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besides 35,682 ounces of fine silver and cochineal. While England
and Spain were at peace, Drake plundered the latter to the extent of
at least one and a half million of dollars. Thomas Candish burnt the
rich cargo of the Santa Anna, as he had no room for it on board his
own vessel.

[41] For instance, in 1786 the San Andres, which had a cargo on board
valued at a couple of millions, found no market for it in Acapulco;
the same thing happened in 1787 to the San Jose, and a second time
in 1789 to the San Andres.

[42] In 1855 its population consisted of 586 European Spaniards,
1,378 Creoles, 6,323 Malay Filipinos and mestizos, 332 Chinamen,
2 Hamburgers, 1 Portuguese, and 1 Negro.

[43] The earthquake of 1863 destroyed the old bridge. It is intended,
however, to restore it; the supporting pillars are ready, and
the superincumbent iron structure is shortly expected from Europe
(April, 1872). - The central span, damaged in the high water of 1914,
was temporarily replaced with a wooden structure and plans have been
prepared for a new bridge, permitting ships to pass and to be used
also by the railway, nearer the river mouth. - C.

[44] Roescher's Colonies.

[45] A brief description of a nipa house, accompanying an illustration,
is here omitted. - C.

[46] The following figures will give an idea of the contents of
the newspapers. I do not allude to the Bulletin Official, which is
reserved for official announcements, and contains little else of
any importance. The number lying before me of the Comercio (Nov. 29,
1858), a paper that appears six times a week, consists of four pages,
the printed portion in each of which is 11 inches by 17; the whole,
therefore, contains 748 square inches of printed matter. They are
distributed as follows: -

Title, 27 1/2 sq. in.; an essay on the population of Spain, taken
from a book, 102 1/2 sq. in.; under the heading "News from Europe,"
an article, quoted from the Annals of La Caridad, upon the increase
of charity and Catholic instruction in France, 40 1/2 sq. in.;
Part I, of a treatise on Art and its Origin (a series of truisms),
70 sq. in.; extracts from the official sheet, 20 1/2 sq. in.; a few
ancient anecdotes, 59 sq. in. Religious portion (this is divided into
two parts - official and unofficial). The first contains the saints
for the different days of the year, etc., and the announcements of
religious festivals; the second advertises a forthcoming splendid
procession, and contains the first half of a sermon preached three
years before, on the anniversary of the same festival, 99 sq. in.,
besides an instalment of an old novel, 154, and advertisements, 175
sq. in.; total, 748 sq. in. In the last years, however, the newspapers
sometimes have contained serious essays, but of late these appear
extremely seldom.

[47] Vide Pigafetta.

[48] Cock-fighting is not alluded to in the "Ordinances of good
government," collected by Hurtado Corcuera in the middle of the
seventeenth century. In 1779 cock-fights were taxed for the first
time. In 1781 the government farmed the right of entrance to
the galleras (derived from gallo, rooster) for the yearly sum of
$14,798. In 1863 the receipts from the galleras figured in the budget
for $106,000.

A special decree of 100 clauses was issued in Madrid on the 21st of
March, 1861, for the regulation of cock-fights. The 1st clause declares
that since cock-fights are a source of revenue to the State, they
shall only take place in arenas licensed by the Government. The 6th
restricts them to Sundays and holidays; the 7th, from the conclusion
of high mass to sunset. The 12th forbids more than $50 to be staked
on one contest. The 38th decrees that each cock shall carry but one
weapon, and that on its left spur. By the 52nd the fight is to be
considered over when one or both cocks are dead, or when one shows
the white feather. In the London Daily News of the 30th June, 1869,
I find it reported that five men were sentenced at Leeds to two
months' hard labor for setting six cocks to fight one another with
iron spurs. From this it appears that this once favorite spectacle
is no longer permitted in England.

[49] The raw materials of these adventures were supplied by a French
planter, M. de la Gironiere, but their literary parent is avowedly
Alexander Dumas.

[50] Botanical gardens do not seem to prosper under Spanish
auspices. Chamisso complains that, in his day, there were no traces
left of the botanical gardens founded at Cavite by the learned
Cuellar. The gardens at Madrid, even, are in a sorry plight; its
hothouses are almost empty. The grounds which were laid out at great
expense by a wealthy and patriotic Spaniard at Orotava (Teneriffe),
a spot whose climate has been of the greatest service to invalids, are
rapidly going to decay. Every year a considerable sum is appropriated
to it in the national budget, but scarcely a fraction of it ever
reaches Orotava. When I was there in 1867, the gardener had received
no salary for twenty-two months, all the workmen were dismissed,
and even the indispensable water supply had been cut off.

[51] For a proof of this vide the Berlin Ethnographical Museum,
Nos. 294-295.

[52] Bertillon (Acclimatement et Acclimatation, Dict. Encycl. des
Science, Médicales) ascribes the capacity of the Spaniards for
acclimatization in tropical countries to the large admixture of
Syrian and African blood which flows in their veins. The ancient
Iberians appear to have reached Spain from Chaldea across Africa;
the Phoenicians and Carthaginians had flourishing colonies in the
peninsula, and, in later times, the Moors possessed a large portion
of the country for a century, and ruled with great splendor, a state
of things leading to a mixture of race. Thus Spanish blood has three
distinct times been abundantly crossed with that of Africa. The warm
climate of the peninsula must also largely contribute to render its
inhabitants fit for life in the tropics. The pure Indo-European race
has never succeeded in establishing itself on the southern shores of
the Mediterranean, much less in the arid soil of the tropics.

In Martinique, where from eight to nine thousand whites live on the
proceeds of the toil of 125,000 of the colored race, the population
is diminishing instead of increasing. The French creoles seem to
have lost the power of maintaining themselves, in proportion to the
existing means of subsistence, and of multiplying. Families which
do not from time to time fortify themselves with a strain of fresh
European blood, die out in from three to four generations. The same
thing happens in the English, but not in the Spanish Antilles, although
the climate and the natural surroundings are the same. According to
Ramón de la Sagra, the death-rate is smaller among the creoles, and
greater among the natives, than it is in Spain; the mortality among
the garrison, however, is considerable. The same writer states that
the real acclimatization of the Spanish race takes place by selection;
the unfit die, and the others thrive.

[53] An unnecessary line is here omitted. - C.

[54] Depons, speaking of the means employed in America to obtain the
same end, says, "I am convinced that it is impossible to engraft the
Christian religion on the Indian mind without mixing up their own
inclinations and customs with those of Christianity; this has been
even carried so far, that at one time theologians raised the question,
whether it was lawful to eat human flesh? But the most singular part
of the proceeding is, that the question was decided in favor of the

[55] As a matter of fact, productive land is always appropriated,
and in many parts of the Islands is difficult and expensive to
purchase. Near Manila, and in Bulacan, land has for many years past
cost over $225 (silver) an acre.

[56] Ind. Arch. IV; 307.

[57] In Buitenzorger's garden, Java, the author observed, however,
some specimens growing in fresh water.

[58] Boyle, in his Adventures among the Dyaks, mentions that he
actually found pneumatic tinder-boxes, made of bamboo, in use among
the Dyaks; Bastian met with them in Burmah. Boyle saw a Dyak place
some tinder on a broken piece of earthenware, holding it steady with
his thumb while he struck it a sharp blow with a piece of bamboo. The
tinder took fire. Wallace observed the same method of striking a
light in Ternate.

[59] Centigrade is changed to Fahrenheit by multiplying by nine-fifths
and adding thirty-two. - C.

[60] Tylor (Anahuac 227) says that this word is derived from the
Mexican petlatl, a mat. The inhabitants of the Philippines call this
petate, and from the Mexican petla-calli, a mat "house," derive petaca,
a cigar case.

[61] Four lines, re an omitted sketch, left out. - C.

[62] Voyage en Chine, vol. II., page 33.

[63] According to the report of an engineer, the sand banks are caused
by the river San Mateo, which runs into the Pasig at right angles
shortly after the latter leaves the Lagoon; in the rainy season it
brings down a quantity of mud, which is heaped up and embanked by the
south-west winds that prevail at the time. It would, therefore, be of
little use to remove the sandbanks without giving the San Mateo, the
cause of their existence, a direct and separate outlet into the lake.

[64] They take baths for their maladies, and have hot springs for
this purpose, particularly along the shore of the king's lake (Estang
du Roy, instead of Estang de Bay by a printer's mistake apparently),
which is in the Island of Manila. - Thevenot.

[65] "One can scarcely walk thirty paces between Mount Makiling and
a place called Bacon, which lies to the east of Los Baños, without
meeting several kinds of natural springs, some very hot, some lukewarm,
some of the temperature of the atmosphere, and some very cold. In a
description of this place given in our archives for the year 1739, it
is recorded that a hill called Natognos lies a mile to the south-east
of the village, on the plateau of which there is a small plain 400
feet square, which is kept in constant motion by the volume of vapor
issuing from it. The soil from which this vapor issues is an extremely
white earth; it is sometimes thrown up to the height of a yard or a
yard and a half, and meeting the lower temperature of the atmosphere
falls to the ground in small pieces." - Estado geograph., 1865.

[66] Pigafetta says that the natives, in order to obtain palm-wine,
cut the top of the tree through to the pith, and then catch the sap
as it oozes out of the incision. According to Regnaud, Natural History
of the Coco-tree, the negroes of Saint Thomas pursue a similar method
in the present day, a method that considerably injures the trees and
produces a much smaller quantity of liquor. Hernandez describes an
indigenous process of obtaining wine, honey, and sago from the sacsao
palm, a tree which from its stunted growth would seem to correspond
with the acenga saccharifera. The trees are tapped near the top, the
soft part of the trunks is hollowed out, and the sap collects in this
empty space. When all the juice is extracted, the tree is allowed to
dry up, and is then cut into thin pieces which, after desiccation in
the sun, are ground into meal.

[67] Pigafetta mentions that the natives were in the habit of making
oil, vinegar, wine, and milk, from the coco-palm, and that they drank
a great deal of the wine. Their kings, he says, frequently intoxicated
themselves at their banquets.

[68] A number of the Illustrated London News, of December, 1857,
or January, 1858, contains a clever drawing, by an accomplished
artist, of the mode of travelling over this road, under the title,
"A macadamized road in Manila."

[69] Erd and Picketing, of the United States exploring expedition,
determined the height to be 6,500 English feet (7,143 Spanish),
not an unsatisfactory result, considering the imperfect means they
possessed for making a proper measurement. In the Manila Estado
geographico for 1865, the height is given, without any statement as
to the source whence the estimate is derived, as 7,030 feet. The same
authority says, "the large volcano is extinct since 1730, in which
year its last eruption took place. The mountain burst into flames on
the southern side, threw up streams of water, burning lava, and stones
of an enormous size; traces of the last can be observed as far as the
village of Sariaya. The crater is perhaps a league in circumference,
it is highest on the northern side, and its interior is shaped like
an egg-shell: the depth of the crater apparently extends half-way
down the height of the mountain."

[70] From ponte, deck; a two-masted vessel, with mat sails, of about
100 tons burden.

[71] Estado Geogr., p. 314.

[72] Officially called Cagsaua. The old town of Cagsaua, which was
built higher up the hill and was destroyed by the eruption of 1814,
was rebuilt on the spot where formerly stood a small hamlet of the
name of Daraga.

[73] I learnt from Mr. Paton that the undertaking had also been
represented as impracticable in Albay. "Not a single Spaniard, not
a single native had ever succeeded in reaching the summit; in spite
of all their precautions they would certainly be swallowed up in the
sand." However, one morning, about five o'clock, they set off, and soon
reached the foot of the cone of the crater. Accompanied by a couple of
natives, who soon left them, they began to make the ascent. Resting
half way up, they noticed frequent masses of shining lava, thrown
from the mouth of the crater, gliding down the mountain. With the
greatest exertions they succeeded, between two and three o'clock,
in reaching the summit, where, however, they were prevented by the
noxious gas from remaining more than two or three minutes. During
their descent, they restored their strength with some refreshments
Sr. Muñoz had sent to meet them; and they reached Albay towards
evening, where during their short stay they were treated as heroes,
and presented with an official certificate of their achievement,
for which they had the pleasure of paying several dollars.

[74] From 36,000,000 to 40,000,000 lbs. of cacao are consumed in Europe
annually; of which quantity nearly a third goes to France, whose
consumption of it between 1853 and 1866 has more than doubled. In
the former year it amounted to 6,215,000 lbs., in the latter to
12,973,534 lbs. Venezuela sends the finest cacaos to the European
market, those of Porto Cabello and Caracas. That of Caracas is the
dearest and the best, and is of four kinds: Chuao, Ghoroni, O'Cumar,
and Rio Chico. England consumes the cacao grown in its own colonies,
although the duty (1d per lb.) is the same for all descriptions. Spain,
the principal consumer, imports its supplies from Cuba, Porto Rico,
Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad. Several large and important plantations
have recently been established by Frenchmen in Nicaragua. The cacao
beans of Soconusco (Central America) and Esmeralda (Ecuador) are more
highly esteemed than the finest of the Venezuela sorts; but they are
scarcely ever used in the Philippines, and cannot be said to form
part of their commerce. Germany contents itself with the inferior
kinds. Guayaquil cacao, which is only half the price of Caracas, is
more popular amongst the Germans than all the other varieties together.

[75] C. Scherzer, in his work on Central America, gives the cacao-tree
an existence of twenty years, and says that each tree annually produces
from 15 to 20 ounces of cacao. 1,000 plants will produce 1,250 lbs. of
cacao, worth $250; so that the annual produce of a single tree is worth
a quarter of a dollar. Mitscherlich says that from 4 to 6 lbs. of raw
beans is an average produce. A liter of dried cacao beans weighs 630
grains; of picked and roasted, 610 grains.

[76] In 1727 a hurricane destroyed at a single blast the important
cacao plantation of Martinique, which had been created by long years of
extraordinary care. The same thing happened at Trinidad. - Mitscherlich.

[77] F. Engel mentions a disease (mancha) which attacks the tree
in America, beginning by destroying its roots. The tree soon dies,
and the disease spreads so rapidly that whole groves of cacao-trees
utterly perish and are turned into pastures for cattle. Even in the
most favored localities, after a long season of prosperity, thousands
of trees are destroyed in a single night by this disease, just as the
harvest is about to take place. An almost equally dangerous foe to
cultivation is a moth whose larva entirely destroys the ripe cacao
beans; and which only cold and wind will kill. Humboldt mentions
that cacao beans which have been transported over the chilly passes
of the Cordilleras are never attacked by this pest.

[78] G. Bornoulli quotes altogether eighteen kinds; of which he
mentions only one as generally in use in the Philippines.

[79] Pili is very common in South Luzon, Samar, and Leyte; it is to be
found in almost every village. Its fruit, which is almost of the size
of an ordinary plum but not so round, contains a hard stone, the raw
kernel of which is steeped in syrup and candied in the same manner as
the kernel of the sweet pine, which it resembles in flavor. The large
trees with fruit on them, "about the size of almonds and looking like
sweet-pine kernels," which Pigafetta saw at Jomonjol were doubtless
pili-trees. An oil is expressed from the kernels much resembling
sweet almond oil. If incisions are made in the stems of the trees,
an abundant pleasant-smelling white resin flows from them, which
is largely used in the Philippines to calk ships with. It also has
a great reputation as an anti-rheumatic plaster. It is twenty years
since it was first exported to Europe; and the first consignees made
large profits, as the resin, which was worth scarcely anything in
the Philippines, became very popular and was much sought in Europe.

[80] The general name for the beverage was Cacahoa-atl (cacao
water). Chocolatl was the term given to a particular kind. F. Hernandez
found four kinds of cacao in use among the Axtecs, and he describes
four varieties of drinks that were prepared from them. The third
was called chocolatl, and apparently was prepared as follows: - Equal
quantities of the kernels of the pochotl (Bombaz ceiba) and cacahoatl
(cacao) trees were finely ground, and heated in an earthen vessel, and
all the grease removed as it rose to the surface. Maize, crushed and
soaked, was added to it, and a beverage prepared from the mixture; to
which the oily parts that had been skimmed off the top were restored,
and the whole was drunk hot.

[81] Berthold Seemann speaks of a tree with finger-shaped leaves
and small round berries, which the Indians sometimes offered for
sale. They made chocolate from them, which in flavor much surpassed
that usually made from cacao.

[82] Report of the French consul.

[83] Mysore and Mocha coffees fetch the highest prices. From $20 to
$22.50 per cwt. is paid for Mysore; and as much as $30, when it has
attained an age of five or six years, for Mocha.

[84] In 1865-66-67 California imported three and one-half, eight
and ten million lbs. of coffee, of which two, four and five millions
respectively came from Manila. In 1868 England was the best customer
of the Philippines.

[85] Report of the Belgian consul.

[86] Coffee is such an exquisite beverage, and is so seldom
properly prepared, that the following hints from a master in the
art (Report of the Jury, Internat. Exhib., Paris, 1868) will not be
unwelcome: - 1st. Select good coffees. 2nd. Mix them in the proper
proportions. 3rd. Thoroughly dry the beans; otherwise in roasting them
a portion of the aroma escapes with the steam. 4th. Roast them in a dry
atmosphere, and roast each quality separately. 5th. Allow them to cool
rapidly. If it is impossible to roast the beans at home, then purchase
only sufficient for each day's consumption. With the exception of the
fourth, however, it is easy to follow all these directions at home;
and small roasting machines are purchasable, in which, with the aid
of a spirit lamp, small quantities can be prepared at a time. It is
best, when possible, to buy coffee in large quantities, and keep it
stored for two or three years in a dry place.

[87] A creeping, or rather a running fern, nearly the only one of
the kind in the whole species.

[88] The official accounts stated that they had kidnapped twenty-one
persons in a couple of weeks.

[89] Le Gentil, in his Travels in the Indian Seas, (1761) says:
"The monks are the real rulers of the provinces.... Their power is so
unlimited that no Spaniard cares to settle in the neighborhood.... The
monks would give him a great deal of trouble."

[90] St. Croix.

[91] St. Croix.

[92] There are three classes of alcaldeships, namely, entrada,
ascenso, and termino (vide Royal Ordinances of March, 1837); in
each of which an alcalde must serve for three years. No official is
allowed, under any pretence, to serve more than ten years in any of
the Asiatic magistracies.

[93] The law limiting the duration of appointments to this short
period dates from the earliest days of Spanish colonization in
America. There was also a variety of minor regulations, based on
suspicion, prohibiting the higher officials from mixing in friendly
intercourse with the colonists.

[94] A secular priest in the Philippines once related to me, quite of
his own accord, what had led him to the choice of his profession. One
day, when he was a non-commissioned officer in the army, he was playing
cards with some comrades in a shady balcony. "See," cried one of his
friends, observing a peasant occupied in tilling the fields in the
full heat of the sun, "how the donkey yonder is toiling and perspiring
while we are lolling in the shade." The happy conceit of letting the
donkeys work while the idle enjoyed life made such a deep impression on
him that he determined to turn priest; and it is the same felicitous
thought that has impelled so many impecunious gentlemen to become
colonial officials. The little opening for civil labor in Spain and
Portugal, and the prospect of comfortable perquisites in the colonies,
have sent many a starving caballero across the ocean.

[95] The exploitation of the State by party, and the exploitation of
party by individuals, are the real secrets of all revolutions in the
Peninsula. They are caused by a constant and universal struggle for
office. No one will work, and everybody wants to live luxuriously; and
this can only be done at the expense of the State, which all attempt
to turn and twist to their own ends. Shortly after the expulsion of
Isabella, an alcalde's appointment has been known to have been given
away three times in one day. (Prussian Year-Book, January, 1869.)

[96] According to Grunow, Cladophona arrisgona Kuetzing - Conferva
arrisgona Montague.

[97] A visita is a small hamlet or village with no priest of its
own, and dependent upon its largest neighbor for its religious

[98] Pigafetta mentions that the female musicians of the King of
Cebu were quite naked, or only covered with an apron of bark. The
ladies of the Court were content with a hat, a short cloak, and a
cloth around the waist.

[99] Perhaps the same reason induced the Chinese to purchase
crucifixes at the time of their first intercourse with the Portuguese;
for Pigafetta says: "The Chinese are white, wear clothes, and eat
from tables. They also possess crucifixes but it is difficult to say
why or where they got them."

[100] One line here omitted. - C.

[101] Apud Camarines quoque terrain eodem die quator decies
contremuisse, fide dignis testimoniis renuntiatum est: multa interim
aedificia diruta. Ingentem montem medium crepuisse immani hiatu, ex
immensa vi excussisse arbores per oras pelagi, ita ut leucam occuparent
aequoris, nec humor per illud intervallum appareret. Accidit hoc
anno 1628. - S. Eusebius Nieremberqius, Historia Naturae, lib. xvi.,
383. Antwerpiae, 1635.

[102] At Fort William, Calcutta, experiments have proved the
extraordinary endurance of the pine-apple fibre. A cable eight
centimeters in circumference was not torn asunder until a force
of 2,850 kilogrammes had been applied to it. - Report of the Jury,
London International Exhibition.

[103] Sapa means shallow.

[104] To the extraordinary abundance of these annulates in Sikkin,
Hooker (Himalayan Journal, i, 167) ascribes the death of many animals,
as also the murrain known as rinderpest, if it occurred after a very
wet season, when the leech appears in incredible numbers. It is a
known fact that these worms have existed for days together in the

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