Copyright
James A Sharp.

A new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) online

. (page 44 of 293)
Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 44 of 293)
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Aiskew, Crakehall, Exelby-Leeming, Firley, Ga-
tenby, Hackforth, Ilton-cum-Pott, Killorbv, Lang-
thorne, Rand Grange, Snape, Swainby, Swinton,
and Theakstone; acres 41,640, pop. 8596, cases
relieved (yr. 1846-7) 991 (out-door 534), expend.
30957., prop, rated 50,7077. Sup Registry com-
prises the same up to Well, with Carthorpe, Bur-
rell^cum-Cowling, Burton-on-Ure, Ellingstring,
Ellington (Over and Nether), Fearby, Healey,
Clifton-on-Ure, Rookwith, Thirn, Howgrave,
Sutton, and E. Tanfleld ; pop. 8613 + 27. It be-
longs to Leyburn New County Court district.
Mkt. D. Tues. Fair*, Easter and Whit Tues. 5
July, horses, cattle; 10 Oct. last Mond. but one
before Christmas, cattle, pigs, leather.

BEDUORN, Low ( ) 2J m. SSW. of North
Bedburn. Sec BICDBURN NORTH.



154



BED



BEDBURX, NORTH, tnshp. ( ) Auckland-Si.
Andrew par. Mid. Durham, 5 m. N W. of Bishop's
Auckland-248, in a fine spot near the Weardale
rail, and a camp. Acres 1890 ; pop. 457 + 7 ; poor r.
1047. (Auckland U.) ; real prop. 2810/. ^" BED-
BURN, SOUTH, tnshp. Auckland par. 4 m. WSW.
of the above, is on B. Rivulet, which rises in
Egglestone common, and joins the Wear, below
Happyland Hall. Acres 7700 ; pop. 350 + 6, in
the coal and iron works; poor r. 1011. ; real prop.
28057.

BKDCESTER hmlt. (15) Fontmell Magna par.
NE. Dorset. 3 m. S. of Shaftesbury-101.

BEDDERN, ext. par. ( ) with Minster yard,
W. R. York. N. suburbs of York, is site of the
cathedral. Pop. 910.

Pi BEDDGELERT, or BETHGELERT, par. (75)
Evionydd bund, borders of Merion. and Carnvrn.
6 m. S. of Snowdon, near Pont Aberglaslyn, at
the union of the Colwyn and Gwynnant, under
Moel Hebog (2584 ft.), is a starting-point for
tourists, in the heart of fine mountain scenery,
and had a gilbertine priory, the oldest in Wales
next to Bardsey, found, before 1194 by Llewelyn,
the last king "of Wales. Pop. 1397 + 32, of
vil. 150 ; poor r. 4937. (Festiniog U.) ; real prop.
687. St. Mary Cur. (Bang.) val. 90/., patr. Mrs.
Priestley ; the small church was part of the pri-
ory. Tradition says that Llewellyn, on his return
from hunting, being met by his greyhound Gelert,
or Kill-hart, with his mouth full of blood, ran
to his child's cradle, and finding it overturned and
the ground streaming with gore, killed the dog
on the spot (still marked by a stone in the ch.-
yard) ; but soon discovered the child was safe
under the cradle, and by its side a dead wolf,
which his faithful dog had slain. To perpetuate
his memory and the child's escape, he founded the
abbey. Titanium is found, and in the neigh-
bourhood are Dinas Emrys in the beautiful valley
of Naftt Gwynnant, Llyn Dinas, Llyn Gwynnant,
Cwm Llan under Snowdon, Llyn Llydan and its
waterfall, Llyn-y-Dywarchen (in the vale of
Colwyn), which Giraldus celebrates for its floating
island, and the Glaslyn lake and its salmon leap.
Fairs, 18 Aug. 23 and 27 Sept. cattle, etc.

BEDDINGHAM par. (5) Totnore hund. Pevensey
rape, E. Sussex, 2 m. SE. of Lewes-50, belonging
to the Duchy of Lancaster, was Beadinghamme of j
Alfred's Will, and had a priory in the 9th cent, j
Acres 2250 ; pop. 268 + 2 ; poor r. 2387. (W. Firle j
U.) ; real prop. 27007. St. Andrew Vic. (Chic.) j
val. 345/., patr. Bishop, and Dean and Chap.

P. BEDDINGTOJJ par. (8) Second Wallington
hund. NE. Surrey, 2 m. W. of Croydon-9, on R.
Wandle (well-known to anglers for its trout), was
thought to be a roman station by Camden, who
fixes Woodcote, or Wallingford, as the Noviomagus
of Antonine. Acres 3830 ; pop. 1453 + 2, of vil.
519 + 4; poor r. 2937. (Croyd. U.) ; real prop.
64157. St. MaryjRec*. (Wine.) val. 12127., patr.
Carew family, sometime held by Long, Bp. of
Norwich ; church, of flint and later eng., has a font,
with 4 brasses (one of Nic. Carew, canopied,
1432) and other monuments of the Carews, of
B. Park, who have the manor. At this seat,
partly burnt and reb. 1709, Sir F. Carew enter-
tained Eliz., and grew the first oranges in England
from pips given him by his brother-in-law Ra-
leigh ; and the house contains portraits of the
family and the Hackets, and a curious lock in
the hall. B. Corner, 2 m. N.

Beddkstead Farm (6) Tandridge hund. E.
Surrey, 7 m. SE. of Croydon.

jBedesicesworth, of the Saxons, is BURY, Suffolk.

BEDFIELD par. (50) Hoxne hund. Mid. Suffk.



BED

4 m. NE. of Debenham-83. Acres 1780 ; pop.
358 + 4 i poor r. 1427. (Hoxne U.) ; real prop.
22607. St. Nicholas Rect. (Norw.) val. 2867.,
patr. Earl Stradbroke of Henhatn.

P. BEDFONT, EAST, par. (7) Spethorne hund.
SW. Middlsx. 13 m. WSW. of London, a polling
place on the Staines road, including Hatton, the
Hattone of ' Domesdy.', belongs to Duke of North-
umberland. Acres 1890 ; pop. 982 + 1 ; poor r.
3507. (Staines U.) ; real prop. 60777. St. Mary Vic.
(Lond.) val. 2887., patr. Bishop ; church, ancient,
with a saxon porch, opposite which are two yews
cut into the shape of fighting cocks, with the
date and initials of the person who left a bequest
for this strange fancy. |gp" B., WEST, hmlt. (7)
Stan well par. 1 m. VvNW. of the above.

BEDFORDSHIRE (46, 52) an inland county of
S. England, in old times the territory of the
Casii the tribe to which Cassibelaunus belonged,
afterwards a part of the roman Flavia Ccesarensis,
and of the saxon Mercia, is watered by Rs. Ouse
and Ivel, and bordered by Hunts. (NE.}, Camb.
(E.), Herts. (S. and SE.}, Bucks. (IV.}, and
Northmptn. (NfV.) Length, from Market Street,
below Dunstable, to the 3-shire stone, 35 m. ;
greatest breadth 21 m., av. ditto 14 ; circuit
about 140; relative size, 80-10,000ths. It con-
tains 463 sq. m., or 296,320 acres (297,632 by
total of pars.), of which 250,000 are arable,
meadow, and pasture ; 107,936 + 1245 persons,
of whom 22,611 are in Bedford, Luton, Leigh-
ton-BuZzard, Biggleswade, 55,746 are females,
51,971 under 20 yrs. of age, 90,333 county born,
14,333, or 13 per cent., live by trade, commerce,
etc. 14,933 or 13'3 per cent., by agricult. (1458
being farmers and graziers)) 767 educated pro-
fessions, 1720 are independent, 19,923 labourers
and servants, etc. ; 21,235 houses, besides 729
empty and building ; 9 hundreds, Willey (N W.),
Stodden (N.), Barford (NE.), Wixamtfee (Mid.),
Biggleswade (E.), Redbornstoke (W.), Clifton
(SE.), Flitt (S.), Manshead (SW), and the
liberty of Bedford boro', all of which, with the
half-hunds. of Stanburge, Weneslai, and Bu-
chelai, are found in ' Domesdy.' ; 122 parishes,
with parts of 3 more, 2 extra par. places, and
36 hamlets; 9 market towns, -Bedford (the
shire town as below), Ampthill, Biggleswade,
Leighton- Buzzard, Luton, Woburn, Dunstable,
Harrold, Potton-Sheffbrdj Toddington, the first
six being P. L. Lemons, the first five, New
County Courts, and also polling places, along
with Dunstable and Sharnbrooke ; returns four
members to parliament, 2 for the county (4287
electors), 2 for Bedford (as below) ; is governed
by a lord lieut., about 36 deputy-lieuts., high
sheriff, aud 160 magistrates, is in the Home
military district, and the Norfolk circuit ; and is
an archdeaconry, including 5 deaneries (as be-
low), in diocese of Ely (sometime Lincoln), and
province of Canterbury. Real prop. (1815)
364,2777., ('43) 517,4747. ; ditto rentals 284,9357.
or 19s. 3d. per acre (when wheat Was 77s.), and
377,9957., or 25s. 5d. per acre (wheat 55s.) ; county
income ('48) 11,4187., of which 43217. from co.
rate (on a val. of 139,5847. made 1739), 34457.
from police r. ; poor r. (yr. '46-7) for 6 unions
44,4477., on 433,3477., or 2s. OW. in the (wheat
being 59s.), cases relieved 15,506 (out-door
13,670), in estimated pop. of 121,071 ; total cha-
rities 13,7217. (19867. for schools and education).
Savings bank ('49) 5, with 130,6527. from 4049
depositors ; in yr. '38-9, 856 m. of road (161 being
turnpike) were maintained for 90547. In '46-7, out
of 129 pars. 125 had 190 church schools, supported
by 43217., with 13,530 child. attending,and 261 paid



BED

teachers (21 being monitors), whose salaries were
8082/., and who had 58 teachers' houses : out of
these 8 were free schools, and 66 sund. sch. (ex-
clusively, with 577 teachers and 8697 child.) ;
and 58 in union with the National Soc. had 6183
child., and total grants of 1520/. Offenders in
'48, 204 (or 182, av. of 5 yrs.), of whom 144 were
convicted, 22 were females, 3 under 15 yrs. of age,
79 could not read or write. Following the Sup.
Registry districts of '45 (total pop. 112,378 + 1357),
the ' births ' were 4294, of whom 2077 were fe-
males, 355, or 8'3 per cent., illegit. ; ' deaths '
2455, or 1 in 47, the av. being 46 ; ' marriages '
971 (at church 882), of which 2181 persons or
65'8 per cent, signed with marks. Surface on the
N. and E. and in the fruitful vale of Bedford, ge-
nerally flat ; but on the SW. the chalk hills rise
to a considerable height, affording many fine
prospects as, at Ampthill, Woburn, and Mill-
brook which commands one of 50 m. extent.
The greater part is enclosed, and an improved
system of agriculture has been adopted through
the exertions of the late Duke of Bedford. Two-
thirds of the soil is clay, to be found in the N.
and also in the S. parts about Tuddington, Barton-
in-lhe-Clay, Shefford, to the borders of Camb.
This latter portion separates the green sand of the
central parts about Leighton-Buzzard, Woburn,
Ampthill, Bigglewade, Sandy-Potton, from chalk
downs in the extreme S., round Dunstable and
Luton, which are a continuation of the Chiltern
hills of Bucks. A rich gravelly loam is found by
the rivers, and good daiiy land in the SE. ; chief
crops are wheat, barley, and turnips (on the sand
and chalk), with oats and beans, the smell of
which, in Camden's time, sportsmen complained
of, as spoiling the scent of the dogs ; great quan-
tities of vegetables and butter are sent to mar-
ket ; stock of cattle (of a mixed breed), reck-
oned at 200,000, and the supply of wool at 4250
packs. The farms average under 200 acres, and
let yearly. Principal rivers are : the Ouse, which
crosses by a very winding course from Turvey to
St. Neot's, and is navigable below Bedford ; 'the
Ivel, and its branch, the Hiz (the former famous
for its gudgeon), being navigable by a cut from
Shefford to Tempsford, where it joins the Ouse ;
and the Ousel, which passes Leighton-Buzzard.
Fuller's earth, once found in Birchmoor wood, at
Aspley Guise, is now worked in a neighbouring
parish on the Bucks, side ; freestone is quarried
at Tattenhoe, and chalk, under the name of
clunch, is burnt for lime ; some of the earths have
a semi-petrifying quality, and abound with mi-
neral springs of no importance. At Pulloxhill, it
is said, a few gold grains were found at the begin-
ning of the 18th cent. Among the native plants
are : the anemone apennina, blue mountain ane-
mone, in Luton wood ; astragulus arenarius, purple
milk- wort, and gentiana amarella, fellwort, on the
Barton hills ; convallaria majalis, lily of the valley,
Woburn woods ; dianthus deltoides, maiden pink,
Sandy hills near Caesar's camp ; hippocrepis comosa,
tufted vetch, chalk hills ; pimpinella major, or great
saxifrage, limestone soil ; melampyrum cristatum,
crested cow- wheat, and ribes nigrum, black currant,
Blunham woods ; trifolium ochroleucum, yellow
trefoil, chalky meadows; monotropa hypopitys,
yellow bird's nest, smelling like primroses, and
white bastard hellebore, in the woods. The woad
(tsatis tinctoria), with which the ancient Britons
dyed themselves, once greatly cultivated here, is
not known now. The only manufactures peculiar
to the county are the pillow-lace in the N. parts
(employing 2602 hands), and strawplat in the
S. parts (1753 hands). Dunstable straws are as



BED



155



well-known as the Dunstable larks, and the Luton
plat is considered superior to Leghorn. Much
matting, made of the rushes of the " sedgy Ouse,"
is sent to London. Chief seats are : Duke of Bed-
ford, Woburn Abbey ; Marq. of Bute, Luton Hoof
Marq. of Tavistock, Oakley House ; Countess de
Grey, Wrest, or Si/soe,Park; Lord Carteret,//awne
H. ; Lord Holland, Ampthill, to which is united
Houghton Conquest, once the seat of the Countess
of Pembroke ; Lord St. John, Melchbourn, for-
merly of Bletsoe, now a farmhouse ( Lord Ongley,
Old 'Warden Ph.; Turner, Bt> Battlesden Ph.;
Osbome, Bt., Chicksand Priory ; Inglis, Bt. M. P.,
Milton Bryant ( Burgoyne, Bt., Sutton Ph., claimed
along with Potton, under a rhyming grant from
John of Gaunt ; Smith of Aspley, Moody of
Aspley Guise, Simson of Bromham House, Gery of
Bushmead Priory, Magniac of Colworth> Pym of
The Hasels, Edwards of Henlow Grange, Latour
of Hexton Hall, Brandreth of Houghton Regis,
Orlebar of Hinwich, Polhill of Howbury Ph., Har-
vey of Ickwellbury, Thornton of Moggerhanger,
Whitbreads of Southill and Cardington (formerly
seat of the Byngs), Crawley of Stockwood, Barnett
of Stratton, Stuart of Tempsford, Higgins of Tur-
vey ; at Toddington, the Coopers' (formerly the
Cheneys') seat, all the Kussells are buried. The
Oakley hounds are at Milton. Antiquities are
the Maiden Bower (anct. Magintum), and Tot-
tenhoe cast., two british camps near Dunstable
(anct. Durocobrivd) ; Caesar's camp, near Sandy
or Salndy (^Salenae or Magiovinum) ; Ravensbury
camp, on the hills near Hexton ; with remains at
Arlesby, Biggleswade, and Bradford. Icknield St,
crosses near Leigh ton'Buzzard (or Beaudesert), on
the chalk past Dunstable at Hicknill, to Baldock,
whence a roman way goes N. to Potton ; Watling
St. crosses at Market- Street, to Dunstable,
through Stretley, near which is a camp, on
to Fenny Stratford. An old cross stands at
Leighton-Buzzard ; a priory was founded by
Hen. 1. at Dunstable, which drew attention
for centuries to the town, whence the sen-
tence of divorce was pronounced by Cranmer,
against Q. Katherine who resided then at Ampt-
hill ; a fine church at Luton, and another at
Elstow, the birthplace of the immortal tinker,
Bunyan; besides various slight remains of castles.
Anne Boleyn, mother of Q. Elizabeth, was born at
Luton Hoo ; and Margaret Beaufort, mother of
Hen. VII., at Bletsoe. A branch rail, from the
Bletchley station of the N. Western to Bedford,
intersects part of Bucks, and the SW. quarter of
this county, length 15$ m., steepest gradient 1 in
129i, opened Nov. 1846. Roads from Bedford are :
1. To Ampthill 6 m., Woburn 13, Dunstable 22 ;
or to Leighton Buzzard 21, thence to Aylesbury
30. 2. To Hawnes 6, Silsoe 10, Barton Hill 14,
Luton 19, thence to St. Alban's 29. 3. To Shefford
past Chicksand priory 9, thence to Hitchin 16,
and Hutford 32 ; or Shefford to Baldock 17. 4.
To Sandy by a cross road 8, Biggleswade 11 ; or
to Potton 11. 5. To Barford along R. Ouse 6,
St. Neot's 12, thence to Cambridge 28; or to
Huntingdon 20. 6. To Keysoe Row 8, Kimbol-
ton 13, thence to Oundle 29. 7. To Sharnbrook
near Colworth House 8, Higham Ferrers 15, and
Wellingboro' 19. 8 To Turvey Abbey 8, Olney
11 ; or by Castle Ash by to Northampton 19. 9.
To Stagsden 5, Newport Pagnall 13, Stony Strat-
ford 19, thence to Buckingham 26.

* * P. M. BEDFORD borough (52) N. Beds. 50
NNW. of London or 62| by rail, (as above), the
shire assize, sess., and election town, militia head
qrs., a polling place and head of an excise collec-
tion, in a fertile vale on R. Ouse, was the saxon Ber



15G



BED



danford, i. e. town of the ford, near which Culh-
wulf in 571 defeated the Britons, was attacked
(91 1, 921, etc.) by the Danes (who burnt it 1010),
and at the Conquest was granted to the Beau-
champs, who b. a castle near the river, which was
taken bySteph. 1138, by Folk de Brent 1216, and
destroyed 1224 by Hen III. and of which there are
gome slight remains ; returns two members (from
Edw. I.) 4he bounds, which were unaltered by the
Reform act, including the 5 pars, as below, no.
of electors 1071 (and of 10Z. houses 2338) ; is a boro'
by prescription, chartered by Hen. II., and under
the late act divided into 2 wards and governed
by a mayor (who is returning officer), 6 aid. 18
councillors, with the style of mayor, bailiffs, and
burgesses of town of B.' and a revenue of 1361Z
Acres 2200 (or 2164); pop. 9178 + 221, in lace
(239 hands), shoe (278), and strawplat (40)
making, and a good trade in corn, timber, etc. by
the river ; houses chiefly in a long street 1880,
many ancient, with 6 churches, 4 chapels, sessions
house, county gaol on the site of that in which
Bunyan wrote his " Pilgrim's Progress," house of
correction, house of industry, co. infirmary, and
Harpur's gram, school with a statue of the founder,
2 hospitals and numerous almshouses, 2 banks,
savings bk. (77,248/i from 2204 depositors), lunatic
asylumj and Union p. house ; assd. taxes 2047Z. 5
poor r. 1292/. on 36,2322. ; real prop. 35,875Z. ; cha-
rities 75701. of which Bedford charity 67607. (now
worth upwards of 17,000/.). Livings, (Ely) St.
Cuthbert Rect. val. 129/., patr. Ld, Chancellor ; St.
John Rect. exclusive of the mastership of St.
John's hosp., 149Z., the Corporation ; St. Mary
Rect. 273/., Bp. of Lincoln, ch. has brass of R.
Hawse (1627) ; St. Paul Vic. 230Z., Dow. Lady
Carteret, ch. large and early eng. the most an-
cient in the town, and formerly collegiate, has a
spire, figured stone pulpit, brasses of Harpur, etc.,
and monument of Simon Beauchamp founder of
Newenham priory ; St. Peter Martin Rect. 204/., Ld.
Chancellor,^ ch. ancient, with a font and norman j
porch. Of the charitable foundations for which this
place is distinguished the most important is the
" Bedford charity," endowed by Sir W. Harpur, a
native (died 1574) and sometime Ld. Mayor of
London, with lands at Bedford and in Holborn
which then produced 180Z. per annum (but now as
above), consisting of the gram, school, which has 8
exhibitions of SOI. each at the universities, a hos-
pital, and schools for boys and girls, about 70 alms-
houses, besides large sums in apprenticeships, mar-
riage portions, pensions and gifts to the poor. The
new 5-arch bridge (b. 1813) on R. Ouse, replaces a
very old one. St. John's hosp. was found. 1280
by R. de Parys, and St. Leonard's soon after ; there
are remains of Elstow nunnery and gray friars'
hosp. founded by Mabel Pateshull of Bletsoe, now
a farmhouse ; near Caldwell priory on the river,
found, by the Houghtons, stood a chapel in which
K. Ofia was buried, afterwards swept away in an
inundation ; part of the George Inn is as old as
1481 ; and at Mill Lane chapel, of which he was
minister, Bunyan's chair is kept. B. Observatory,
Cap. W. Smith, R. N. S. Palmer the nonconform-
ist was a native, it publishes the ' B. Mercury '
and ' B. Times ' newspapers ; and it gives title of
duke to the Russells, conferred on the 5th earl,
but first created in the person of John Plantagenet,
regent of France, and again in the Nevilles and
Hatfields. Bedf. P. L. Union, contains the pars,
etc. in the deanery below (except Honghton Con-
quest), and Barford (Great), Bedford, Bletsoe,
Bolnhurst, Bromham, Carlton, Chellington, Clap-
ham, Colmworth, Felmersham, Harrold, Keysoe,
Knotting, Melchbourn, Milton Ernest, Oakley,



BED

Odell, Pavcnham, Ravensden, Renhokl, Risely,
Roxton, Sharnbrook, Souldrop, Stagsden, Steving-
ton, Thurleigh, Turvey.Wilden, Yielden with East-
cotts; acres 97,177, pop. 31,767, cases relieved
1846-7) 3680 (out-door 3160), expend. 12,278,
prop, rated 144.929/. Sup. Registry comprises the
same, except Eastcotts ; pop. 31,766 + 373 ; births
(1845) 1160 (564 being females, 72 illegit), deaths
701, marriages 230 (of which 217 persons aigned
with marks) ; deaths from cholera (1849) 35. The
New County Court district corresponds with the Re-
gistry. The Excise district extends over Bed-
ford, Olney, Newport, Towcester, Stony Stratford,
Ampthill, ShefFord, Sawbridgeworth, Hatfield,
Dunmow, Thaxted, Stortford, Stevenage, Hitchin,
Baldock ; and in 1835, had 57 officers, and collected
201,467Z. (each collectors round being 217 m.), of
which 185,566Z. was on malt, 7999Z. on licenses,
3699Z. on bricks, 1555Z. on auctions, and the
total no. of traders was 4374, of whom 1899 were
dealers in tobacco, 751 in wine and spirits, 944 in
tea, 395 were brewers, 265 malsters, 82 brick-
makers. * BED. ARCHDEACONRY, dioc. of Ely
(formerly Line.), contains the 6 deaneries of Bed-
ford, Clopham, Dunstable, Fleete, Eaton, and Shef-
ford, or about 85 benefices in all. BED. DEANERY,
as above, contains the benefices of Bedford rect.,
Biddenham vie., Cardington .,Cople r., Elstow cur.,
Goldington v., Hough ton Conquest r., Kempstonu.,
Willingtonc., Wilhampsteade., Woottenc. Mkt.
D. Mond, cattle. Sat. corn. Fairs, 1st Tuesd.
Lent, 21 Apr. 5 July, 21 Aug. 12 Oct. 19 Dec. for
cattle; 17 Nov. wool. Races, Sept. on a flat
course of 1J m.

Bedford (10) near Listowel, N. Kerry, Ray-
mond, Esq. gif BEDFORD tnshp. (89) Leigh
par. S. Lancash. 1 m. EXE. of Leigh-197, near
Bolton rail. Acres 1750 ; pop. 4187 + 110, in the
cotton factories ; poor r. 727/. (Leigh U.) ; real
prop. 11,144/. Living* a Cur. (Manch.) val. 150/.,
patr. Viear. B. House, ; B> Hall, 1 m. S.

Bedford Level (64-5, 69, 70) so called after
Francis, 5th Earl of Bedford, who began the drain-
age of it, is the large marshy flat or level known
as the Fens, on the NE. coast of England, near
the Wash* reaching inland to Downham market
on the Gt. Ouse, Norfk. Brandon on the Lit.
Ouse, and Mildenhall on R. Lark, Sufk. Isle of
Ely to Milton, Camb. Earith on R. Ouse, Ram-
sey on the Old Nen or Wisbeach, and Yaxley,
Hunts. Peterboro' on R. ?\en,Northmptn. to the
Glen, beyond Market Deeping and Spalding on
R. Welland in the Parts of Holland, Line. tak ing
in a tract 25 m. by 20, divided into the N., Mid.,
and S.-, Levels* and estimated at 400,000 acres, of
which about 9000 are in Peterboro' fen, 230,000
I. of Ely, 60,000 Hunts. 63,000 Norfk. 30,000
Sufk. When the Romans came to Britain, they
found, at a lower level than the present, a large
forest here, which they cut down, and made a
road across the country, to be seen at this day.
It was afterwards brought into such a state of
cultivation as to call forth the admiration of those
who saw it ; but about 1236, the sea broke through
the embankments, and turned the whole into a
bog and morass, in some places 20 ft. deep, across
which the people communicated by boat. After
several trials, the result of one of which was Bp.
Moreton's Cut, now part of R, Nen, made with little
success, a company for draining the fens, was
formed in the time of Ch. L, with the Earl of Bed-
ford at its head, which being incorporated 1664,
exists now. Under their management large cuts
such as the Old and New Bedford Rivers, Bevil's
River, Sam's Cut, Peakirk, South-eau, Sixteen-
Feet Counter, S. Holland, and N. Level Drains,



BED

besides numerous small ones, have been made,
embankments repaired and improved, and great
tracts of pasture and cornland reclaimed. The
latest and most important work (1828-9) is the
New Outfall of 6 m. for improving the naviga-
tion past Wisbeach, at a cost of 200,0007. l^T S.
Old River, as above, one of the finest drains made
by the company, 70 ft. wide, 21 m. long, goes
from Earith, Comb, to Salter's Lode near Down-
ham, Norfk. The New B. River, cut about 1650
by William, 6th earl, is 100 ft. wide, and runs
parallel to the other, at about 1 m. distance.

Bed fords (1) near Eomford, 5. Essex.

Bedgebury (5) 5 m. WSW. of Cranbrook, 8.
Kent, Mrs. Cartier, near B. Wood, was formerly
the Colepeppers' seat.

BEDGRALOE hmlt. (82) Wales par. W. S.
York. 2 m. SSE. of Rotherham-159.

BEDGROVE (46) Aylesbury hund. Mid. Sucks.
1 m. ESE. of Aylesbury-40.

Bedhau Gwyr Ardudwy (75) i. e. the graves of
the men of Ardudwy, on Mikneint mountn. N.
Merioneth, 3 m. NE. of Festiniog, consists of about
36 stone monuments, said to be of persons slain
in a battle between the men of Diffryn Ardudwy,
and Denbigh ; some other sepulchral remains are
near.

P. BEDHAMPTON par. (11) Portsdown hund.
8E. Hants. 2 m. W. of Havant-66, on Langston
harb. has a fine sea view. Acres 3260 ; pop. 533 ;
poor r. 3247. (Havant U.); real prop. 35817.
Living, a Rect. (Wine.) val. 328/., patr. Rev. St.
John Alder. B. Park, 2 m. N.

BEDINGFIELD par. (50) Hoxne hund. AT. Sufk.
4 m. SSE. of Eye-89. Acres 1680 ; pop. 336 ;
poor r. 1417. (Hoxne U.) ; real prop. 26497. St.
Mary Rect. (Norwich) val. 400/., patr. J. J. Be-
dingfeld, Esq., of B. Hall.

BEDINGHAM par. (66) Loddon hund. SE. Nor-
folk, 4 m. NW. of Bungay-106. Acres 1140;
pop. 316 ; poor r. 2697. (Loddon U.) ; real prop.
20787. St. Andrew Vic. (Norw.) val. 1507., patr.
Impropriators. B. Hall, 1 m. SE.

Bedingham's Drove (51) S. Witchford hund.



Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 44 of 293)