electors being 2060 (of 10?. houses 3925), and |
under the new act is divided into 3 wards, go- !
verned by a mayor, 6 aid. 18 council, with the ;
style of " may. jurats, and commonalty of town !
and port of D." and revenue of 5076/. Acres of i
new boro' 1319 (old 1043), chalky, of town |
320 ; pop. of boro' 17,795, of town 13,872 + 175, j
in the coasting trade, fisheries, paper and flour |
mills, and some pilots ; houses 2430, in 3 principal '
but narrow and irregular streets by the sea and ,
along the London road, include some crescents, ]
etc. in New town, with 3 churches, 11 chapels, |
town hall and prison (once part of the Maison j
Dieu), theatre, subscription libraries, museum or j
old town hall over butter mkt., custom house, ;
3 banks, savings bank and loan fund (52,747/. |
from 1957 depositors), gas-works, many hotels, j
almshouses, charity school, sch. of industry,
citadel and redoubt on the heights, where are
military hosp. and barracks, communicating
with town by steps in a shaft, Archcliff fort
b. by Hen. VIII. who built the Moat's Bulwark
under Castle Cliff, near which is Guilford battery,
flour and other mills, and Union p. house ; assd.
taxes 3340/.; poor r. 4148Z. on 64,668Z. ; real
prop. 101,475Z. ; charities 516Z., of which for alms-
house 1472. and Cullin's 136Z. Livings, formerly
seven, are : St. James Red. (Cant.) val. 145/., patr.
Arch op., church, which belonged to castle, has
norman doorway and 2 brasses (1590) ; St. Mary
Cur. 287/., Parishioners, ch. early norman, but
reb. 1844, belonged to Maison Dieu, and has a mon.
to Churchill ; Trinity Cur. 300Z., Archbp., ch. b.
1835 ; Ch. Church Cur. Z., Trustees. St. Martin
collegiate church, which stood in mkt. place, was
b. by Widred about 700 ; another old one, St.
Nicholas, was pulled down 1836. A gateway and
barn remain of St. Martin's benedictine prioryy
found. 1132 as a cell to Ch. Ch. Canterbury by
Abp. Corbeil ; there is a gate also of St. Radf-
gund's or Bradsole abbey, found. 1190; a chapel
stands on the site of St. Bartholomew's lepers'
hosp. (1150) at Buckland; Langdon priory was
found. 1087 by Sir W. Auberville; and at Chapel
plain stood, till washed away by sea 1576, our
Lady of Pity's chapel for shipwrecked people.
The Maison Dieu for pilgrims, found, bv the Gd.
Justiciary Hub. de Burgh in John's time, was
turned into a victualling office, but has been reb.
except the old tower, as the town hall. The pier
harb., partly formed by the Plut (11 acres) or
Dour's mouth, which went further inland at one
time, and first made by Hen. VIII., consists of an
outer (6 J acres) and inner harb. (7 acres), which
have been frequently repaired and enlarged, but
are liable to be obstructed by shingle bars ; it has
14 to 20 ft. water on chalk, and admits vessels of
400 tons, while those of 200 can lie at the quays.
Lights are shown at the pier-heads, which are
117 ft. apart. In D. road outside there is an-
chorage in 7 to 14 fath. ; a harbour of refuge, of
about 400 acres, is making, with entrances 700
and 150 ft. wide. Gov. mail and other packets run
to Calais 20 m. and Ostend 55 m. To it belong
56 pilots, divided into upper and lower ' books,'
under the Ld. Warden, and licensed to navigate
vessels through the Downs and the river. In
1846, 112 sail of 5271 tons (79 being under 50 t.
each) and 2 steamers of 107 t. belonged to the
port, which has Folkestone, Hythe, Sandgate, for
sub-ports ; and the tonnage Inwardf and Outwards,
including repeated vovages, was, ' coastwise ' 748
of 62,820, and 226 of "l 1,1 84 tons, from and to
' colonies ' 3 of 839, and 2 of 572 t., from and to
'foreign ports' 69 of 4496, and 60 of 997 t. (be-
sides 1173 steamers of 127,118, and 1173 of
127,602 t, 100 foreigners of 3266, and 92 of
2671 t., and 430 foreign steamers of 43,280, and
433 of 42,170 t.) ; total customs 40,6677. The
Castle, which was called the ' key of England,'
with its two wards and towers, covers 35 acres on
a steep hill to E., at the top of which are ruins of
an 8-sided Pharos of stone and tiles 40 ft. high,
built A. D. 53 by O. Scapula ; adjoining it are
remains of a collegiate church (on site of one
founded, thej r say, by K. Lucius) which was the
burial-place of some of the Ld. Wardens, and used
till 1690. Near it is Colton's gate, and around
were the Godwin, Clinton, Valance, and Mortimer
towers. Lower down is Hen. II. 's fine norman
keep or palace of two stories, 123 ft. by 103 and
108, and 24 thick in the walls, which has a
turret 468 ft. above the sea used by Gen. Roy, 1787,
when measuring the meridian arc between Green-
wich and Paris, and commanding a fine view, also
a chapel with norman arches, etc., a dungeon,
and a well which was 400 ft. deep. Around this
were the Suffolk tower and palace gate, the old
arsenal, king's kitchen, Arthur's hall, Harcourt's
gate, Well and Armourer's towers, King's gate,
Magnimot and Gore's towers, Ginevra's chamber,
etc., now turned into mess-rooms, stores, etc. or
pulled down : cannon are mounted on the keep,
which is bomb proof. The outer court is sur-
rounded with a curtain defended with towers
built at various times by the constables or the
knights who held by tenure from them, as
Rothesley's, Fulbert de Dover's (now a debtor's
prison, in charge of the bodar or sergeant), Hirst,
Arsick or Say's, Peverell's or Beauchamp (a gate
ovei the old" saxon gate), Forth or Q. Mary's,
Fienes'.or New gate (the entrance from town,
where the Lt. Gov. lives, and the records were
kopt), Clopton, Godsfoe, Crevecoeur's (with a
deep moat opposite the barbican), Magnimot's,
Fit/.william, or St. John's (these b. or altered by
Hub. do Burgh, who defended the cast, against
the dauphin in John's time), two watch-towers,
Avranche, Veville or Penchester, and other
towers, near to the Ashford gate a saxon
work, placed where the cliffs rise 320 ft. above
the sea, and whence Blanchard ascended in his
balloon 1785. At this spot is Q. Elizabeth's
pocket pistol a brass cannon 24 ft. long, given
to her by the States 1544, with a verse in dutch,
signifying, "O'er hill and dale I throw my ball,
Breaker my name of mound and wall." In
1642, Dawkes and 10 other Dover men took the
castle by surprise for parl., who kept it. Barracks
for 3 or "4000 men are excavated under ground,
and there is a roman camp near it. On the
heights opposite is the citadel, etc., and beyond,
Hay or Shakspeare's cliff 350 ft. high. The
town liberties include St. Peter's, Birchington,
and Wood, in Thanet, and Kingwould ; and
these with Faversham, Woodchurch, Gore-end,
Kingsdown, Margate, and Folkestone, are mem-
bers of the cinque port, which provided 21 ships
with 22 hands each for the navy. In John's time,
Hub. de Burgh with 40 ships defeated the French
with 80, off Boulogne. Constantius Chlorus was
here 300 A.D. ; Rich, king of Romans 1259 ; Emp.
Sigismund 1416 ; Hen. VIII. and Anne Boleyn
1520 to meet Chas. V. ; Chas. 1. 1625 to receive his
queen ; Chas. II. landed 1660 ; the plague brought
from London 1665 ; Louis XVIII. returned to
France 1823 ; Emp. Alexander, king of Prussia,
1814; Duke of Wellington, as Id. warden and
constable, entertained 1839; Pr. Albert landed
1840 ; Q. Victoria 1842. Bp. White Kennet (b.
1600) and Ld. Chan. Hardwicke (b. 1690-1764)
were natives ; Foote died at the ' Ship.' It pub-
lishes the ' D. Chronicle ' and ' D. Telegraph '
newspapers; and gave title of baron to the Ellises.
1). Eoad, runs nearly in the line of Watling St., to
Blackheath 5 m., Scooter's Hill 8, Dartford 15,
Gravesend 22, Gad's Hill where Prince Hal
robbed Falstaff 26, Rochester and castle 29,
Chatham 30, Milton 39, Faversham 47, Canter-
bury 55, Barham 61, Dover 71. The Rail., 88m.
long, made to Dover 1844 by Cubitt, cost, in-
cluding branches, 3,564,172Z., has 7 tunnels and
14 stations, viz. New Cross 3 m., Croydon 11,
Merstham 19 (tun. 1820 yds.), Reigate 21, God-
stone 27 (after Bletchingly tun. 1324 yds.), Eden-
bridge 32, Penshurst 36, Tunbridge 4"l (a branch
of 5 m. to T. Wells), through the Weald, to
Maidstone road 41 (and by branch to it 54),
Harden 51, Staplehurst 53, Headcorn 56, Cuck-
ley 61, Ashford 67 (thence by branch to Hast-
ings about 80, also to Canterbury 81, and
Whitstable 84, also to Margate 101, Rams-
gate 97, and Deal thro' Minster 102), Hythe 75,
Folkestone 83 and viaduct 90 ft. high (before and
after which it passes along the coast through the
chalk downs, by several tunnels, as Saltwood
952 yds., Martello tun. 636 yds., Cliff tun. 1937
yds., Shakspeare cliff double tun. 1303 yds. with
shafts to the top), thence to Dover by a viaduct
close to the sea, protected by a wall made of
shingle and lime f m. long, 65 ft. high, 25 thick.
These cliffs were partly excavated by blasting,
nnd on one occasion 18,500 Ibs. used at Round
Down loosened 1,000,000 tons of chalk, which
spread 1200 ft. into the sea, and covered 18
acres. From the station a submarine telegraph
22 m. long, across the Strait, to Cape Grisncz,
was laid down by Messrs. Brett, Aug. 1850,
consisting of a copper wire l-10th in. diam.
covered with gutta percha, and weighing 5 tons,
with weights of 18 and 24 Ibs. at every l-16th m.
to keep it at the bottom of the sea, which is 5
to 30 fath. deep ; but, it was cut by the sharp
rocks, and is to be replaced by a stronger one.
In 1821 Gen. Colby remeasured the distance be-
tween the signals here and Calais, and found it to
be 137,472 ft., differing only 12* ft. from that deter-
mined by Gen. Roy as above. >?< D. DEANERY,
archdy. and dioc. of Canterbury, includes the be-
nefices marked in Bewsboro' hund., with Alkham
vie., Cheriton rect., Folkestone cur., Hawkinge r.,
Sandgate c., Swingfield c. Dover P. L. Union,
contains the pars., etc. of Alkham, Buckland
(where poor ho. is), Caple, Charlton, Cliffe (W.),
Coldred, Denton, Dover, Ewell, Guston,Hougham,
Langdon (E. and W.), Lydden, Oxney, Poulton,
Ringwould, River, Sibertswould, Whitfield, Wot-
ton ; acres 27,067, pop. 24,522, cases relieved (vr.
1846-7) 1745 (out-door 1239), expend. 8093/.,pr6p.
rated 1 12,872/. Sup. Registry comprises the same,'
except Oxney ; pop. 24,523 + 393 ; births (1845)
887 (41 8 being females, 38 illegit.) deaths 516
marriages 287, of which 124 persons signed
with marks ; ' many ' deaths from cholera in 1849.
The New County Court district corresponds with
the Registry. Mht. Ds. Wed. Sat. Fairs, 23 Nov.
Races, Oct. See Batcheller's ' Dover Guide.'
Dover, Strait of, as above, between England
and France, and joining the Channel and N. Sea,
is the old Fretum Gallieum, and Pas de Calais of
the French, lined with chalk cliffs, which are 300
to 600 ft. high on the English side; is 21 m.
broad from S. Foreland light to Calais It., 20 from
Folkestone cliffs to C. Grisnez It. (on a cliff 194ft.
high), 26 from Dungeness It. (on a post-tertia^
flat) to Boulogne cliffs, giving an av. breadth
of 22 (only 18 from Dover to C. Grisnez), while
the length is about 15. On the line from Hythe
in E. bay to Boulogne is an uneven chalk bottom,
which at Varne and Ridge shoals is only 1 to 4
fath. deep, but elsewhere 6 to 30 fath. ; a'nd hence
the depths gradually increase down the Channel,
but remain at about 20, 25, and 30 fath. up the
N. Sea. High water at moon's full and change
at 2| hrs. ; and a ' meeting of the tides ' from
both seas takes place.
P. DOVER COURT par. (48) Harwich boro',
NE. Essex, 2 m. SW. of Harwich-71, at R. Stour's
mouth. Acres 1970 (or 2622), growing fine hard
elms ; pop. 813 ; poor r. 304/. (Tendring U.) ;
real prop. 3545Z. All Saints Vic. (Roch.) val.
with St. Nicholas Cur. 221Z., patr. Ld. Chancellor ;
church, had a guild, and a famous rood, for de-
stroying which some were executed 1532.
Doveran, or Deveron, River, rises in Cabrach,
W. Aberdeen, under the Buck (2376 ft.), and
passes 55 m. NE. along the Banff, border, by
Huntly (where R. Bogie joins), Rothiemay (R.
Isla joins), Forglen, to the sea below Banff; trout
and salmon are caught, and it rose 22 ft. at Huntly
in the floods of 182l.
Doverdale (83) near Burgh-on-Bain, Mid. Lin-
coln, a meet for the S. Wold hounds, ijif DOVER-
DALE par. (54) Upper Halfshire hund. N. Worcest.
3 in. NW. of Droitwich-116. Acres 980, with
sandstone ; pop. 54 ; poor r. 58/. (Droitw. U.) ;
real prop. 1164/. St. Mary Rect. (Wore.) val.
202/., patr. Mrs. Curtler.
DOVKRHAYS hmlt. (20) Luckham par. NW.
Somerset. 4 m. WSVV. of Minchead-163. Pop. 203.
DOVERIDOE par. (72) Appletrce hund. SW.
Derby. 1 m. NE. of Uttoxeter-138, on R. Dove,
containing W. Broughton and Eaton, was a mkt.
town under Tutbury priory. Acres 4000 ; pop.
816 + 2; poor r. 161A (Uttox. U.); real prop
9000Z. St. Cuthbert Vic. (Lich.) val. 562/., pair.
Duke of Devonshire. D.Hall, Lord Waterpark,
from Edw. VI.
Dovy, or Dyfi, River (59, 60) rises under Arran
Fowddy, E. Merioneth., and goes 30 m. SVV. past
Dinas Mowddwy, across Montgomy. to Machyn-
lleth, to Cardigan bay at Aberdovey, where it
forms a wide mouth or bar harbour.
Dow. See DULL, Perth.
Dow Loch, Torosay par. W. Argyll. W. side of
Mull, has at Aughnacraig a ferry to Oban.
DOWALLY par. See DUNKELD, Perth. Pop.
656 ; for poor 1247.
Qpwalton Loch, Sorfoie par. S. Wigton. 3 m.
round, at the head of a stream which goes to
Garliestown bay, has perch, pike, etc., and re-
mains of a seat of the M'Dowals.
Doward, Great and Little, Hills (43)Whitchurch
par. S. Hereford. 3 m. NE. of Monmouth, near
Arthur's Hall, on R. Wye, have two earth-works
on them, and a tower on Little D.
DOWBIGGIN hmlt. ( ) Sedbergh par. W. R.
York, near Sedbergh-246. Pop. 81.
Dowbridge, or Drovebridge (53) where Watling
St. crosses R. Avon, W. Northmptn. near the old
DowdalTs Hope (55) 6 m. SE. of Leominster,
DOWDESWELL par. (44) Bradley hund. Mid.
Gloucest. 3 m. SE. of Cheltenham-95, contains
Andoversford, where Ch. I. had a skirmish. Acres
3250 ; pop. 249 + 1 ; poor r. 88Z. (Northleach U.) ;
real prop. 3184Z. St. Michael Rect. (Gl. and Br.)
val. 40'2/., patr. Mrs. H. Rogers, of D. House ;
church, has brass of a priest (1500). Some earth-
works are seen.
DOWDIKE hmlt. (70) Sutterton par. SE. Lin-
coln. 5 m. SE. of Swineshead-109.
DOWDSTOWN, or DOUTHSTOWN, par. (31)
Skreen bar. Mid. Meath, 3 m. SE. of Navan-29,
onR. Boyne. Acres 869; pop. 280. Living, a Vic.
with Skreen. D. House, E. Taylor, Esq., M. P.
P. Dowell ( ) near Berkeley, W. Gloucest.
Dowes (47) 3 m. SSE. of Sudbury, N. Essex.
Dowglas Rivulet ( ) Fassadinin bar. N. Kil-
kenny, a branch of R. Dinin.
Dowl Loch, at R. Dinart's head, NW. Suthrld.
P. DOWLAIS chplry. (42) Merthyr-Tydfil par.
NE. Glamorgan. 2 m. NE. of Merthyr-Tydfil-171,
contains Heol-wermood and Garth. Living, a
Rect. (Llan.) val. 150Z., patr. Marquis of Bute.
D. House, Sir J. Guest, Bt. the lessee of the great
iron-works here, which employ many hundred
hands ; Lady G. is the author of ' Mabinogion.'
DOWLAND par. (26) N. Tawton hund. N. Devon.
7 m. SE. of Torrington-194, near R. Torridge.
Acres 2330 ; pop. 244 + 5 ; poor r. 111. (Toning.
U.); real prop. 1166Z, ; charities 3Z. Living, a
Cur. (Exet.) val. 76/., patr. Sir S. H. Northcote, Bt
Dowlands, or Whitelands (22) 2 m. WSW. of
Lyme Regis, E. Devon, is in part the scene of the
great landslip of 1839 (see AXMOUTH).
DOWLES par. (55) Stottesden hund. SE. Salop,
3 m. WSW. of Kidderminster-126, on R. Severn.
Acres 1080 ; pop. 80 + 2 ; poor r. 53/. (Kidderm.
U.) ; real prop. /. St. Andrew Rect. (Heref.)
val. 159/., patr. J. Taylor, Esq. and others.
DOWLISH-WAKE par. (18) S. Petherton hund.
S. Somerset. 4 m. NE. of Chard- 139, belonged to
the Wakes. Acres 680 ; pop. 374 ; poor r. 172Z.
(Chard U.) ; real prop. 2293Z. St. Andrew Rect.
(Ba. and W.) val. with W. Dowlish 356/., patr.
W. Speke, Esq. <gT D., WEST, par. Abdick
hund. near the above. Acres 450 ; pop. 31 ; poor
r. 19Z. ; real prop. 637Z. Living, a Rect. with D.
Wake; no church.
DOWN (57 sheets) a seaside county, Ulster
province, NE. Ireland, between Loughs Carling-
ford and Belfast, the seat of Ptolemy's Voluntii or
Uluntii, afterwards of the O'Neiles, Macgennises,
Macartanes, etc., was called Ulladh or Ulidia,
and by the Picts Dal-aridia, or Dalriada, was
ravaged by the Danes, who left many raths, etc.
behind, settled by DeCourcy 1177, the Whites,
Savages, Montgomeries, etc., and came through the
Lacies, Burghs, and Mortimers to the Crown,
was overrun 1315 by Edw. Bruce, included
Newtown Ards county till 1353, being partly
without the Pale, and was made shire ground
before 1584, is traversed by the Rs. Bann,
Lagan, Annacloy, etc., and bordered by Louth
(SE.), Newry canal and Armagh (W.), L. Neagh
and Antrim (NW.), and the Irish Sea (E. and
SE.). Length from Narrow Water to Groomsport
50 m., greatest breadth 28, av. ditto 24 ; relative
size 294-10,OOOths ; circuit about 145 m., in-
cluding 67 of coast (or 139 with all the inlets,
having 24 coast-gd. stations, with 166 hands,
and Donaghadee and Newcastle fishing districts,
with 878 vessels, and 3805 hands), along which
are Warrenspoint and Rosstrevor bath, places,
under the Mourne mountns. in Carlingford bay,
which has good oyster-beds, Cranfield pt. and light,
Newcastle bath, place, under Slieve Donard,
Dundrum bay, where the tides meet, and the 'Gt.
Britain' went ashore, St. John's pt. (anct./saniam)
and It., Ardglass fishing town and It., Kel-
lard pt., and L. Strangford, with its " 365 islds."
leading up to Downpatrick, etc., S. Rock It.,
with other rocks around, Donaghadee It. and
packet station (for Scotld.), Nout head, turning
into Belfast lough, with Copeland isld. It. off
it, Groomsport where Schotnberg landed 1690,
Bangor, Holywood bath, place, and Belfast. It
contains 967 sq. m., or 612,945 acres, of which
514,180 are arable, 14,355 plantation, 2211 in
towns, 3432 lakes, etc., 78,317 uncultivated;
68,153 families, of whom 35,291, or 52 per cent.,
live by agricult., 27,474, or 40 per cent., by
manufact., trade, etc., 1552 professions and inde-
pendent, 33,663 by manual labour, 43,116 in 3rd
and 4th or lowest class houses; 361,446 + 943
persons, of whom 30,762 are in Newry, New-
tonards, Downpatrick, Banbridge, Donaghadee,
Bangor, 187,908 are females, 175,249 under 20
yrs. of age, 348,631 county-born ; 68,890 houses,
besides 3788 uninhabited and building ; 10 baro-
nies, Ards (a peninsula to NE. beyond L. Strang-
ford, the seat of the Savages), Castlereagh Lower
and Upper (N., the O'Neiles), Dufferin (E., the
Whites), Iveagh Lower and Upper (SW., the
M'Rories, Macgennises), Kinlearty (Mid., the
Macartanes), Lecale (E.), Monrne (S.), Newry
Lordship (a peculiar jurisdiction of earl of Kil-
morey) ; 64 parishes (of which Kilkeel is largest
47*,883 ac.), and parts of 7 others ; 15 market
towns, Downpatrick, the co., assize, sessions, elec-
tion town, and bishop's seat, Newry (partly in
Armagh) assize and ses., Newtonards (ses.), Ban-
bridge, Hillsboro' (ses. and police head quarters),
Rathfriland, Ballinahinch, Bangor, Killyleagh,
Donaghadee, Portaferry, Saintfield, Kirkcubbin.
Castlewellan, Dromore (gnce a bishop's see),
the first four with Kukeel being poor law
unions, the first seven (except Newry) with
Newcastle being police districts (with 41 stations
and 234 men) ; returns four members to parl.
(14 before the Union), viz. 2 for county (elect.
1195), 1 each for Downpatrick (el. 222) and ^ewry
(el. 803) ; is under a lieut. custos, high sheriff,
23 deputy lieuts., and about 150 magistrates; is
in NE. circuit, Belfast military district, and dio-
ceso of Down, Connor, and Dromore. Gross
rental (1846) 607,619/., or 19s. lid. per acre ; val.
to poor r. 38,532/. ; county rate ('48) 40.969/.
Savings bks. ('48) 4, with 49,159/. from 3050 de-
positors; loan fund 1, with a capital of 2917/.,
and circulating 11.047/. Schools (national) in
48, 267, with 25,388 children attending, in
1841, 26,863 went to schools of all kind, and 27-8
per cent, of the pop. could not read or write. Av.
no. of committals ('45-8) 555, of whom 307 were
convicted. Births (1841), 1 in 33 ; deaths, 1 in 63.
The surface is hilly throughout (hence the name,
from dunum, a down), with many small lakes and
floating islds. in the hollows; prevailing rock
clay slate, with limestone and trap in the N. near
Belfast, and granite in the S. in the Mourne
mountns., which rise 2796 ft. at Slieve Donard,
the highest peak ; others are, SI. Bingian 2449,
SI. More 2443, SI. Beg 2334, SI. Muck 2198 (where
the Bann rises), Butter mtn. 2137, Eagle 2081,
Finline 1868, SI. Croob (where the Lagan rises,
with a cairn at top) 1753, hence the granite
stretches past Rathfriland to Newry mount n. in
Armagh. Slate is got at Ballywater, etc., lead
at Coulig, SI. na Man, etc., and" traces of copper
and coal are found. Chief manufact. are spin-
ning and bleaching of linen and cotton, and
embroidering muslin or "flowering" "for the
Glasgow market, in '47, a bad year, 799 and
3449 persons were in the cotton and flax mills
respectively; the fisheries are neglected. Soil
good, with excellent marl pits in Lecale; and
about 80,000 firkins of butter made yearlv.
Acres in crop ('48) 308,487, of which the
chief are oats 153,633, potatoes 43,506, wheat
30,543, barley and rye 15,722, turnips 15,679,
meadow and clover 36,616, and the val. of live
stock in "41, on 31,970 farms above 1 acre (upon
which as much as 101. per acre has been paid for
'tenant right'), was 819,917, including 70,601
head of cattle (123,000 in '48), 25,530 sheep
(36,000 in '48), 59,427 pigs, 31,174 horses, besides
poultry, etc. Buildings are neat and white-
washed, and most of the farmers are weavers too,
of scotch descent in the plains, irish in the
mountains. Among the antiquities, etc. are crom-
echs at Giant's Ring, Slidery Ford, near Dun-
drum, SI. na Griddle, SI. na boil trogh ( ?) ;
round towers at Maghera, and Drumbo (with an old
church); dunish raths at Ballynahinch, Newry,
Dromore, etc., and the " Dane's Cast " a bank
50 ft. broad, near Loughbrickland ; abbeys, etc. at
Newry (found, by K. Mac Loughlin), Moville,
Grey Abbey (a fine ruin), Inniscourcy, and old
churches at Newtonards, Knockbreda, Saul ;
castles at Narrow Water (Ormond's), Dundrura
(de Courcy's and the Macgennises), Audley, Kil-
clief (the Bishops'), Bangor (which had a famous
convent), Green Castle, Killyleagh, Ardquin
(Savages') on L. Strangford, where many ruins
are seen, Portaferry, Hillsboro', Ardglass (the
New work and others). St. Patrick's station is
held at Strual Hill, near Downpatrick, where he
was buried ; Hans Sloane was born at Killyleagh,
Wi 1 1 Watch " the bold smuggler " of Dibdin's song
at Newtonards ; Gilford is a pretty spot on the
Ban, which is lined with bleach works, and pro-
duces pearl oysters; and at Dromore is a large
cave. Some of the seats are : Marq. Londonderry
Mountstewart (with a fine view from Athenian
Stuart's ' Temple of the Winds '), Marq. Donegal
Ormeau, Marq. Downshire Hillsboro', Earl An-
nesley Castlewellan, E. Roden Tullamore, E. Clan-
william Gill Hall, E. Kilmorey Mourne Ph.,
Visct.Bang or Castleward, Lord Dufferin Ballyleidy,
Visct. Dungannon Dromara, Visct. Newry Morne
Fk., Bateson, Bt. Sehoir Ph., Crawford, M. P. of
Crawfordxburn, Hall of Narrowwater, Kerr, M. P.
of Potavo, Ross of Rosstrevor, Fride of Seaford,
Hamilton of Killyleagh, Montgomery of Grey
Abbey, Ward of Bangor, etc. Gives title of Marquis
of ' Downshire ' to the Hills, and of Visct. ' Downe '
tb the Dawneys of Cowick. A ship canal 4 m.
runs from Fathom, in Carlingford bay, to Newry,
thence for barges on the WT border past Acton,
Tanderagee, etc. to Portadown (16 m.) ; the
Lagan canal and river on the Jf . runs from Belfast
past Lisburn and Moira to L. Neagh (28 m.).
Roads from Downpatrick : (1) To Strangford 8 m.,
along the lough to Kirkcubbin 16, Grey Abbey
19, Donaghadee 26. (2) Killyleagh 7, Kil-
linchy 12, Comber 19 (Belfast 28), Newtonards
23, Donaghadee 91, or Bangor 28. (3) Cross-
gar 6, Saintford 11, Belfast 21 direct, (4) Bally-
nahinch 9 (Hillsboro' 18, or Lisburn 19), Dromore
194, Moira 25, or Lurgan 28, and L. Neagh 30.
(5) Clough 6, Castlewellan 11, Hilltown 21 (or
Rathfriland 21), Newry 30. (6) Dundrum 8,
under the mountns. by the coast to Newcastle 13,
Kilkeel 26, Rosstrevor 34, Warrenspoint 37.
From Newry (7) to Loughbrickland 10, Ban-
bridge 14, Dromore 21, Hillsboro' 25J, Lisburn
29i, Belfast 37. About 6 m. of rail, go from
Belfast to Holywood, another 6 from Newry to
Warrenspoint, and 5 of the Ulster line cross