iOO

Mitchell, North Carolina... 6,711'
Hooker, British Columbia.. 15, 700

Orizaba (volcano) 18,300-

Pike's Peak 14,U7

Popocatepetl (volcano) .... 17,800

Rainier (Tacoraa) 14,441

St. Elias 18,024



Feet.



' Highest in Appa!acliian System.

2 Highest in Mexico.

* Possibly highest in world ; not surveyed.



Shasta 14,440

Sinai 8,600

T. 45 (Himalayas) 29,100^

Teneriffe 12,000

Washington 6,286'*

Whitney 14,898*

Vesuvius (volcano) 4,000"

Wrangell 17,500

* Highest in White Mountains.

* Highest in Sierra Nevada Range.

* Varies with each eruption.



IV

Lengths of Rivers and Areas of their Basins^



Miles.

Amazon 4,000

Amur .2,500

Brahmaputra 2,000

Colorado 1,100

Columbia 1,400

Danube 1,800

Dnieper 1,230

Dwina 700

Elbe 550

Ganges 1,800

Hoang 2,800

Hudson 300

Indus ...'..2,000

Irawaddi 1,200

Kongo 3,000

La Plata 2,300

Lena 2,800

Mackenzie 2,400

Mekong 2,600

Mississippi-Missouri. 4, 200



Sq. Miles.
2,500,000
750,000
400,000
230,000
290,000
300,000
200,000
150,000
450,000
450,000
400,000
13,000
350,000



1,500,000

1,250,000

750,000

600,000

300,000

1,250,000



Miles.
Murray-Darling. . 1, 100

Niger 3,000

Nile 4,000

Ob 2,800

Orange 1,200

Orinoco 1,500

Po 450

Rhine. 800

Rhone 550

Rio Grande 1,800

St. Lawrence 2,100

Sao Francisco. . . 1,800

Seine 500

Thames 215

Tocantins" 1,000

Volga 2,300

Yangtze 3,100

Yenesei 3,000

Yukon 2,200

Zambesi 1,800



Sq. Miles.

350,000

1,000,000

1,250,000

1,000,000

275,000

400,000

27,000

90,000

35,000

200,000

560,000

200,000

23,000

6,000

250,000

600,000

700,000

1,500,000

400,000

500,000



> Both the length and the area of the basin are approximate except in a few instances ;
the length of almost every river changes from year to year.
2 Not a tributary of the Amazon.

It is well to bear in mind that the length of a river is apt to
vary from year to year, partly because of the formation of
loops and cut-offs, and partly owing to the gradual extension
of its headwater tributaries.



APPENDIX



379



V

Lakes



Name.



Aral

Assal ,

Baikal

Balkash ....

Caspian

Chad

Chapala

Crater

Dead Sea. . . .

Erie

Great Salt . . .

Huron

Ladoga

Michigan . . .
Nicaragua. . . .
Salton Lake '• .

Superior

Tanganyika . .

Titicaca

Victoria ,

Winnipeg. . . .



Area.



Square Miles.
25,000-
1,000'
13,200
8,500-
170,000'^
10,0005
1,300



320

573

2,300^

23,800

7,000

22,450

2,800



31,200
14,000'
12,500
26,000'
9,400



Depth.



Altitude.



Feet.

200-

200

4,500

135-'

3,000'^

20'2



2,300
7002
210
50'
734
730



320



],008

1,200

900



Feet.
50
-580
1,400
1,000'
-84
1,000
7,000



-1,300

9,960

4,200

581

55

581

108

-267

602

2,670

12,500

4,000

710



' Approximate ; the figures given are from the best authorities, but vary from the
measurements of others. Lake Assal is situated in a depression near the Gulf of Aden.
It is the head of a small bay severed from the sea by aeolian sands. It is fed by a small
stream that flows from the sea into the lake. The volume of the lake represents the
balance between inflow and evaporation.

2 Subject to preat variations ; the sign — prefixed to the altitude mdicates below sea-
level. Salton Lake is now dry.

VI
The Tides
The following very clear solution of a muchdii5puted prob-
lem is given by Dr. Emerson E. White, author of a series of
mathematical text-books. It is only proper to add that no
theory on the subject fully e.xplains all the phenomena noted.
Dr. White's solution meets the views of most students.

Let E equal the attraction of the earth, and M equal the attraction of
the moon at B, and M the attraction of tiic moon at A and C.



380



APPENDIX



Since distance OB is less than OA or OC, M>M'. Hence E~ M<E- M',
and hence the water at B is lighter than at A or C — i.e., has less specific
gravity, and is lifted or bulged by the surrounding heavier water.

Let E equal attraction of the earth and m equal attraction of moon at
B', and ni equal attraction of moon at A or C . Since distance OB' is




greater than OA' or OC, m < m. Hence E -\^ m < E + m\ and hence
the water at B' is lighter or has less specific gravity than at A' or C and is
lifted or bulged by the surrounding heavier water. Since distance OB is
less than OB', M > m, and hence the tide at B is higher than at B'.



VII

Table Showing the Numbee of Grains of Moisture,
BY Weight Necessary to Saturate a Cubic Foot
OF Air at Normal Density.



Temperature.


Moisture in
One Cubic
Foot of Air.


Temperature.


Moisture in
One Cubic
Foot of Air.


Temperature.


Moisture in

One Cubic

Foot of Air.


Degrees P.
-40


Grains.

.08


Degrees F.
45


Grains.
3.42


Degrees F.

68


Grains.

7.48


-30


.13


50


4.08


70


7.98


-20


.22


52


4.37


72


*8.51


-10


.36


54


4.69


74


9.07





:i?


56


5.02


76


9.66


10


58


5.37


78


10.28


20


L32


60


5.75


80


10.94


30


a. 96


62


6.14


90


14.79


85


2.37 i


64


6.56


100


19.92


40


■2.85


66


7.01


110


26,43



INDEX



Ages, geological. 3o

Altitude, climatic effects of, 342

Animals, distribution of, 223

regions of, 316
Anticyclones, 249
Artesian wells. 135
Atmosphere. 21

movements of, 21G
Asteroids, 17
Atolls, coral, 47
Aurora bo ealis, 272
Avalanches, 150. 162, 163
Axis, effects of inclination of, 14, 19

Balance. Nature's, 23

Barriers, 310

Basalt, 27

Blizzards. 255

Bores, tidal, 200

Breezes, day and night, 219

Brush discharge, 272

Camel, 39

in America, :)33
Caverns, 142
Climate, changes in, 290

extremes of, 292

zones of, 291
Cloudbursts, 246
Clouds, 234

cirrus, 236

cumulus, 236

nimbus, 237

stratus, 236
Coal-fields of U. S., 370
Coal measures, 39
Coast forms, 51, 53
(JoM waves, 254
Comet, Tempel's, IM



Compass, mariner's, 276, 286

Continents, 42

Coral formations. 52, 54

Coronas, 279

Corrasion, 105

Craters, 91

Currents, ocean, 200

economy of, 205
C3'cloiies, 249

tropical, 250

winter, 252

Degradation, 105
Deltas, 115
Deserts, 296

distribution of, 297

winds of, 223
Development, stages of, 303
Dew, 233
Diffraction, 278
Divides, migration of, 121
Doldrums, 219
Drift, 159, 2(10
Drumlin, 159

Earth, curvature of. 19

dimensions of, 13

form of, 12

motions of, 13
Earthiiiiakes, cause of, 98

distribntioti, 99

nature of, 95

phenomena of, 98
Ecliptic, plane of, 14
Electricity, laws of, 268, 282
Environment, 367

adjustment to. 368
E(piinoxi's, precuHsion of, 14
Eras, geological, 32



381



382



INDEX



Eros, 17

Erosion, 105

Erratic bowlders, 161

Eruptions, volcanic, 81

Eskers, 160

Eskimos, 340

Estuaries, 115

Evaporation, latent heat of, 233

Felspar, 26

Floes, 193

Flood-plains, 113

Forestry, distribution of, 322

Geoid, 12
Geysers, 136
Glacial epoch, 35
Glacial ice sheets, 155
Glaciers, 153

occurrence of, 157

physiographic effects of, 157
Grain, 318 ABfc-

Granite, 38

HaU, 243
Halos, 279

Highlands, western, 361
Hornblende, 26
Hydrosphere, 21

Icebergs, effect of, on commerce, 161

formation of, 156
Ice of the sea, 193
Ice-pack, 193
Iron, 373
Islands, 47
Isobars, 260
Isoclinals, 275
Isogonics, 275
Isotherms, 291

Lagoon, 167

Lakes, accidental, 167

geographical distribution of, 1 74

glacial, 165

marsh, 164

physiographic aspect of, 169

playa, 169



Lakes, salt, 168

walled, 185
Land storms, 252
Life, dispersal of, 309

nature of, 303

physiographical aspect of, 327
Lightning, 283
Lithosphere, 20
Lode, 142
Loess, 227

Magnetic pole, 274

storms, 276

variation, 274, 285
Magnetism, 273

laws of, 273
Man, antiquity of, 342

migrations of, 345

races of, 335
Marshes, 176

physiographic aspect of, 183
Matter, forms of, 18
Mediterraneans, 50
Meteors, 18
Mica, 27
Mirages, 279
Monsoons, 218
Moraines, 154

Mountain-ranges, nature of, 67
Mountains, distribution of, 70

economic aspect of, 72

physiographic aspect of, 69
Movements of rock envelope, 23
Mud volcanoes, 138

Natural resources of U. S. , 370
Neve, 153
North star, 14

Oases, 297

Ocean waters, physiographic aspect
of, 206

Pacific Coast Region, 366
Passes, 79
Peat, 177

Percolating waters, 133
Physiography, man's relation to, 347
of under-ground waters, 141



INDEX



383



Plains, distribution of, 60-76

economic value of, 61

physiographic aspect of, 61
Plants, distribution of, 315

economic, 318

regions of, 316

textiles, 323
Plateau, New England, 354
Plateaus, distribution of, 64, 78

economic aspect of, 64
Potential, electric, 269, 282
Pygmies, 333, 341

Rainbows, 280

Rainfall, distribution of, 238
seasonal, 240

Rainless regions, 242

Rapids, 119

Rivers, continental, 125

economic importance of, 120
geographical distribution of, 123
growth and development of, 110
physiography of, 107

Rock envelope, 21
formation of, 25
waste, movement of, 183

Rocks, igneous. 27
metamorphic. 30
sedimentary, 27

Sahara. 301
St. Elmo's fire. 2T2
Sandstone. 28
Sand valleys, 134
Sandy hooks, 207
Sea, 48

arms of, 49
Seas, sargasso, 202
Silica. 26
Simoon. 223
Sinter. 141
Slate. 28
Sludge, 193
Snow, 243



Solar system, 9
Sphagnum, 177
Springs, 135

mineral, 136
Stalactites, 145
Stalagmites, 145
States, Middle Atlantic, 356
Strata, order of, 30
Sun and planets, 1 1
Swamps, 176

economic value of, 183

lacustrine, 178

Talus, 78

Temperature, extremes of, 294

mean annual, 300
Terraces, 115
Thunder-storms, 271
Tides, 195
Tornadoes, 255
Typhoons, 250

Underground streams, 139
Unusual adjustments, 122

Valleys, 71
Variation, 305
Vesuvius, eruption of, 91
Volcanoes, nature of, 85

distribution of, 89
Vulcanism, results of, 86

Water, 54

envelope, 22
Watershed, 127
Waterspouts, 2.58
Waves, 194

Weather forecasting, 2.59
Wheat, 319
White squall, 57
Winds, 210

physiographic effectB of, 224

Zone of fracture, 54



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Online LibraryJacques W. (Jacques Wardlaw) RedwayElementary physical geography : an outline of physiography → online text (page 25 of 25)