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GIFT OF





SHIVA J I



SHIVAJI AND HIS TIMES



JADUNATH SARKAR, m.a.,

Indian Educational Service (Bihar),



SECOND EDITION
Revised and enlarged.



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.
39 Paternoster Row, London

FOURTH AVENUE AND 30TH STREET. NEW YORK
1920






WORKS BY PROF. JADUNATH SARKAR.

History of Aurangzib, based on original sources.
Vol. I. Reign of Shah Jahan.
,, II. War of Succession.
„ III. Northern India, 1658-1681.
„ IV. Southern India, 1645-1689.

Shivaji and His Times, an original life based on an
exhaustive study of Persian, Marathi and Hindi
sources, and English Dutch and Portuguese
Records. 2nd edition, revised and enlarged.

Studies in Mughal India, 22 historical essays.
Economics of British India,

4th edition, brought up to 1917.

Anecdotes of Aurangzib,

'•.(Pfcrisfai text of Ahkam-i-Alamgiri with English
. ... . to&ans.,* notes, and a life of Aurangzib.)

Mughal • Administration,

a study of its machinery, official duties, policy,
procedure, achievements and failure.

Chaitanya's Life and Teachings,

translated from the saint's 16th century Bengali
biography.






PREFACE.

First Edition, ( April, 1919.)

A new and critical study of Shivaji's life and
character has long been due, as the last scholarly
work on the subject was composed, by Captain
James Grant Duff, a century ago, and a vast mass
of original material unknown to him has become
accessible to the student since then. To put the
case briefly, the present work differs from his
eminently readable and still valuable History of the
Mahrattas, (3 Vols., 1826), in the rigid preference of
contemporary records to later compilations, and the
exhaustive and minute use of the available sources,
both printed and MS. — in Persian, English, Marathi
and Hindi, as well as the Dutch Records in the India
Office, London.

The present work marks an advance on Grant
Duff's History in three points in particular :

First, among Persian materials his only autho-
rities were Khafi Khan, who wrote 108 years after
the birth of Shivaji and is admittedly unreliable
where he does not borrow faithfully from earlier
writers, and Bhimsen, an incorrect and brief transla-
tion of whose Journal (by Jonathan Scott, 1794)
alone was then available. I have, on the other hand,
relied on the absolutely contemporary official histories



44&U3&



6 SHIVAJI. [preface.

of Shah Jahan and Aurangzib, Muhammad and
Ali Adil Shah, many historical letters in Persian,
the entire letter-books of Jai Singh and Aurangzib,
daily bulletins of Aurangzib's Court, and the full
text of Bhimsen as well as another contemporary
Hindu historian in Persian, viz., Ishwardas Nagar,
— all of which were unknown to Grant Duff.

Secondly, he relied too much on the uncritical
and often deliberately false Chitnis Bakhar, written
183 years after Shivaji's birth, while I have preferred
the work of Shivaji's courtier, Sabhasad, and also
incorporated whatever is valuable and above
suspicion in the mass of Marathi materials published
by a band of devoted Indian workers at Puna and
Satara during the last 40 years. Grant Duff, more-
over, worked on single manuscripts of the Marathi
chronicles ; but we live in a happier age when these
sources have been carefully edited with variations
of reading and notes.

Thirdly, the English and Dutch Factory Records
have been more minutely searched by me and every
useful information has been extracted from them.

Two minor improvements which, I hope, will
be appreciated by the reader, are the exact positions
of all the places mentioned, traced with the help of
the extremely accurate Government Survey maps,
and the chronology, which is the most detailed
possible in the existing state of our knowledge and
corrects Grant Duff's numerous inaccuracies in this
respect



PREFACE. 7

From the purely literary point of view, the book
would have gained much by being made shorter. But
so many false legends about Shivaji are current in our
country and the Shivaji myth is developing so fast
(attended at times with the fabrication of documents),
that I have considered it necessary in the interests of
historical truth to give every fact, however small,
about him that has been ascertained on unimpeach-
able evidence and to discuss the probabilities of the
others.

The Marathas were only one among the many
threads in the tangled web of Deccan history in the
Seventeenth century. Therefore, to understand the
true causes and full consequences of Shivaji *s own
acts and policy, it is necessary to have a detailed
knowledge of the internal affairs of the Mughal
empire, Bijapur and Golkonda also. The present
work is more than a mere biography of Shiva ; it
frequently deals with the contemporary history of
these three Muslim States, though an exhaustive
treatment of the subject belongs to my History of

Aurangzib, Vol. IV

Second Edition, ( June, 1920.)

In the second edition, occasion has been taken
to enlarge the book and subject it to a minute
revision and correction, — the most noticeable
example of the last-mentioned being the position of
Ponda in Ch. X. Among the more important
additions are a critical examination of the evidence
for the Javli and Afzal Khan affairs, a full discussion



8 SHIVAJI. [preface.

of the real nature of the Marathi sources and a com-
parative estimate of the evidential value of the
English, Persian and Marathi records, an account of
the very first battle between the English and the
Marathas (here published for the first time), Shivajfs
letter of protest against the jaziya, and a long note
on his personal appearance and extant portraits. I
have also inserted at the proper places notes on the
extent of his dominion in 1648, 1655, 1660, and
1674-5, which together with their extent at his death
(previously given) will enable the reader to remember
the broad outlines of his territorial expansion and
thus take a bird's-eye view of the growth of his
power in successive ages. His most authentic
portrait has, also, been reproduced in this edition.

Jadunath Sarkar.



CONTENTS.

Preface ... ... ... v

Chapter I. The Land and the People I— 18

Population speaking Marathi, 1 — boundaries of
Maharashtra, 2 — rainfall and crops, 3 — isolated
valleys of the western belt, 5 — hill-forts, 6 — all
people work hard, 7 — character : lack of elegance
and taste, 9 — pride, courage and hardiness, 9 — social
equality, 10 — religious reformers, 11 — literature and
language. 12 — minstrels, 14 — Marathas a nation, 15 —
defects of character, 17.

Chapter II. Boyhood and Youth ... 19—54

Birth of Shivaji, 19 — neglected by father, 21 —
lonely boyhood, 21 — miserable condition of Puna,
23 — Dadaji Kond-dev's improvements, 24 — love of
justice, 25 — Shivaji's education, 25 — the Mavals
described, 27 — subdued by Dadaji, 28 — Shivaji's
Hindu spirit, 29 — love of independence, 30 — decline
of Bijapur, 32 — Shiva captures Torna, 32 — seizes
Puna district, 33 — gains forts, 34 — invades N.
Konkan, 35 — Shahji imprisoned, 37 — Shiva appeals
to Murad, 40— nShahji released, why? 41 — Baji
Shyamraje's expedition, 42 — Mores of Javli, 43 —
Mores murdered, 45 — criticism of Shiva's conduct,
46 — gains from the conquest of Javli, 47 — early
officers, 48 — extent of territory, 49 — Appendix I.
Murder of the Mores, evidence discussed, 50.

Chapter III. First Wars with Mughals

and Bijapur ... ... 55 — 81

Shiva's early negotiations with Aurangzib, 55 —
raids Junnar and Ahmadnagar, 56 — Mughal defensive
measures, 57 — Nasiri Khan defeats Shiva, 56* —



10 SHIVAJI.

Aurangzib guards frontier, 59 — Shiva makes peace,
61 — Aurangzib's distrust of him, 62 — Bijapur Govern-
ment sends Afzal Khan against Shiva, 63 — his
sacrileges, 65 — AfzaTs doings at Wai, 66 — Shiva's
perplexity, 67 — envoy from Afzal, 68 — Afzal reaches
place of meeting, 71 — the affray, 72 — Afzal's army
attacked, 74 — local legends about Afzal, 76 — the
"Afzal Khan ballad," 77 — Maratha view of the
affair, 78 — Appendix II. Affair of Afzal Khan,
evidence discussed, 79.

Chapter IV. Strenuous Warfare ... 82— 110

Shaista Khan viceroy of Deccan, 82 — Siddi
Jauhar besieges Shiva in Panhala, 83 — Shiva's
escape, gallantry of Baji Prabhu, 84 — Shaista Khan's
march on Puna, 85 — siege of Chakan, 87 — Firangji
Narsala, 89 — Mughals in N. Konkan, 91 — Netaji's
disastrous retreat, 91 — night-attack on Shaista Khan,
93 — Surat described, 98 — panic and neglect of
defence, 99 — heroic action of English factors, 101 —
Shivaji's first sack of Surat, 103 — attempt on his life,
106 — Jaswant's siege of Kondana, 109 — Shiva's
movements in 1664, 109.

Chapter V. Shivaji and Jai Singh ... Ill— 151

Jai Singh sent to Deccan, 1 1 1 — his character,
1 1 2 — his plan of war, 1 1 5 — unites all the enemies of
Shiva, 115 — theatre of war described, 118 — rMughal
outposts, 120 — march on Purandar, 121 — Purandar
hill described, 124 — Mughal siege-positions, 125 —
Vajragarh stormed, 126 — Daud Khan's faithless
conduct, 127 — Shiva's villages ravaged, 126* —
Marathas make diversions, 130 — outer towers of
Purandar stormed, 132 — Murar Baji's death, 135 —
Shiva opens negotiations, 136 — visits Jai Singh, 137
— treaty of Purandar : its terms, 139 — Shiva visits
Dilir, 141 — forts delivered, 142 — Jai Singh invades
Bijapur, 145 — Shiva captures forts for Mughals, 145v



CONTENTS. H

and fights Bijapuri army, 146 — retreat from Bijapur,
147— Shiva sent against Panhala, why? 148 — fails to
storm it, 150— Netaji deserts to Bijapur, 150.

Chapter VI. Visit to Aurangzib ... 152—179

Shiva's reluctance to go to Aurangzib's Court,
152 — hopes held out to him, 153 — his arrangements
for home defence during his absence, 155 — asserts
his dignity at Aurangabad, 156 — his audience with
Aurangzib, 157 — is placed under guard, 161 — appeals
to prime-minister, 162 — Aurangzib's changes of
policy to Shiva, 163 — Jai Singh's advice, 163 — Shiva
escapes from Agra by stratagem, 166 — hue and cry,
168— Shiva at Mathura, 169 — adventures during
flight, 171 — returns home, 173 — Shambhuji's return,
174 — Jai Singh's anxieties during Shiva's flight, 175 —
renewed Maratha hostilities, 176 — Jai Singh's plot to
catch Shivaji, 178.

Chapter VII. 1667— 1670 ... 180—212

Death of Jai Singh, 180 — disunion in Mughal
viceroy's camp, 181 — Shiva makes peace with
Emperor again, 183 — Shambhu sent to Aurangabad,
185 — causes of Shiva's rupture with Mughals, 186 —
captures Kondana, named Singh-garh, 188 — sieges of
Mahuli, 189 — Daud Khan's vigorous campaign, 190
— Dilir disobeys Prince Muazzam, 192 — investigation
by Iftikhar Khan, 193 — Dilir pursued by Muazzam,
195 — second loot of Surat, 198 — refugees at Swally,
201 — frequent panic and ruin of commerce at Surat,
203 — Shivaji gains battle of Vani, 205 — sack of
Karinja, 208 — Shiva captures Salhir, 21 1 — Chhatra Sal
Bundela visits Shiva, 211.

Chapter VIII. Struggle with the

Mughals, 1670— 1674 ... 213—237

Large armies sent against Shiva, 213 — Daud
Khan's campaign in the Chandor range, 214 —



12 SHIVAJI.

Mahabat invades Maharashtra, massacre of Puna,
216 — defeat of Ikhlas Khan near Salhir, 217 —
Mughals expelled from Puna, 217 — Marathas con-
quer Jawhar and Ramnagar, 218 — chauth demanded
from Surat, 219 — Koli Rajahs, 221 — Mughal officers
desert to Shiva, 222 — raid into Berar, 223 — successful
pursuit by Mughals, 223 — Pedgaon, Mughal base,
225 — Shiva fails at Shivner, 226— gains Satara and
Panhala, 227 — raids Bijapuri Kanara, 226" — battle of
Umrani, 230 — defeat and death of Pratap Rao, 231
— Hambir Rao's raids, 232 — Bahlols victory, 234 —
Dilir defeated by Shiva, 234 — Mughal power
weakened, 235 — extent of Shiva's territory, 236.

Chapter IX. Coronation of Shiva ji ... 238—259

Why Shiva wanted to be crowned, 238 — Gaga
Bhatta declares him a Kshatriya, 241 — preparations
for coronation, 241 — religious ceremonies, 242 —
Shiva performs penance and is "made a Kshatriya,"
but is denied Vedic mantras, 244 — lavish gifts, 245 —
bath on coronation day, 247 — coronation hall
described, 247 — enthronement, 249 — Oxinden pre-
sented, 250 — street procession at Raigarh, 250 — cost
of coronation, 252 — loot of Mughal camp, 253 — raid
into Baglana and Khandesh, 254 — into Kolhapur,
255 — Bahadur Khan deceived by pretended negotia-
tions, 255 — Maratha activities, 257 — Shiva's illness,
258 — Mughals invade Bijapur, 259.

Chapter X. South Konkan & Kanara 260—292

Kanara uplands and coast, 260 — trade and ports,
261 — Rustam-i-Zaman's concert with Shiva, 262 —
English collision with Shiva at Rajapur, 264 — English
brokers and Mr. Gyffard imprisoned by Marathas,
264 — released, 265 — Englishmen fight against Shiva
at Panhala, 266 — Rajapur factors seized, 266 — Adil
Shah invades Bednur, 268 — Shiva in S. Konkan
coast, 269 — disorders in the coast, 270 — Shiva's



CONTENTS. 13

doings in Kanara, 272 — loot of Barcelore and black-
mailing of Karvvar, 274 — Bijapuris recover and lose
S. Konkan, 277 — siege of Ponda raised, 280 — plot to
capture Goa by stratagem, detected, 281 — rebellion
of Rustam-i-Zaman, 282 — sack of Hubli, 283 — Bahlol
expels Marathas from Karwar district, 284 — Shiva's
grand raid into Kanara fails, 285 — Mian Sahib's
rebellion in Bijapuri Kanara, 286 — Shiva captures
Ponda, 288 — and other forts, 290 — Maratha failure in
Sunda and success in Bednur, 291.

Chapter XL Naval Enterprises ... 293—321

The Siddis of Janjira, 293 — Shiva's early conflicts
with Siddis, 295 — Shiva captures Danda, 296 —
Vyankoji Datto viceroy, 297 — Shiva's navy described,
298 — his sailors, 299 — his mercantile marine, 299 —
doings of Maratha fleet, 300 — revolution at Janjira :
Siddis enter Mughal service, 302 — Portuguese defeat
Maratha fleet, 304 — Siddis recover Danda, 305 —
Shiva's efforts fail, 307 — naval war 1672-75, 308 —
battle of Satavli, 310 — grand assault on Janjira by
Marathas, 311— naval war 1676-80, 312— Marathas
fortify Khanderi, 315 — naval battles with the English,
316 — English make peace, 319 — Siddis fortify Underi
and bombard Khanderi, 320.

Chapter XII. Invasion of the Karnatak 322—352

Shiva's need of money, 322 — Karnatak : its
wealth, 323 — Vyankoji and his minister quarrel, 325
— Bijapur in disorder, 327 — Shiva secures Mughal
neutrality, 328 — and alliance with Golkonda, 329 —
strict discipline in Shiva's army, 330 — his grand entry
into Haidarabad, 331 — audience with Qutb Shah,
334 — treaty with Golkonda, 335 — feasts and reviews,
336 — pilgrimage to Shri Shaila, 338 — religious frenzy,
339 — marches by Madras city, 339 — Jinji fort
captured, 340 — siege of Tiruvadi, 341 — siege of
Vellore, 342 — defeat of Sher Khan, 342 — presents



14 SHIVAJI.

from Madras factors, 340 and 343 — blackmail from
Nayak of Madura, 344 — Shiva invites Vyankoji to
interview, 344 — flight of Vyankoji, 345 — Shiva at
Vriddhachalam, 347 — asks for siege-engineers from
Madras, 347 — enters Mysore plateau, 348 — Vellore
capitulates, 349 — value of Shiva's conquests in
Karnatak, 349 — Vyankoji attacks Shiva's agent
Shantaji, 350 — peace, Madras plains restored to
Vyankoji, 352.

Chapter XIII. His Last Years ... 353—383

Route of return from Karnatak, 353 — fight with
Savitri Bai, 354 — attempt to gain Bijapur fort by
bribery, 355 — Shambhuji attacks Goa territory, 356—
Peshwa plunders Trimbak-Nasik, 357 — the Mianas of
Kopal district, 357 — annexations beyond Tunga-
bhadra, 358 — second failure at Shivner, 359— disorder
in Bijapur and weakness of Masaud, 361 — Shambhuji
deserts to Dilir, 362 — Maratha stratagem to seize
Bijapur fort, detected, 363 — Mughals and Bijapuris
against Shiva, 364 — Dilir captures Bhupalgarh, 364 —
Marathas fight Ikhlas Khan, 365 — and capture a
Mughal convoy at Karkamb, 366 — Shivaji's letter to
Aurangzib against the jaziya, 366 — Dilir invades
Bijapur, 371 — Shiva arrives near Bijapur to help,
372 — Dilir ravages environs of Bijapur, 373 — sacks
Athni, 374 — Shambhuji returns to father, 375 —
Shivaji defeated by Dilir, 376 — fortifies Panhala as a
refuge, 376 — raids Khandesh, 377 — sack of Jalna, 377
— curse of saint, 378 — Shiva defeated by Ranmast
Khan, 378— escapes with heavy loss, 379 — anxiety
about succession, 380 — lectures to Shambhu, 380 —
intrigues among Shiva's wives, 382 — death of Shivaji,
382— was he poisoned? 383.

Chapter XIV. Shivaji and the English

merchants of the West Coast ... 384—404

Rajapur factors kept in prison, 384 — their



CONTENTS. 15

wrangle with Surat Council, 386 — English think of
naval reprisal, 386 — prisoners released, 387 — English
negotiate for compensation for Rajapur factory, 389
— the secret aims of the two parties, 389 — delicate
position of the English, 391 — Ram Shenvi's report,
391 — Maratha envoy at Bombay, 392 — mission of
Lt. Ustick, 393 — embassy of Niccolls, 395 — Shiva's
letter to Bombay, 396 — his evasiveness, 397 — embassy
of Oxinden, 398 — its result, 399 — Rajapur factors
interview Shiva, 400 — Austen's embassy, 401 —
indemnity in kind, 403 — Rajapur indemnity how far
paid, 404.

Chapter XV. Government, Institutions,

and policy ... ... 405—426

Extent of his kingdom, 405 — three provinces,
405 — belt of territory subject to chauth, 407 — nature
of chauth, 407 — his annual revenue, 408 — hoarded
treasure, 408 — strength of his army, 409 — elephants
and artillery, 410 — early administrative officers, 410
— ashta-pradhans : their powers, 41 1 — their titles and
duties, 412 — Kayastha clerks, 413 — Army: organisa-
tion of forts, 414 — cavalry, 415 — infantry, 416 —
salaries of officers, 416 — how his army subsisted, 417
— Revenue system, 418 — no farming of revenue, no
military fiefs, 419 — district administration, 420 —
religious policy, 421— Ramdas, 42 1 —practical effect
of Shivaji's regulations, 423 — spirit of brigandage,
423 — Aurangzib's despair of subduing Shivaji, 424 —
anecdotes, 424 — Shiva's personal appearance, 425 —
his portraits, 426.

Chapter XVI. Shivaji's achievement,

character and place in History ... 427-449

Shivaji's foreign policy like that of Muslim kings,
427 — mulk-giri, 428 — causes of his failure to build an
enduring State, 429 — revival of Hindu orthodoxy,
429 — caste quarrels and divisions, 430 — no elevation



16 SHIVAJI.

of people, 432 — evils of autocracy, 433 — neglect of
the economic factor, 433 — necessity of raids and
their ruinous effect, 434 — excess of trickery and
intrigue, 435 — failure against Wellesley, 436 —
character of Shivaji, 436-— his political ideal, 438 —
natural insecurity of kingdom, 439 — readiness for
war a condition of his existence, 439 — his relations
with Bijapur, 440 — his true greatness, 440 — the last
constructive genius among Hindus, 441 — his influence
on the Hindu spirit, 443.

Appendix III. Character of Marathi records about
Shivaji, 445.

Bibliography ... ... ... 449-459

Abbreviations ... ... ... 459



SHIVAJI AND HIS TIMES

CHAPTER I.
The Land and the People.

§1. Extent, rainfall, soil and crops.

To-day nearly eleven millions of men, forming
about half the entire population of the Bombay
Presidency (minus its unnatural adjunct, Sindh), speak
Marathi, and another nine millions living in the
Central Provinces, the Nizam's Dominions, and other
parts, claim the same language as their mother-
tongue.* This language has been steadily gaining
ground since the days of the Peshwas, and its peace-
ful annexation of the children of ruder and less
literary tongues has gone on unabated even during
the British period.

But the Maratha country is not coextensive with
the land where the Marathi speech prevails to-day.

* The Census of 1911 showed a total of 19*8 millions as
speaking Marathi (against 18*23 millions in 1901.) Of this
total 10*74 millions live in Bombay and its States, 4*8 millions
in the C. P., and 3*5 millions in the Haidarabad State.
Marathi is spoken by above 86 p. c. of the population of the
Konkan division, 85 p.c. of the Deccan division, and nearly
54 p. c. of Bombay city. In the C. P. 31 p. c. and in the
Haidarabad State 26 p. c. of the population speak it.



;2 SHIVAJI. [CH. I.

Four centuries ago the name Maha-rashtra was con-
fined to the western edge of the Deccan plateau,
i.e., to a tract bounded on the north by the Tapti,
on the south by the upper courses of the Krishna
(probably the Warna), and on the east by the Sina.*
The cradle-land of Maharashtra was, therefore,
formed by the Nasik, Puna and Satara districts, parts
of Ahmadnagar and Sholapur, and probably the
western corner of Aurangabad, — a rough total of
28,000 square miles. The Maratha race was also
settled in Konkan or the narrow land between the
Western Ghats and the Indian Ocean. Here the
districts of Thana, Kolaba and Ratnagiri and the
State of Savant- vadi, — with a total area of over
10,000 square miles, — are now predominantly
Marathi-speaking ; but in the 16th century a consi-
derable portion of the population, probably one-half,
belonged to other races and spoke other tongues.
Four centuries ago the population of Maharashtra
was very thin and forests covered much of the land.
The western edge of the Deccan plateau is subject
to a low and uncertain rainfall, cultivation is poor

* " The word Dekkan expresses the country watered by
the upper Godavari and that lying between that river and the
Krishna. The name Maharashtra also seems at one time to
have been restricted to this tract. For that country is, in the
Puranas and other works, distinguished on the one hand from
Northern Konkan and from the regions on either side of the
Narmada and the Tapti, as well as from Vidarbha" or Berar.
{Bom. Gaz. i. pt. ii. p. 134, 587; xxiv. 81.)



STERILE ROCKY COUNTRY.

and precarious, and it is only along the narrow
margins of the few rivers that the peasant is assured
of a good return for his labour. From nearly the
whole of the Western Deccan the heavy clouds of
the S. W. monsoon are either shut out by the Ghat
range, or, if they surmount this barrier, they sail
away to the east leaving the land unwatered and
untilled, so that "the Deccan, generally speaking,
yields to much labour a bare measure of
subsistence."* (Moral and Mat. Prog. 1911-12,

P. 10.)



* The rain is precipitated on the coast-line [i.e., Konkan]
at an average of 100 to 120 inches [in the year.] Once the
crest [of the Western Ghats] is passed, the precipitation
decreases very rapidly, until a belt is reached only 35 miles
from the hills where the rainfall is very precarious and
averages only about 17 inches. Further east again, the S. W.
monsoon is nearly spent, but the influence of the N. E.
monsoon begins to be felt and the rainfall improves... South of
Khandesh, we get the Deccan proper divided into three tracts
[running parallel to the Ghats and called] the Dang or Maval
to the west, the Transition in the centre, and the Desk, or
black-soil plain to the east. The soil, however, is not fertile,
and there are ranges of bare rocky hills running east and west,
spurs so to speak of the Ghats, which neither store water for
cultivation nor attract the rainfall... The Karnatak [i.e., the
Dharwar, Belgaum, and Bijapur districts] has a more certain
and more copious rainfall and more fertile soil." (Census of
India, 1911, vii. pt. I, pp. 4-6.) The western hilly belt is called
Dang in the north (i.e., Baglana), Maval in the centre (i.e.,
the Nasik, Puna and Satara districts), and Mallad in the south
(i.e., Karnatak.) The Konkan, on the other hand, is an area



4 SHIVAJI. [CH. L

In such a soil rice cultivation is impossible, and
wheat and barley grow in very small quantities. The
staple crop of most of this region is the hardy millet,
— jawari, bajra and ragi or maize. But even these
cannot always be depended upon. One year the rain
would fail, the sprouting plants would be scorched
by the sun or the young heads of grain would shrink
and wither before they can grow to fulness and



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