bar. E. Meath, 3 m. SE. of Duleek, as above, of
which it is part, has remains of an abbey or
j>riory found. 1182 by Hugh de Lacy on the site of
one (according to the ' Four Masters ') b. of stone
by St. Kiernan about 450, and burnt by the
Danes. It is thought to have been the first stone
church in Ireland ; was the head of a small dio-
cese, afterwards joined to Meath ; and for a time
held the bones of Brian Boroimhe, who was killed
at Clontarf. Acres 1030 ; pop. 141.
Dulford House (21) near Cullompton, E. Devon.
B. Walrond, Esq.
DULL, or Dow, par. 5m. NW. ofAberfeldy
-67, under the Grampians, between Ks. Tay and
Tumel, includes parts of Ross, Tenantry (both q.s.),
and Aberfeldy, and the districts of Amulrie, Appin,
Fincastle (with 15 ruined towers), Grandtully.
Size about 30 m. by 12, hilly pasture (rising
3153 ft. at Schihallien) with 15 lakes, full of pike,
trout, etc., and salmon in the rivers ; pop. 381 1 + 62,
gaelic- speaking, of vil. 145; real prop. 11.653/. ;
for poor 502/. Living (presb. Weem.) val. 1587.,
patr. Crown ; chu-ch, stands on a plain (dal),
whence the name. Druid remains, and old towers,
Dullan Water, rises in Glenrinnes, E. Banff.
and runs 14 m. NW. to R. Fiddich near Dufftown.
Dullater Bog, Kilsyth par. S. Stirling, where
many of Gen. Baillie's cavalry were swallowed
up after Montrose's victory 1645.
P. DULLINGHAM par. (ol) Radfield hund. SE.
Cambridge. 3 m. S. of Newmarket-61, near E.
Count, rail. Acres 3240 ; pop. 758 + 7 ; poor r.
676/. ( Newmarket U:); real prop. 3331Z. ; chari-
ties 123/., of which Leader's for clothing 100/. St.
Mary Vic. (Ely) val. 165Z., patr. Mrs. Pigott of
D. House ; church, has an old font.
Dulnan River, rises in Badenoch, NE. Inver-
ness, and runs 24 m. NNW. of R. Spey, below
DULOE par. (24-5) West hund. E. Cornwall,
4 m. SSW. of Liskeard-221, near the canal, has a
druid circle of 7 or 8 stones, a roman camp at
Bury Cast, and St. Cuby's holy well. Acres 5900
(or 5051) with lead ore; pop. 937 ; poor r. 485Z.
(Lisk. U.); real prop. 4799/. ; charities 131. St
' iby Rect. (Exet.) val. 529/., patr. Balliol Coll.
\ n. ; church, has effigy of Colshill, Kt. of Tre-
' a, tombs in slate of the Arundels (Maria A.,
,uh the anagram 'Man a dry laurel') and Kil-
liows, and of Anstis the antiquary of Westnarth.
Dean Miller was born at the rectory. Treworgy,
Mrs. Inch, was the Kendalls' seat.
Dulsham Green (7) 2 m. SSW. of Hatfield, S.
DULSIE BRIDGE hmlt. 10 m. SSE. of Nairn
-126, Mid. A'airn. on R. Findhorn.
P. M. DULVERTON par. (21) Williton liund.
W. Somerset. 25 m. WSW. of Bridgwater, 1G5
from London, in a hollow on R. Barle, was a crown
manor in saxon times, given by Edw. I. to the
Pynes, from whom it came to the Babingtons
and Sydenhams of Coombe Sydenham, and is a
meet for the Tiverton, and Devon and Somerset
hounds, and the D. harriers. Acres 7760, woody,
with lead, and mineral springs ; pop. 1422 + 14, in
the manufact. of blankets, woollens, silk, etc. ;
houses 270, with Dyke of Pixton's school (29Z.) ;
poor r. 890Z. on 6227Z. ; real prop. 78871. ; charities
bll, of which mkt. charity for poor 28Z. All
Saints Vic. (Ba. and W.) val. 322/., patr. Dean
and Chap ; church, early eng. with tombs of the
Sydenhams. Dulv. P. L. Union, contains the
pars. etc. of Brompton Regis, Brushford, Dulver-
ton, Exford, Exton, Hawkridge, Huish Champ-
flower, Skilgate, Upton, Winsford, Withypool ;
acres 54,243, pop. 5670, cases relieved (yr. 1846-7)
1281 (all out-door) expend. 3209Z., prop, rated
27,392/. It belongs to Tiverton Sup. Registry.
DULWICH hmlt. (1) St. Giles Camberwell par.
NE. Surrey, 4 m. S. of St. Paul's, a pleasant rural
spot noted for its college and picture gallery.
Pop. 1904. EAST-D. Chapel Cur. (Win.) val. /.,
patr. Trustees. God's Gift College was founded
by Ed. Alleyne the player, the " Proteus for
shape, and Roscius for tongue," and b. 1619 by I
Jones for a master of the founder's name, warden,
4 fellows, 6 poor brethren, 6 sisters, 12 scholars,
6 assistants and others. It forms three sides of a
square, with a chapel (in which is G. Romano's
copy of the ' Transfiguration '), audit room with
a portrait of Alleyne, a library, and the gallery
behind 77 ft. long, containing pictures bequeathed
by Cartwright the comedian, and (1811) by Sir
F. Burgeois, which is open to the public by ticket.
The best paintings are : Guide's ' John Preaching,'
' St. Sebastian ' and ' Madonna ' (with a perfect
tear in her eye), Rubens' ' Evening ' and his
' Mother,' Murillo's ' Flower Girl ' and ' Peasant
Boys,' landscapes by Claude, Cuyp, P. Potter,
Hobbima, Wouverman, Loutherburg, and Both,
Ruysdael's ' Waterfall ' and a ' Wood Scene,'
Tenier's ' Winter Scene,' etc. Bergham's ' Farrier
shoeing an Ass,' etc., G. Douw's 'Old Woman
eating Porridge,' Vanhuysen's ' Flowers,' Back-
huysen's ' Boats in a Storm,' Vandervelde's
' Calm,' N. Ponssin's 'David with Goliath's Head,'
Rembrandt's ' Jacob blessing Joseph,' etc. Pro-
caccim's ' Creation of Eve,' Wilson's ' Macaenas's
Villa,' Reynolds's ' Mother and sick Child ' and
' Mrs. Siddons as Tragic Muse' and portrait of him-
self, the Linley portraits by Gainsboro' and Law-
rence, Velasquez's 'Phil. IV.,' one byVandyck
(with a Madonna by him). Income 8637Z. arising
from the manor, houses in St. Botolph's and St.
Luke's pars. London, and including 572/., Burgeois
and Desenfan's bequests. Near it is J. Alleyn's
free school (202/.) lately reb. (with a fine ash
opposite). D. Wood, G. Grote, Esq. ; D. Hill,
J. Fisher, Esq.
DUMBARROW vil. Dunnichen par. S. Forfar.
6 m. ESE. of Forfar-58, under D. Hill.
DUMBARTONSHIRE, a seaside county, W. Scot-
land, on the ascent of the Highlands, once be-
longing to the Damnii or Attacotti, in the roman
Vespasiana, was formerly called Levenax or
Lennox (Leven-ach, i. e. the R. Leven's field),
and was the home of the Macgregors (Rob Roy's
people), Macfarlanes, etc. was madeshire ground
by Will, the Lion, is traversed by Antonine's
wall, and the Glasgow canal and rail, and bor-
dered by Stirling. (E.), Lanark. (SE.), the Clyde
and Renfrew. (S.), L. Long and Argyll. (W.).
Extent from the Aldernan above Tarbet to the-
Kelvin 30m., greatest breadth 13, av. ditto 7J,
exclusive of a detached inland piece 14 long, by
2 to 4 broad ; relative size 87-10,OOOths ; circuit
about 85 (exclusive of 30 round the inland piece),
of which 35 is coast, washed by the frith of Clyde
up to Dumbarton, L. Gare, with Helensburg and
Roseneath bathing places, and L. Long with its
herring fisheries which employ 50 boats. It con-
tains a total of 259 sq. m. or 165,760 acres, of
which about one half are cultivated and 19,840
are water, chiefly in Loch Lomond; 8076 families,
or 44,296 + 1108 persons, of whom 11,304 are in
Alexandria, Dumbarton, Duntocher, 21,754 are
females, 20,909 under 20 yrs. of age, 22,820 county-
born, 11,417, or 25-8 per cent., live by commerce,
manufact. etc., 2603, or 5-9 per cent., by agricult.
(521 being farmers, graziers), 394 educated pro-
fessions, 852 are independent, 7038 labourers and
servants, etc. ; 7985 houses, reckoning flats, and
exclusive of 485 empty and building ; 10 parishes,
besides Cumbernauld and part of Kirkintilloch,
which constitute the detached piece, first an-
nexed by Rob. I. ; above 49 vils. hmlts. etc. ;
one royal burgh, Dumbarton, the county town,
etc., and 4 burghs of barony, Kirkintilloch,
Helensburg, Milligs, and Gartshore ( ?), the
first being the sheriffs' court, the first two, small
debt courts ; returns one member for the co. (elect.
1265), and 1 for Dumbarton jointly with Kilmar-
nock, etc. (as below) ; is governed by a lord lieut.
vice-lieut. sheriff, and substitute, and 12 deputy
lieuts. and is in the presbyteries of Dumbarton
and Glasgow, synod of Glasgow, with 12 clergy,
whose av. stipends are 2247. Real prop. (1815)
71,5877., ('43) 140,7537. of which 7177/. on mines
and quarries; gross rental (1811) 56,9737. or
7s. lOrf. per acre, ('43) 72,0417. or 9s. lO^d. per
acre; valued rent (1674) 33,3277. scots. Fiar or
av. price (1842-8) of wheat 49s. 9d. per qr., of
meal 18s. 3d. per boll of 140 Ibs. Savings bks.
('49) at Dumbarton (below). Expend, for poor
('47-8) in 12 pars. (9 being assessed) 65807., of
which 47587, for 973 poor on roll, 8907. for 753
casual poor. Schools, about 67, attended by
3480 child. ; av. no. of offenders ('36-46) 73, but
in '48 there were 126. Surface hilly, which be-
comes mountainous around L. Lomond where the
scenery is very fine, as described in " Rob Roy,"
and Ben Voirlich rises 3330ft.; other peaks are
Arrochar, Luss, Benquiriach, Luss, Row, and
Roseneath, which are generally moory, with wood
in the hollows, and a few red and fallow deer.
Prevailing rock, mica and chlorite slate to the
NE. and mountain limestone with trap on the
SE. bordering on the great coal-field which ex-
tends into this county. Coal (employing 205
hands) is worked at Langfauld and elsewhere,
iron (31) at Dalnotter; lime and building stone
are abundant, and with the slate which is quarried
at Luss, Roseneath, etc. employs 198 hands.
The cotton and linen manufact. employ 5246
hands (besides 1132 "weavers") at Duntocher,
Faifley, Kirkintilloch, with print and bleach
fields at Alexandria, Dumbarton, Cardross, W.
Kilpatrick on Rs. Leven and Clyde, and E. Kil-
patrick on R. Kelvin ; glass also is made at Dum
barton (70 hands), and paper at the Kilpatricks.
In '47, a bad year, 778 persons were in the cotton
mills. Lakes about 10, the largest being L. Lo-
mond (anct. Llynchalidor, 24 m. long), which is
partly in Stirling, and contains nearly 30 beautiful
islds. ; most of the streams run to it, and the R.
Leven, which is full of salmon, perch, etc. is its
outlet to the Clyde. The fox, wild cat, pole cat,
badger, weasel, and other vermin are found in the
interior, and the coast affords a good supplj- of
fish. Climate wet, and the soil clayey, the arable
land being chiefly along the rivers, where some
wheat is grown ; but the principal crops are oats,
potatoes, barley, with turnips and other green
crops of late years. Ayrshire cows are kept for
the dairy, and good cattle fatted for market in
Kirkpatrick, etc. ; sheep are blackfaced, with
Tweeddale and Cheviot breeds. Estates are
large, but the farms small, mostly under 50 acres ;
leases run 19 years. Plantations are extending,
and many thousand acres are covered with thriving
trees. Among the antiquities are remains of sta-
tions on the last 15 m. of Antonine's wall and
Graham's Dyke, viz. Castle Gary, Westenvood
fort, Crowy hill, Barkhill fort, Auchindavy, Kirk-
intilloch, New Kirkpatrick, Castle hill," Dunto-
cher (where are remains of a roman bridge and a
piece of the wall 150 ft. long, 25 high), Old Kirk-
patrick, Dunglass where it ended, close to Dum-
barton castle (anct. Akluith or TJieodosia) ; castle
ruins at Kilmaronock (the earls Cassilis', where
Buchanan taught), Mugdoch (Grahames'), Bal-
loch (the Lennoxes', who had another on Innis
Murrins in L. Lomond), Catter (caer, a fort) under
Moot hill, Innis Galbraith (in L. Lomond) ; at Luss
is St. Kessog's cairn, and some stone coffins ; a
cromlech at Row ; and a stone pillar in W. Kirk-
patrick, where it is said the irish saint was born.
Bruce died at Castle hill. Some of the seats are :
Colquhoun, Bt. Bosedoe, Duke of Argyll Roseneath
and Ardincaple, D. of Montrose Buchanan, Camp-
bell, Bt. Gartscubeor Succoth, Bontine afArdoch,
Colquhoun of Glenmallen, Dennistoun of Colgrain,
Fleming of Cumbernauld, Hamilton of Barnes,
Horrocks of Tilliechewen, Smollett of Bonhill, Stir-
ling of Dalquhum where Smollett was born, etc.
Dunglass cast, which was the Colquhouns', is re-
stored and belongs to the Edmonstones of Dunt-
reath. Roads from Dumbarton: 1. Along the
Clyde to Cardross 5 m. Helensburg 8, Roseneath
10 ; thence by L. Long to Tarbet 25. 2. To L.
Lomond 5, Luss on the Loch 12, Tarbet near Ben
Lomond 20, Rob Roy's cave 25. 3. Kilmaronock
9, thence to Stirling 32. 4. W. Kirkpatrick 5,
Glasgow 14, or to Kirkintilloch 17, Cumbernattld
25, thence to Edinboro' 58. About 10 m. of rail,
join L. Lomond to Bowling bay on the Clyde ;
and 15 m. more of the Edin. and Glasg., the Ca-
ledonian, etc. cross the detached part.
^ P. M. DUMBARTON par., as above, on R.
Clyde, where joined by R. Leven, 4 m. NW. by
W. of Glasgow, 58 from Edinbro', the county
town and sheriffs' court, a port, and royal and
parl. burgh by charter of Alex. II. (1222), con-
tributory to Kilmarnock (no. of elect. 158), and
governed under the new act by a provost, 2
bailies, 15 council., deacon of 5 trades, etc., with a
revenue of 9717. ; has on a great double-headed
basalt rock, the Castk, which was .Dunbritton
(Briton's fort) of the Attacoti, and the head-
quarters of the Romans, and the Strathclyde
Britons, who called it Alcluyd ('Balelutha' of
Ossian) ; was taken by the Northumbrian kings
756, made seat of earls of Lennox, given to Baliol
by Edw. L, taken 1309 from Monteith (who be-
trayed Wallace, and had him a prisoner here),
defended 1481 by Wood against the English,
taken from Ld. Fleming (who held it for Q. Man')
by surprise by Capt. Crawford 1571, and kept up
as a garrison since the Union. Size 4J m. by 2,
flat near the river, and fertile, with mineral
pitch, etc.; pop. 3828 + 20, of burgh 3/82 (or
4391) in the glass-works (63 hands, established
1777), print-works (32), ship-yards (192), and
salmon fisheries, some makers of muslin (50),
hats, leather, glue, and in a small coasting
trade; houses 791 (or 929), with new church,
3 chapels, court-house and gaol, barracks in the
castle, 5-aroh'd bridge over Leven (300 ft. long),
2 banks, savings bk., library, gram, school, corn
mills; real prop. 10,3267. ; for poor 720Z. Living
(D. presb.) val. 233/., patr. Town Council. It
lias a dock and quay in the harb., which admits
small vessels at high tide. The castle rock, 5CO ft.
high to Wallace's seat, and 1 m. round, is ascended
by steps to the batteries, the great patriot's
sword is kept here, and Q. Mary sailed hence to
France 1547-8. There was a hospital, and
also a college found. 1450 by the Duchess of
Albany as a cell to Kilwinnin ; and it gave
title of earl to Douglases. T. Colquhoun, who
wrote on the 'Police of London,' a native, 1745
-1820. Leven Bank, Dixon, Esq. ifc D.
PRESBYTERY, synod of Glasgow, includes Arro-
quhar*, Alexandria*, Baldernock*, Balfron Bon-
hill, Buchanan, Cardross*, Drymen, Dumbarton*,
Vintry, Killearn*, Kilmaronock, New and Old
Kilpa'trick*, Duntocher*, Luss*, Roseneath*, Row
Helensburg*, Strathblane. Ditto Free Church,
includes those marked * and Shandon. Mkt. D.
Tu. Fairs. 3rd Tu. March and May ; Th. before
Easter, 1st Wed. June, 2nd Tu. Aug. and Nov.
Du JIBES AN par., made part of Huntley, Aber-
deen, in 1727.
DUMBLANE. See DUNBLANE, Perth.
P. DUMBLETON par. (44) Lower Kiftsgate
hund. 2V. Gloucest. 4 m. N. of Winchcomb-95, on
K. Isburn, is a meet for the Berkeley Hunt
hounds. Acres 2100, with a mineral water ; pop.
497 + 7 ; poor r. 91Z. (Winch. U.) ; real prop.
4158/. ; charities, Cocks' for education, etc., - 1.
St. Peter Sect. (Gl. and Br.), val. 354, patr.
E. Holland, Esq., of D. House.
Dumbrain House ( ) near Clones, W. Mona-
ghan, T. Phillips, Esq.
Dumbrexhill, near Lanark, Mid. Lanark.
H. Brown, Esq.
DUMBRICK vil. Old Kilpatrick par. S. Dum-
brtn. 2 m. SE. of Dumbarton-58, near D. Hill,
a basalt rock, like Dumbarton, but smaller. Pop.
DUMFRIESSHIRE, a seaside and border county,
& Scotland, the seat successively of the Selgovae
(in the roman Valentid), the Saxons of North-
umbria, the Scot-Irish or Picts, and the Danes,
and latterly the Johnstons and Maxwells, was
made shire ground by Ed. I., if not by Alex. II.,
is traversed by the Caledonian and Glasg. rails.,
watered by Rs. Nith (anct. Novius), Annan, Esk,
in those dales, the Nith's mouth leading to Dum-
fries, and bordered by Solway Frith and Cumbrld.
(S. and SE.), Roxburgh. (E.), Selkirk. (NE.),
Peebles. Lanark. (N.), Ayr. (NW.), Kirhcudbt.
(W.). Length from near Glenwharry hill to the
Liddell near Canonbie 56 m., greatest breadth 28,
av. ditto 18|; relative size 418-10,000ths; circuit
177, of which 22 is washed by the Solway (which
has retired in several parts), and has along
it Ruthwell bathing place, Annan port, with a
ferry across to Bowness, Gretna, and the Black-
shaw, Powfool, and other sands. It contains
1263 sq. m. or 808,320 acres, of which 6400 are
lake, about l-5th is cultivated, and more than
half unprofitable ; 11,221 families, or 72,830 per-
sons (a decrease of 940 since 1831), of whom
17,780 are in Dumfries, Annan, Canonbie, 38,693
are females, 34,832 under 20 yrs. of age, 63,691
county-born, 9229 or 12'7 per cent, live by
commerce, manufact., etc., 10,938 or 15 per cent,
by agricult. (1858 being farmers and graziers),
697 educated professions, 1683 are independent,
14,486 labourers, servants, besides a large re-
sidue ; 14,356 houses (flats being reckoned), and
784 empty and building; 42 parishes, and part
of Moffat; above 111 vils. limits, etc.; 4 royal
and parl. burghs, Dumfries the co. town, etc.
as below, Annan, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, and 6
burghs of barony, Langholm, Moffat, Locker-
bie, Thornhill, Ecclesfechan, and Minnihive,
all except the last being mkt. towns and
except Lochmaben and the last two, small
debt courts; is governed by a lord-lieut, vice-
lieut, 27 deputy-lieuts., sheriff, and substitute,
etc. ; returns two members to parl., viz. 1 for the
co. (elect. 2240), 1 for the district (as below) ;
and constitutes a synod and five presbyteries,
with 43 clergy whose av. stipends are 222Z. Real
prop. (1815) 295.261/., ('43) 319.751/., of which
5984 on mines and quarries, 1088Z. on fisheries ;
gross rental (1811) 246.002Z. or 6s. !</. per acre,
('43) 266,547/. or 6s. 8d. per acre ; valued rent
(1674) 158.502/. scots. Fiar or av. price (1842-8)
of wheat 54s. 8%d. per qr., of meal 16s. 4d. per
boll of 140 Ibs. Savings bk. ('49) 1, with 6338Z.
from 578 depositors. Expend, for poor ('47-8)
in 43 pars. (38 being assessed) 14,438J. of which
12,007/. for 2332 poor on roll, 622Z. for 1100 casual
poor. Schools about 194, attended by 10,350
child. ; av. no. of offenders ('36-'46) 92, but in
'48 there were 195. The coast is low and mossy,
sandstone being the substratum for 8 or 10 m.
inland, with abundance of limestone, which be-
comes marble at Cummertrees, and some coal at
Langholm, Canonbie ; hence it lifts towards the
blue slate and schistose hills in the N., which
stretch through Scotland from Lammermuir and
rise at the Lowthers 3150 ft., Hartfell 2730 (at
the head of the Tweed and Annan), Queensberry
hill 2250 ft. (at the Clyde's head), Ettrick Pen
2240 (head of the Esk and Teviot), White Coom
, Black Larg 1950 ft., Cairnkinnow 2000 ft.,
Wisp 1830, Tinnis hill 1336 ft., Glenquhargan
Craig 1000 ft., etc. Toadstone, basalt, etc., are
found here and there; old red sandstone about
Kirkconnel, Sanquhar (with coal), Moffat, Close-
burn ; slate also is got at Moffat, near which a
large moss abounds with oak, birch, etc., and
good fire clay is found ; traces of iron at Penpont,
and lead there and at Kirkconnell, Westwater,
and Wanlockhead, where about 1000 tons yearly
are worked ; a little copper shows itself at Lang-
holm and Middleby, and manganese elsewhere ;
and antimony has been worked at Glendenning
near Westerkirk. Game, foxes, badgers, etc., are
found in the hills ; salmon, trout, etc., in the
streams, and the Solway ; a rare fish called ven-
dace, like a herring, at Lochmaben ; and a large
spotted eel at Johnston which attacks men and
cattle in the water. The manufact. are cotton
1189 hands but only 148 in '47), and stockings
375^ at Dumfries, Lowthertown, etc., woollen
V 226) Moffat, Sanquhar (with carpets, etc.), mus-
lins at Kirkconnell, coarse linens at Langholm,
weaving generally in many country places ; the
lead mines employ 155, and the coal 113 hands.
Chief crops are oats, barley, potatoes with
wheat, turnips, peas, beans. Great improvements
have taken place in husbandry, etc., from the
example set by Menteath of Closeburn, Johnston
of Annandale, and other proprietors, in the use of
bone and lime manure, turnip feeding, draining,
the incorporation of small farms, and the stimulus
given by steam and rail, communication ; farm
buildings and cottages are comfortable; estates
large ; farms 100 to 300 acres or more ; land
chiefly in pasture in the uplands ; stock of sheep,
mostly Cheviot white-faced and long-woolled,
240,000 ; fat cattle of the Galloway black, and
other breeds, are reared for exportation, with
R R 3
many swine about Dumfries, Lochmaben, etc. ;
and butter and cheese made for home use. The
smaller streams are the Skarr, Crawick, Cairn,
Ae, Evan, Moffat, Dryfe, Sark, Kirtle, etc. ; lakes
are Castle Loch, L. Urr, L. Skene, which has the
Grey Mare's Tail fall out of it of 1300 ft. in the
floods ; the Crickup fall is 100 ft. ; and there are
mineral springs at Kirkmichael, Kirkpatrick-
Fleming, Langholm, Kirkburn (called Rigburn
Spa), Moffat (where they drink goat's whey also),
and under Hartfell. Among the antiquities are
british camps and hill forts at Torthorwald,
Drysdale (8 or 9 british and roman), Nutholm,
Westerkirk (with burians or cairns), Carthur,
Kirk patrick- Fleming, Tynroan (called the'doon'
or dune), Moffat ; also burians at Langholm
and Kirkpk. Juxta ; roman at Hoddom (called
Birrenswark or Brunswark 740 ft. high, Tri-
montium of some), Trohaughton, Tiber's at Pen-
pont, Caerlaverock (Carbuntorigum), with Ward-
law Hill ( Uxela) near it, Middeby (Blatum Sul-
giurn), Gallaberry at Drysdale, Annan ; border
and other towers at Durisdeer, Rockhall (called
the moat, at Lochmaben), Mousewald Mains
( which was the Carruthers'), Dr3 T sdale, Red Hall
(the Flemings') and Woodhouse (the Irvings')
both at Kirkpk. Fleming, where a Maxwell was
treacherously slain at the Merkland Cross,
Achancass (the Mortons'), Moffat ; a curious
danish pillar at Ruthwell which had Kirkstyle
preceptory, a priory at Canonbie, college at
Lineluden ; castle ruins at Torthorwald, Hoddom
(the Bruces'), and another (the Herries' and Mur-
rays'), with its Tower of Repentance, Lockwood
(Maxwells'), Dumfries (Maxwells' and Comyns'),
Caerlaverock (Maxwells') taken 1330 by Ed. 1.,
Sanquhar (Crichtons'), Lochmaben (Bruces'),
Morton, Lun at Hutton (Gomes'), Hutton (Gra-
hams' of Gillesbie), Langholm (Maxwells'),
Wauchope (Lindsays'), Annan (the Bruces'), Ton-
dergarth (Johnstons'), Closeburn (850 yrs. old),
Hempsfield ( ?). Paterson, founder of the bank
of England, was born at Tinwald ; at the " Max-
wells' Thorn " in Drysdale (which has a fine
view from Whitewynd hill), they were beaten
1593 by the Johnstons ; and Jas. V. hung Johnny
Armstrong at Gillknockie. Much of the history
of these parts is connected with the life of Bruce,
and his companions the Douglasses, etc. ; and
Eictures of the moss-troopers, the tides of the
olway and its fishermen and smugglers, are
found in " Guy Mannering," the " Abbot," and
" Redgauntlet." Chief seats and landholders are :
Marq. of Queensberry Kinmount, Duke of Buc-
cleugh (who has title of Marq. of Dumfriesshire)
Langholm and Drumlanrig ( old), Earl Mansfield
Cromlmgan, E. Hopetown Raehitis, Menteath, Bt.
Closeburn, Johnston, Bt. Westerhall, Maxwell, Bt.
Springfield, Grierson, Bt. Lagg, Leny of Daltvin-
ston, Maxwell of Nithsdale and Terrides, Johnston,
M. P. of Annandale, Carruthers of Warmanby,
Col. Dirom of Mt. Annan, Ferguson of Craigdar-
roch, Graham of Mossknow, Jardine of Applegarth,
Johnstone of Corehead, Gen. Sharpe of Hoddom,
Maxwell of Bromholm, Riddell of Glenriddell, etc.
Watling St. is traced from Carlisle through
Canonbie, Langholm, Drysdale, Wamphray, Kirk-
pat rick- Juxta, Moffat, on to Crawford Castle;
a branch (from Caerlaverock) through Tinwald,
Kirkmichael, Closeburn, Penpont, Tynroan, on to
Tiber's and Crawford Castles. About 35 m. of the
Caledonian rail, pass Gretna Green, Ecclesfechan,
Lockerbie, Beattock, etc., with about 40 more of the
Glasg. and Carl, from Gret. Green to Annan, Dum-
fries, Thornhill. Roads from Dumfries : ( 1 ) Mouse-
wald 5, Annan 15, Gretna 23, Carlisle 33. (2) Loch-
maben 7, Hutton 15, Eskdalemuir 22, thence to
Selkirk 46. (3) Kirkmichael 8, Moffat 19, thence
along the Tweed to Edinbro' 73. (4) To Thorn-
hill in Nithsdale 14, Durrisdeer 19 ; thence under
the Lowthers along the Clyde to Glasgow 66,