cagJi) of the Lee, 11 m. from C. Harbour, had an
abbey found. 600 by St Finbarr ; was repeatedly
plundered by the Danes, who settled here 1020-
38, and partly held it when it was given up
1172 by the M-Carthys to Hen. II., and made a
mint town; declared for Perkin Warbeck, who
landed 1492, for which the mayor was hanged ;
was taken 1649 by Cromwell, and 1690 by Marl-
borough for Will. III. ; returns two members to
parl. (from 1374), with the old bounds, which
include 7 city pars, as below, and the above bar.
no. of electors being 4568 (of 10/. houses 5403) ;
is a boro' by prescription, first chartered by Hen.
III. (or Hen. II. ?) and under the new act is divided
into 8 wards, governed by a may., recorder, sheriff,
16 aid., 48 council., with the style of " may., aid.,
and burgesses of boro' of C." and revenue of 9438/.
Acres of county bounds 48,006 or 12 m. by 9, good
pasture, of new city bounds 2683 ; pop.' 106,055,
and 80,720, employed in manufact. of glass, good
cutlery, gloves (called ' Limerick ') and the pro-
vision and shipping trade (as below). Houses
(city) 8773, mostly slated, many thatched, and
standing chiefly on the isld. which divides the
river and is traversed by the Mardyke or public
walk, with cathedral and 8 churches; 5 rom.
cath., 4 methodist, and 9 other chapels ; 4 monas-
teries, 2 nunneries ; co. court house, old court ho.
(on site of King's old castle) ; mansion ho. (b.
1767), co. and city prisons, ho. of correction, con-
vict depot (at Spike isld.) ; commercial bldgs., in-
eluding a chamber of commerce in place of the old
exchange, custom ho. ; Provincial and 2 other
banks, savings bk. (with 266,393 from 7985 de-
positors) ; 2 loan funds, with 15.245/. capital, and
circulating 53,345/. yearly; mont de pie'te', with
10,387Z. capital ; Cork institution, found. 1807. with
a museum, where the literary and Cuvierian so-
cieties are held ; Cork library (1790), mechanics
and temperance institutes, agricult. associatn. and
museum, new school of design by Sir T. Deane, art-
union-theatre ; County, Tuckey St., Union, and
Daly's clubs ; new public park'of 240 acres, near
the rail on S. bank of river (once a marsh) ; bar-
racks for 5 regs. of horse and foot on a hill, and
military hosp. ; cemetery (once the botanic gar-
den) laid out with rare plants, etc., and found.
1826 by Father Mathew, who estab. his first total
abstinence soc. here 10 Apr. 1838 ; mkt. ho. (on
site of a castle), and 11 other mkts. ; 9 bridges
from the isld. to the main, including St. Patrick's
(an old one) and Anglesea iron br. b. 1830 by
Griffiths ; distilleries, sugar refinery (the only
one in Ireld.), porter breweries, foundries, etc. ;
new Queen's College, found, by act of parl.
1845, opened 1849, at Gill Abbey, on a site of
10 acres, includes a quadrangle 375 ft. round,
cloisters 862 ft. round, examination hall 90 ft. by
36, etc., with a statue of Q. Victoria, put up by
the architect (Sir T. Deane) when the Queen
passed by in her visit to Ireld. 1849, and is under
a president and vice-pres., with professors of
greek, latin, hist, and english lit, modern langs.,
Celtic langs., mathemat, nat. philos., chemistry,
logic, nat. hist, mineral, and geol., engineering,
agricult, anatomy, medicine, surgery, midwifery,
mat. medica, law, jurisprudence, and polit eco-
nomy ; dean Worth's boys' blue coat hosp. for 40,
on site of a leper's hosp. ; green coat sen. for 40,
archdn. Pomeroy's sch. ; Bp. Brown's diocesan
library; N. and S. infirmaries, with a school of
physic attached; fever and 2 lying-in hosps.,
' general dispensary, foundling hosp., deaf and
dumb asylum ; lunatic asyl., and another build-
ing ; 2 houses of female refuge ; protestant opera-
tive associatn., masonic female, and St. Patrick's
orphan, asylums ; Skiddy's and Bertridge's chari-
ties, and Union p. house. Grand jury cess 32,6277.
Livings are : St. Finbarr Eect. (Ck. C. R.) val. .
appropriate to dean and chap, and vicars choral ;
church or cathedral, reb. 1725-35, with the tower,
door, etc., of the old one, which contained the
shrine, and had near it a round tower, taken
down 1780 ; Christ Church Vic. and prebend. 3717.,
Bishop ; St. Peter Vic., held by archdeacon, 9431.,
Bishop, cA. ancient; St. Anne's and St. Mary's
Shandon Rects. 6537. and 1747., Duke of Leinster
and Rev. R. Longfield j St. Paul Rect. 2527., same
patrs. ; St. Nicholas Rect. 22U, Bishop. C.
Palace, b. by Bp. Mann. Some traces of the
walls and a tower of the red abbey or austin friary
(Ed. I. or later) remain; but there are none
of the M'Carthys' grey friary, the Barry's do-
minican friary, and of a carmelite friary and
preceptory. The upper harbour near the city
having been deepened, 600-ton ships can un-
load at the quay, which cost 100,0007. to make,
and have 7 ft. at low water ; thence the chan-
nel of the Lee runs down between hills lined
with villas, etc., to the great harb. (as below) ;
income of port 98977., it is under a board of 30
commissioners, with 140 pilots attached. Steamers
run to Bristol, Dublin, Glasgow, Liverpool, Ply-
mo', London ; and is a great starting point for
emigrants. In 1846 401 sail of 46,184 tons (164
being under 50 t. each), and 19 steamers (4 under
50t.), belonged to the port, which has Clonakilty,
Kinsale, W. Passage, Queenstown, Youghal, for
sub-ports ; and the tonnage Inwards and Outwards,
including repeated voyages, was ' coastwise ' 2740
of 207,991, and 1742 of 102,296 t (besides 315
steamers of 115,247 and 324 of 117,253 t.), from
and to 'colonies' (Canada, etc.) 100 of 26,514 and
111 of 29,200 t., from and to 'foreign ports'
(Portugal, the Mediterranean, Baltic, etc.) 928 of
30,768, and 865 of 28,598 t. (besides 195 fo-
reigners of 18,352, and 188 of 17,921 t.) ; total
customs 319,6487.; imports (val. 2,751,6847. in
'35) exports (val. 2,909,8467.), cattle and stock,
grain, butter, eggs, whiskey, leather, linen, etc.
Mail cars, etc. go to Bantry, Bandon, Ballincollig,
Carrigaline, Clouakilty, Cloyne, Fermoy, Kanturk,
Kilkenny, Kinsale, Limerick, Macroom, Mallow,
Millstreet, Mitchelstown, Monkstown, Newmar-
ket, Waterford, Youghal. The Gt. South, and
West, rail, opened to Blackpool Oct. 1849, comes
to Penrose Marsh by a tunnel of J m. From Mo-
nerea Marsh, near the park on the S. side, a rail,
goes to BANDON ; and another of 8 m. to Passage
and Monkstown, made 1846-7, has a gauge of
5Jft., with a capital of 226,6637., reed, (to June
1849) 56,1817., expend. 46,4687. A line of 97J m.
is projected to Waterford. Among the natives
are Barry (1741-1806), Butts, Maclise the painters ;
Murphy the Spanish traveller, Gen. O'Leary,
Miss Thomson wife of the emperor Muly Ma-
homet, Wood the antiquary, Townshend the co.
historian, Dr. Maginn (1793-1841), Croker, the
Millikens, S. Knowles, Hogan the sculptor, I lastie
the Madagascar traveller ; it publishes the ' Cork
Constitution,' ' C. Examiner,' ' C. Southern Re-
porter,' ' Province of Monster,' newspapers ; the
N. and S. Cork riflemen and light infantry have
their head qrs. here, and it gives title of earl
to the Boyles. C. Military District takes in
Cork, and part of Kerry (this side of R. Feale).
C. DIOCESE, province of Dublin, to which Ross
' was united 1430, and Cloyne since 1835 (oc-
i casionally before 1677), extends 74 m. by 16, or
356,300 acres, over great part of Cor k, comprising
8 rural deaneries, 78 benefices (196 in all) of
: which 7 are unions, 42 in patr. of bishop, whose
income is 24987. Chapter consists of dean, arch-
deacon, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, 12 pre-
bendaries, etc. Among the prelates were Abp.
Boyle, Chappell, P. Brown the scholar. Rom.
caih. diocese contains 33 pars., the bp.'s seat being
at Cork. C. Presbytery, includes Bandon, Clon-
mel, Cork, Queenstown, Lismore, Mallow, Mill-
town, Tralee. Cork P. L. Union, contains 14
elect, divs., with 40 guardians in Cork; acres
146,116, pop. 156,657, ho. room for 4550, cases
relieved (1847-8) 17,430 (besides out-door), ex-
pend. 17,9067., prop, rated 365,6237. A N. Cork
union is to be made out of this one. M kt. Ds.
Mon. Th. for cattle. Fairs, Trin. Mon. 1 Oct.
Cork Harbour (74-6, 87-8, 99-100) and naval
station, one of the finest in the world, llm. below
the city as above, is shut in by hills, has a clear
space of 5 m. by 3, with an entrance 1 m. by 1,
exclusive of the islds. on the N., as Great isld.
with Queenstown (or Cove) on it, Little and
Foaty islds. Opposite Queenstown are, Spike isld.
with artillery barracks and convict depot, Haul-
bowline isld. and ordnance depot, Rockey isld.
powder magazine, and Coney isld. On the E.
side are Roche pt. light (lat. 51 48' N., long.
8 15' W.) with Stag rocks outside, Spit Sand
floating light, Whitebay with Harbour rocks
and Turbot sands, and Trabolgan and other
seats, Carlisle fort, Ballytegreen ho., Corkbeg
castle ruin, near Whitegald bay, Ring pt. near
Aghadoe, Rostellan cast., thence bv Gt. isld.
chan. up to Middleton. Along the W. side are
Cork hd., Daunt rock, and Ringabella bay (out-
side), Camden fort near Ram's hd., Seamount
near R. Oweaboy or Crosshaven creek where
coasters lie, Ring pt., Monkstown bathing pi.,
Passage ferry, thence by river and L. Mahon
to city. Anchorage in 7 to 12 fath. ; high water
at full and change 7 hrs., rising 7 to 14 ft. Some
algerine pirates came in here 1636.
Cork Abbey (26) near Bray, S. Dublin, Hon. E.
Wingfield. ^ C. Rock (6"0) NE. of Aughinish
isld. S. Clare, in the Shannon. igg C. Sand, The,
4 m. SE. of Harwich, E. Essex, is partly dry at
low water with 1 to 5 fath. around. About IJm.
E. is the Cork Knot rocky shoal, with 19 ft. on it,
and a floating light, lat. 51 57' N., long. 1 23'
E., put up 1844, 28 ft. high, and seen 9 m.
Corkagh (21) near Clondalkin, SW. Dublin,
Rev. J. W. Finlay.
CORKAQUINY BARONY (33-37, etc.) W. Kerry,
contains the pars, of Ballinvoher, Ballyduff, Bally-
nacourty, Cloghane, Dingle, Dungum, Dunurlin,
Gartinny, Kildrum, Kilgolban, Killiney, Kilmal-
kedar, Kilguane, Kinard, Marhin, Minard, Strad-
bally, Kentry, and part of Armagh ; acres 138,991,
pop. 38,510, houses 6610.
CORKAREE BARONY (11-13, etc.) N. TVest-
meath, contains the pars, of Lackan, Leny, Multy-
farnham, Portloman, Portnashangan, Stonehall,
Taghmon, and Tyfarnham ; acres 26.960, an. val.
16,5737., pop. 6762, houses 1118.
CORKBEG par. (87-8, 100) Imolully bar. SE.
Cork, 6 m. SW. of Cloyne-152, on Cork harbour,
near Carlisle fort and Roche town light, has an
old fort. Acres 2661, with limestone; pop. 1603,
decreasing. Living, a Rect. (Ck. R. C.) val. 3G87.,
patr. Crown. C. House, R. Fitzgerald, Esq. ; Tra-
bolgan, E. Roche, Esq., M. P.
CorkhiU (12) 4 m. E. of Dromore, W. Sligo, J
C. Dodwell, Esq.
CORKICKLE ville ( ) Whitehaven town, W.
Corkindalelaw Hills, Neilson par. SE. Renfrew.
850 ft. high, with a fine view of the Clyde, etc.
Corkip Lough (48) 7 m. WNW. of Athlone, S.
CORLEA vil. (44) Lower Tulla bar. SE. Clare,
3 m. SW. of Broadford-119. CORLEA hmlt.
(22) Rathcline bar. S. Longford, near Keenagh-74.
CORLEY par. (63) Hemlingford hund. N. Wa
wick. 4m. NNW. of Coventry-91, the Cornelie of
' Domesdy.' commanding a view of 35 churches,
was a principal station in the gd. trig, survey.
Acres 1280 ; pop. 288 ; poor r. 69/. (Meriden U.) ;
real prop. 3379/. ; charities 61. Living, a Vic.
(Wore.) val. 400/., patr. A. F. Gregory, Esq. C.
Ash, 1 in. NW.
CORLISKEA hmlt. (2) Ballymoe bar. N. Galway.
CORLUDDY hmlt. (45) Iverk bar. S. Kilkenny,
8 m. SW. of Mullinavat-87.
Connaglava (22) 4 m. SW. of Keenagh, S.
Cormecn (39) Castlerahan bar. S. Cavan, near
Lough Ramor. jg^rCormeen (23) near Rockcorry,
Cormorant Islds. (37) Lower Tulla bar. E.Clare,
in Lough Derg.
Corn Cockle Muir, near , Dumfries, has a
sandstone quarry, where footprints of animals were
noticed by Mr. Murray 1828. ^ C. Hall (48)
4 m. SSE. of Sudbury, S W. Suffolk. ^ C. House
(24) near Omagh, W. Cavan. ggp C. PARK hmlt.
( ) Cotherstou tnshp. NR. York. 3 m. NW. of
Cornabrass Lough (39) nearNewtown Butler,^
Cornacassa (9) near Monaghan, N. Monaglutn,
J. Hamilton, Esq.
Cornaculla (2) 5 m. NE. of Dumlisk, N. Longfd.
Cornadrung (3) 7 m. NW. of Granard, N.Long-
ford, on Lough Gowna.
Cornafulla (55) 4m. SW. of Athlone, S.Roscmn.
CORNAGILLAGH hmlt. (61) Raphoe bar. Mid.
Donegal, 3 m. WNW. of Raphoe-137.
Cornaglea (40) near Mullagh, SE. Cavan,
Cornayroic Lough (32) near Ballyjamesduff, /?.
Cornagull Lough (21) 3 m. N. of Stradone,
Comaker (38) 3 m. E. of Kilbeggan, S. Wcst-
meath, S. H. Vignoles, Esq.
Cornahill (38) near Ballyjamesduff, S. Cavan.
giT Cornahill (40) near Mullagh, SE. Cavan.
COUNALECT hmlt. (32) Legny bar. Mid. Slic/o,
6 m. SW. of Coolaney-129.
Cornamucklagh (19) 4 m. NE. of Garvagh, E.
Ci H:\ANMCKLAGH vil. (7) Ballymoe bar. N.
Galway, near Ballymoe. Pop. 128.
Cornapark (20) 4 m. E. of Ardagh, S. Longford.
CORNARD, GREAT, par. (47, 81)Babergb hund.
SW. Suffolk, 1 m. SE. of Sudbury-54, on R.
Stonr. Acres 1610 ; pop. 938+12; poor r. 4331.
(Suill). U.); real prop. 3386/. ; charities 31. St.
Andrew I"j'c.(Norw.) val. 155/.,patr. Miss Mallows.
teJ" C., LITTLE, par. (48) as above, 1 in. SK.
Acres 1480 ; pop. 396 + 5 ; poor r. 306/. ; real prop.
26 12/. ; charities 41. All Saints Rect. (Ely) val.
509/., patr. Bp. of Norwich and G. M. Hawkins,
CORNASCREEB hmlt. (13) O'Neilland bar. N.
Cor'nascull (26) 5 m. SW. of Enniskillen, S W.
Cornavii of the Romans were tne people of Chesh.
Salop. Stafd. Wore. Warwh. ; who also settled
in Caithness and Cornwall, whence Cornulia, an
old name for the latter.
Cornborough (26) 2 m. WNW. of Bideford,
NW. Devon. R. Vidal, Esq.
Cornbrook Coalfield (61) 4 m. WNW. of Cleo-
bury Mortimer, SE. Salop, 1 m. long by m. is
the most valuable in the Clee hills. The strata
are sandstone, basalt, sandstone and clunch, coal,
ironstone coal, the last being in thin measures.
CORNBROUGH tnshp. ( ) Sheriff Button par.
N. R. York. 9 m. WSW. of New Malton-217.
Acres 920 ; pop. 63 ; real prop. 1638
CORNBURY, or WYCHWOOD, PARK, ext. par.
(45) Banbury hund. N. Oxford, near Banburf
-71, seat of Lord F. Churchill. Pop. 50.
CORNCAIRN, or CORNHILL, vil. Ordiquhill par.
N. Banff, a burgh of barony, 4 m. NW. of Aber-
chider-159. Pop. 94.
CORNDEAN hmlt. (44) Winchcomb par. N.
Gloucester. 1 m. SSW. of Winchcomb-95.
CORNELAY (36) 6 m. WNW. of Bridgend, S.
CORKELLY par. (31) W. Powder hund. Mid.
Cornwall, 6 m. E. of Truro-255. Acres 1480 (or
1047) slaty; pop. 119; poor r. 28/. (Truro U.) ;
real prop. 1610Z. St. Cornelius Cur. (Exet.) vaL
471., patr. Vicar of Probus or principal inhabit-
ants (?). Trewarthenick, G. Gregor, Esq.
Cornels-court (23) near Cabinteely, S. Dublin.
Corner Hall (7) 1 m. S. of Hemel Hempstead,
SW. Herts. H. White, Esq.
CORKEY par. ( ) Allerdale above Derwent
ward, S. Cumbrld. 3 m. SE. of Ravenglass-279.
Acres 3890 ; pop. 273 ; poor r. 90Z. (Bootle U.) ;
real prop. 2176/. ; charities 11. St. J. Baptist
Rect. (Ches.) val. 140/., patr. Earl of Lonsdale.
Troughtonthe optician was a native (1753-1835).
C. Hall J m. SW.
Carney Bury (47) 1 m. N. of Buntingford, NE.
Herts. W. Butts, Esq. ggT C. House (7) at
Chiswick, 5 in. WSW. of London, was the seat of
Earl Macartney, where he died.
Cornfield (50) on R. Jergus, S. Clare, ijif Corn-
field (110) 3 m. N. of Ballinrobe, S. Mayo.
CORNFORTH tnshp. ( ) Bishop's Middleham
par. E. Durham, 6 m. SSE. of Durham-258, on
Hartlepool rail. Acres 1570, with limestone ; pop.
700 + 35 ; poor r. 117/. (Sedgefield U.) ; real prop.
CORNHILL chplry. ( ) Norham par. Durham,
locally in Northmbrld. 10 m. NW. of Wooler-320,
has a seat of the Colh'ngwoods and traces of a
castle taken by the Scots 1549. Acres 4430;
pop. 823 + 6; poor r. 272/. (Berwick U.); real
prop. 77731. St. Helen Cur^ (Dur.) val. 240/.,
patr. Dean and Chap. ; near the church is a
mineral spring. Some remains have been found.
Fair, 6 Dec.
CORNILLO HUNDRED (3) St. Augustine lathe,
E. Kent, contains the pars, of E. Langdon rcct.,
Great and Little Mongeham rects., Northbourne
vie., Oxney, Ringswould r., Ripple r., Shoulden
cur., Sutton c., and Walmer c. ; acres 13,140, pop.
52 0, houses 934. See SANDWICH DEANERY.
CORNISH END (47) 6 m. NE. of Thaxted, N.
Essex, near C. House, Gent, Esq., is a Cur,
(Roch.) to Finchingfield, val. 100/., patr. Bp.
CORNORION tnshp. (74) Pennant par. N.Mont-
gomery. 9. m. N W. of Llanfyllin-179. Pop. 106.
CORNOYRON hmlt. (41) Llanfynydd par. Mid.
Carmarthen. 5 m. NW. of Llandilo-Fawr-202 ;
real prop. 2030/.
CORNSAY tnshp. ( ) Lanchester par. Mid. Dur-
ham, 6 in. NE. of Wolsingham-256. Acres 2370 ;
pop. 201 ; poor r. 70/. (Lanch.U.). C. Hall, 1 m. E.
Corntown (36) 4 m. WNW. of Cowbridge, S.
Glamorgan. Gen. Jones, near Ewenny priory.
CORNWALL tnshp. (79) Llanfairtalhaiarn par.
N. Denbigh. 4 m. S. of Abergele-214. Pop. 68.
CORNWALL (25-6, 29-33) a seaside county, W.
of R. Tamar, SW. corner of England, the Cassi-
terides or " tin islands " of the Phoenicians and
Greeks, was the seat of the Carnabii, Cornavii (or
Cornubians, from 'kernou' a horn, or 'earn' a hill),
a branch of the Damnonii in the roman Britannia
Prlma became a separate British kingdom 446
under Vortigern, till overrun by the Saxons
(who called it Weatias from ' gael ' or walsch,'
a stranger), first in 813 under Egbert, 892 under
Alfred, and 927-38 under Athelstan, who made it
part of Wessex, was ravaged by the Danes 806
and 977-81, who partially settled upon it, and was
created a duchy in the person of the Black Prince
1329, now held by the Prince of Wales, is wa-
tered by the Lynher, Looe, Fowey, Camel, and
other small streams, and bordered by Devon.
(E.), and the sea (N., W., and S.). Length from
Porthlevin, near Helston, NE. to Launceston
58 m., greatest breadth 46, av. ditto 22 ; relative
size 230-10,000ths ; circuit about 265 m. including
200 of coast, along which are Cawsand bay in
Plymouth sound, Rame head, Looe harb. and isld.,
Fowey harb., Greben hd. beacon near St. Austell's
bay, Deadman pt. (379 ft. high), St. Anthony's pt.
and light near Falmouth harb. (anct. Cenionis
Ostia), Manacles rocks between Helford creek
and Black hd., the Lizard and light the most
S. point of England (lat. 49 57' 41") whence
ships take their departure, with the Stags rocks
off it, St. Michael's mt. (anct. Ictis, and tin depot)
231 ft. high in Mount's bay near Penzance,
Logan rock near Tol Peden Penwith cave, off
which are the Rundlestone and Wolf rocks,
Land's End (anct. Antii-esta.uni) the most W.
point of England (long. 5 42'), off which
are Long-ships rock and light, the Seven stones
and floating light, and (25 m. SW. by W.) St.
Mary's (the largest of the Scilly islds.) and light,
Cape Cornwall (trap), St. Ive's bay (trap cliffs),
St. Agnes' hd., Towan bay, Trevose hd., Padstow
barb., Port Isaac, Tintagel hd., and Bude harb.,
raised beaches being visible in Mount's bay and
along the N. coast, which has no good harbour,
and on which the sand gains from St. Ives to
Padstow. It contains 1330 sq. m. or 851,200 acres
(849,200 by addition of pars.) exclusive of Scilly
islds. (5570 acres), of which 700,000 are arable,
meadow, etc., the rest moorland ; 341,279 + 4034
persons, of whom 71,927 are in Gwennap, St.
Austell, Camborne, Kenwyn, Penzance, Illogan,
St. Agnes, St. Just, 176,522 are females, 167,328
under 20 yrs. of age, 323,624 born in county,
31,723 or 9-3 per cent, live by commerce, trade,
manufact. (27,008 being miners), 26,862 or 7-9
per cent, in agricult. (8201 being farmers, gra-
ziers), 2349 educated professions, 9079 are in-
dependent, 68,500 labourers and servants, besides
others; 65,574 houses, exclusive of 5918 empty
and building ; 9 hundreds (7 at Domesdy.' ) in
two divisions, E. Div. containing Stratton, Les-
newth, Trigg, and part of Pyder on N. coast, and
East (in three parts), West, and E. Powder on S.
coast, with Bodmin for election town, and that
and St. Austell, Callington, Camelford, Laun-
ceston, Stratton, for polling places, W. Div.
containing part of Pyder, and Penwith on N.
toast, and W. Powder, apd Kerrier on S. coast,
with Truro for election town, and that and Hel-
ston, Penzance, Redruth, for polling places ; 203
parishes (the largest being St. Neot's) besides parts
of 3 others, and 2 ext. par. places ; 246 towns, vils.,
etc. ; about 28 market towns, Bodmin and Lann-
ceston assize towns,Truro (sessions), St. Austell, St.
Columb, Falmouth, Helston, Liskeard, Penzance,
Redruth, Camelford*, Stratton, St. Agnes (?),
Callington*, Camborne, St. Dave, Fowey*, Gram-
pound* (?), Stives, E. Looe*, Lostwithiel*
(sessions), St. Mawes(?) *, Marazion or Market-
jew, Padstow, Penryn, Saltash*, Tregony*, Wade-
bridge the first 10 being new County Courts,
the first 12 poor law Unions along with St. Ger-
mains* ; returns/ourfeen members to Parl. (instead
of 44 as formerly, i. e. 2 for county and 2 each for 2 1
boroughs, including Newport, " St. Michael's, W.
Looe, Bossiney, and those marked *, all disfran-
chised by the Reform act, except Grampound
in 1821), viz. 2 each for E. and W. Cornwall
(pop. 165,364, and 175,634, electors 6917 and
5212), 2 each for Bodmin, Penryn (with Falmo'),
and Truro (elect. 401, 950, and 624), 1, instead
of 2, each for Helston, St. Ives, Launceston, Lis-
keard (elect. 378, 589, 366, and 333) ; is governed
by a lord lieut., 35 deputy lieuts., and about 125
magistrates ; is in the W. circuit and Western
military district, and constitutes an archdy. in
dioc. of Exeter, province of Canterbury. Real
prop. (1815) 922,2597., ('43) 1,353,261Z. of which
178,0177. on mines, 10,9647. on quarries, 89837. on
iron works, 11,4737. on canals ; ditto rentals,
566,3337., or 13s. 3d. per acre (when wheat was
77s.) and 774,692/., or 18s.2d. per acre (wheat 55s.)j
county income ('48) 11,0607., of which 90817. from
co. rate (not laid on any existing valuation, but
derived from a single rate of 1217. 14s. on the
several pars., etc. of a long date back), 28147.
from the Treasury. Poor r. (1846-7) for 13 unions
86,9447. on 976,2097., or Is. 9d. in the . (wheat
being 59s.), cases relieved 28,508 (out-door
24,930) in estimated pop. of 368,134. Total cha-
rities 3252/., of which 92 91. for schools and educa-
tion; savings bks. ('49) 9, with 465,4187. from
12,004 depositors ; in yr. '38-9, 3973 m. of road
(335 m. being turnpike) were maintained for
28,6127. In '46-7, out of 223 pars. 206 had 374
church schools, supported by 81927. with 20,445
child, attending, and 465 paid teachers (79 being
monitors) whose salaries were 65627. and who
had 123 teachers' houses : out of these 8 were free
schools and 62 sund. sch. (exclusively, with
536 teachers, and 6857 child.) ; and 173 in union
with the National Soc. had 12,978 child, and
total grants of 48027. Offenders in '48, 272 (or
287 av. of 5 yrs.), of whom 177 were convicted, 68
were females, 17 under 15 yrs. of age, 86 could not
read or write. Following the 14 Sup. Registry
districts of '45 (total pop. 343,321 + 4078), the
'births' were 11,347, of whom 5461 were females,
576 or 5'1 per cent, illegit. ; ' deaths ' 6017 or 1 in
52, the all-England av. being 46 ; ' marriages '
2577 (at church 2264), of which 2338 persons, or
45-4 per cent, signed with marks. The chief rock,
which is killas or clay slate belonging to the
' Devonian ' or old red sandstone formation, with
limestone, and elvan or porphyry bands, is in-
tersected by a ridge of granite (called moorstone
and growan) running NE. and SW. through the
county, and rising into rugged masses at Brown
Willey 1368 ft. (the highest point),Carraton Down
1208, Hensbarrow 1029, Cam Bonellis 822, Cam
Brae 697, Sennen at Land's End 387, etc. Near the
granite are found the tin and copper, the staple
riches of the county, which numbers about
200 mining concerns, many called Huel or Wheal,
i.e. a work or pit, and mostly lying between St.
Austell's and St. Just's, with acapital of 2,440,0007.,
employing in one way and another about 50,000
persons. Produce of the tin mines, which were
worked by the Phoenicians long before Christ
(tho' not noticed in ' Domesdy.' from the com-
motions which raged) is 5000 tons at 701. per ton,
chiefly from St. Agnes, St. Austell, etc. ; of copper,
not worked much before 1700, 10,000 tons at 957.,
from St. Clear and Calstock in " eastern " district,
which takes in Gwennap and Redruth (see that