Copyright
James A Sharp.

A new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) online

. (page 50 of 293)
Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 50 of 293)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


scribed), Castleacre, Caesar's on Bagshot heath,
Hardwell castle, Wantage, the birth-place of Al-
fred; Icknield St., which enters at Streat-ley,
passes by Speen towards Salisbury, with branches
along the hills ; from Silchester an ancient road
went to Speen, and another, called the Devil's
causeway, by Old Windsor to Staines ; and traces
of other roads are seen. Of the religious houses
there were abbeys at Abingdon, Bisham, Brad-
field, Farringdon, and Reading ; priories at Bis-
ham, Cholsey (founded by Etheldred after the
murder of his brother), Harley or Lady Place
(where the Revolution was planned), Farringdon,
Reading, Sandleford, Wallingford; preceptories
at Bisham, and Brimpton ; colleges at Shottes-
brook (founded by Trussel, who was here buried
in lead, and his wife in leather), Wallingford,
Windsor, the chapel royal ; besides several hos-
pitals. Specimens of nonnan and other churches
may be seen at Avington, Bucklebury, Cumnor,
Englefield ; Sbottesbrook (a beautiful small cru-
ciform), Uffington (cruciform), Welford (a nor-
man round tower, with the part above it, early,
and the spire at the top later, english). Castle
ruins at Farringdon, Donnington (the size of
which used to strike Camden with astonish-
ment), and Wallingford ; Windsor castle, founded
by the Conqueror, improved by Will, of Wyke-
ham, and restored by Wyattville, covers 12 acres
of ground, and has a view over 12 counties, with
a noble promenade 1870 ft. long. Of the ancient
mansions are Aldermaston house, Appleton (part
as old as Hen. II.), Ockholt, Cumnor (seat of the
Verneys and scene of Amy Robsart's murder
by order of Leicester), Witham (the Harcourts).
At Eddington, near Hungerford, Alfred visited
the dunish camp, as related in history, previous
to his second victory ; Sonning was the seat of a
bishopric before it was removed to Sarum ; New-
bury was the birthplace of Smalwood or Winsch-
combe, the rich clothier, called Jack of Newbury,
who marched with his men to Flodden Field, in
the civil wars it was the scene of two actions, in
one of which Ld. Falkland was killed. It gives
title of earl to Howard Earl of Suffolk and B.
The Thames is navigable its whole length, 105 m.
from Lechlade to Old Windsor, along the N.
border ; the Kennet, by means of cuts, for 30 m.
from Hungerford through Newbury to Reading ;
20 m. of the Wilts, and Berks, canal, in the vale
of White Horse, from Bour-ton through Wantage
to Abingdon, are in the county, and about 9 m. of
the Kennet and Avon canal from Hungerford to
Newbury; 48m. of Gt. West. rail, from Maiden-
head, through Twyford, Reading, Didcot (whence
there is a branch to Oxford), and between Want-
age and Farringdon, to Shrivenham ; 26 m. of the
branch, from Reading through Newbury to Hun-
gerford ; and 8 m. of the junct. between Reading
and Basingstoke (on S. Western). Roads from
Reading are: 1. to Twyford 6, Great Marlow
14; or to Maidenhead 12. 2. toWokingham 6,
Sunninghill, over Bagshot heath, 14, thence to
Staines through Windsor park ; or to Bill hill 6,
Warneld 12, Windsor 17. 3. to Swallowfield G,
Basingstoke 14. 4. to Theale 5, Midgham 10,
Newbury 17, Hungerford 25. 5. to Whitchurch
5, Streatley 9, Uptou 1C, Wantage 24, Ashbury



176



BER



BER



by the Port way, passing the ^yhite Horse and
blowing-stone, 33, thence to Swindon 41 ; or by
Wantage to Farringdon 32. 6. to Streatley 9,
Wallingford 15, thence to Oxford 28 ; or to Upton
aj above 16, Steventon 20, Abingdon 24, thence
to Oxford 30. 7. A cross road Oxford to Abing-
don 4, Steventon 8, E. Ilsley across the Downs
19, Newbury 29. 8. Oxford to Cumnor 3, Want-
age 14, across the Ridge way to Lambourne 22,
Hungerford 29 ; or to Gt. Shefford 22, Hungerford
28. 3? BERKS. ARCHDEACONRY, dioc. of Oxon.,
contains the 4 deaneries of Abingdon, Reading,
Newbury, Wallingford, comprising 137 benefices.

Berkshire Isld. ( ) in Windermere Lake, W.
Westmrld., near Ferry point.

BERKSWEIA. See BERKESWELL, Warwick.

BERKSWICK. See BASWICK, Staffd.

BERMERSLEY. See BEMERSLEY, Staffd.

BERMONDSEY par. (7) Southwark boro" E. Brix-
ton hund. NW. Surrey, the seat of the leather
and wool trade, in the SE. suburbs of London, on
the S. bank of the Thames, and traversed by the
Greenwich rail, is the saxon Burmundesye, and
had an alien cluniac priory (in 1399 created an
abbey), found. 1082 near the church, by Aylwin
Child of London, to which the manor, with a
royal palace (afterwards called King John's), and
later still two hospitals of St. Thomas and St. Sa-
viour were attached, which was vaL 5487. and
came to Sir T. Pope (who b. a house on the site),
and Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, who died here 1583
Acres 620, flat and ill-drained, part market gar-
den and meadow land; pop. 34,947 + 520, em-
ployed as curriers, etc. (697 hands), dyers (64),
fellmongers (129), furriers (69), leather dyers
and embossers (24), "peel-maker" (1), ship
carpenters (199), skinners (50), tanners (602),
wool-staplers, etc. (73), and in the making of
baskets (10 persons), blocks (16), bone crushers
(2), bottles (2), brimstone (2), brushes (45),
buttons (3), chairs (15), corkcutting (10), glue
(69\ horn (4), mat (5), naphtha (12), paper
(14), parchment and vellum (39), patterns (7),
pins (1), pipes (1), planes, ropes (148), sails (44),
tortoise shell (1), wafers (4), varnish (1), vine-
gar (3) ; houses 5674, many old, with 4 churches,
several chapels, convent, large leather market,
tanyards, various factories, Bacon's free school
(2137.) and united charity school (987.) b. by
Hays for 11007.; poor r. 13,8237. on 112,646Z. ;
real prop. 108,1007.; charities 4907, St. Mary
Magdalen Eect. (Wine.) val. 4607., patr. H. Knapp,
Esq. ; church, on the site of one which stood there
at ' Domesdy.' St. James's Cur. BOOL, Rector eh.
b. 1829 by Savage ; Ch. Ch. Cur. 1507., Crown and
Bp. ch. b. 1848, in romanesque style, for 4870Z. ;
St. Paul Cur., ISO/., Crown and Bp. At the abbey,
traces of which may be found in ' Abbey street,'
near Abbey house, died Catherine and Elizabeth,
queens of Hen. V. and Edw. IV. ; an entry in
the church register records the marriage of James
Herriott, "one of 40 children of his father, a
Scotchman ; " and in the Spa Road was a chaly-
beate well discovered 1770, afterwards turned into
a place of public amusement and now built
upon. Berm. P. L. Union, comprises the above
par. ; cases relieved (yr. 1846-7) 3417 (out-door
2434). Sup. Registry comprises the same ; births
(1845) 1623 (790 being females 47 illegit.)
deaths 952 marriages 306, of which 127 per-
son signed with marks. It belongs to Southwark
New County Court district.

Berllan (40) 4 m. E. of Newport, N. Pembroke.
Rev. J. Griffith.

Berttandywyll (41) near Llandeilofawr, E. Car-
marthen. Humphreys, Esq.



BERMONDSPIT (UPPER) HUNDRED (12) Ba-
singstoke div. N. Hants, contains the pars, of
Bentworth, Bradley, Ellisfield, Herriard, Lasham,
Upton Grey, Weston Corbet, and Weston Patrick ;
acres 16,000, pop. 2398, houses 446. i^T B.
(LOWER) HUNDRED contains the pars, of Can-
dover, Drummer, Farleigh, Nutley, and Popham ;
acres 10,230, pop. 1262, houses 241.

Bernaceaster of the Saxons, is Burcester (?).

BERNE quarter (73) Whitchurch par. W. Dor-
set. 4 m. WNW. of Bridport-135. Pop. 876.

Bernera, near Kyleferry, on Sleat Sound, W.
Inverness.

Bernera Isld. Barra par. S. end of the Western
Islds. separated from Mingala isld. by B. Sound.
Pop. 30, employed in catching puffins. For light-
house, see BARRA. gip Bernera Isld. Harris
par. in the Western Islds. in Harris Sound, is
about 5 m. round and joins with Pabbay to form
a q. s. par. Pop. 713. Living (Presb. Uist) val.
1., patr. Crown.

Bernera Big Isld. W. of Lewis, Western Islds.
in L. Roag, with B. Little to the W., is 5 m. by 2,
and has 48 stones left of a druid remain, in
the shape of a cross about 680 ft. by 200, with
part of a circle in the middle 62 ft. diam., and two
other circles not far off.

BERNERS, ROOTHING. See ROOTHING-BER-
NERS, Essex.

Bernicia, so called from R. Brennich, under
the saxon rule, was between the Tyne and the
Forth, and with Deira lying between the Tyne
and the Humber, formed the kingdom of !Nor-
thumbria, which was one of the Heptarchy but
being sometimes under a separate king, it is re-
garded by Mr. Turner in his history as a distinct
kingdom, making England at this time, according
to him, an Octarchy. It lasted from Ida, who
first assumed the title of King in 547, to Eanred,
who became tributary to Egbert in 841.

BERRACH hmlt. (41) Llanfinangel Aber-
bythych par. SE. Carmarthen. 2 m. SW. of Llan-
deilofawr-202.

Berrend (43) 7 m. W. of Tewkesbury, S W.
Worcester.

Berreys (13) 7 m. NE. of Newbury, Hfid. Berks.

BERRICK-PRIOR liberty (13) Newington par.
S. Oxford, close to the following. Pop. 181.
gaf B.-SALOME par. (13) Ewelme hund. SE.
Oxford. 4m. NNE. of Wallingford-46. Acres
1090; pop. 164 + 3; poor r. 11 61. (Wallingf. U.) ;
real prop. 824Z. ; charities 127. St. Helen Cur.
with Chalgrove.

BERRIEDAL.E q. s. par. in Latheron par. .
Caithness. 5 m. SW. of Dunbeath-201, on B.
Water, which rises on the border of Suthrld.
and runs 15 m. to N. Sea. Size 20 m. by 12 ;
pop. 1264, decreasing, fishermen. Living (Presb.
Caithness), val. 1207., patr. Crown. Near is B.
Castle, the ruined seat of the Sutherlands, which
gives title of baron to the Sinclairs.

BERRIER and MURRAH tnshp. ( ) Greystoke
par. E. Cumbrld. 7 m. W. of Penrith-283. Pop.
127 + 1 ; poor r. 177. (Penr. U.) ; real prop. 12347.

P. BERRIEW, or ABER-RHIW, par. (60) New-
town, Cawse, and Pool hunds. E. Montgmry.
3 m. NW. of Montgomery-163, on the canal,
where R. Rhiw joins the Severn, is a petty ses-
sions town, and contains Allt, Brincamisir, Brith-
dir, Ffrydd, Garthmill, Keel, Keelcochwyn, Llan-
dinir, Llivior, Penthryn.Trwstywelin, and Vaenor
Issa and Ucha. Pop. 2259, of town 188, some
flannel makers ; poor r. 1987. (Montg. Incorp.) ;
real prop. 23577. ; charities 1257., of which 937.
to Jones's free school. St. Beuno Vic. (St. Asa.)
val. 3567., patr. Bishop. Vaenor Park, seat of



BER



BER



Mrs. Winder, commands fine views of the vale of
Severn ; and there are some british remains.

BERRINGTON tnshp. ( ) Kyloe chplry., Island-
shire, Durliam, local Iv N. Northmbrld* b m. S. of
Berwick-on-Tweed-337. Pop. 3167. giT BER-
RINGTON hmlt. (44) Chipping Campden par. NE.
Gloucest. near Chipping Campden-90. Pop. 158.
gif Berrington (55) 5 m. NNE. of Leominster,
N. Hereford. Lady Rodney, near the canal, a
meet for the Herefd. hounds, gap" BERRINGTON
par. (55) Condover hund. Mid. Salop, 4 m. SE.
of Shrewsbury- 153, on R. Severn. Acres 2290,
including B. Lake. Pop. 651 ; poor r. 917. (Atcham
U.) ; real prop. 85477. All Saints Rect. (Lich.)
val. 393/., patr. Lord Benvick. gir BERRINGTON
hmlt. (55) Tenbury par. W. Worcest. 2m.WNW.
of Tenbury-153, on R. Teme. Pop. 207 + 4. B.
Green, 1 m. SE.

BERRON tnshp. (79) Llannefydd par. N. Den-
bigh. 5 m. NW. of Denbigh-201.

BERROW par. (20) Brent-with-Wrington hund.
N. Somerset. 9 m. \VSW. of Axbridge-130, near
B. Head, in Bridgewater Bay. Acres 2310 ; pop.
578 + 8 ; poor r. 235/. (Axb. U.) ; reaV prop 5341/.
St. Mary Vic. (Ba. and W.) val. 1867., patr.
Archdeacon of Wells. B. Flat, a sand which dries
at low water, gg" BEROW par. (43) Oswaldslow
hund. S. Worcest. 5 m. SW. of Upton-Ill, a meet
for the Ledbury hounds. Acres 1940 ; pop. 4807. ;
poorr. 2277. (Upton U.); real prop. 32387. St.
Faith Cur. (Wore.) val. 1007., patr. Dean and Chap.

Berry Cottage (14) 1 m. SE. of VVarminster,
S W. Wilts. W. Temple, Esq. |@ B. GREEN hmlt.
(47) Edwinstree hund. E. Herts. 2 m. W. of
Bishop's Stortford-30. ^T B. Hall (54) 7 m.
SE. of Birmingham, W. Warwick, f^ B. Head
(22) a high limestone point at the S. corner of
Torbay, SE. Devon, near Dartmouth, lat 50
24', visible at 7 leagues, with foul ground under-
neath it. gaS" B. Head, in Hoy, Orkney Islds.
0* B. Hill (7) near Maidenhead, E. Berks.
Lord Newry. ^ B. Lodge (11) 6m. ESE. of
Bishop's Waltham, SE. Hants. T. Butler, Esq.

BERRY POMEROY par. (22) Haytor hund. S.
Devon. 2 m. E. of Totness-196, on R. Dart, con-
tains Bridgetown, and belonged to the Pomeroys,
the fine remains of whose castle stand on a rock, in
the midst of most beautiful scenery. Acres 4610 ;
pop. 1149; poor r. 4827. (Totn. U.) ; real prop,
93077. St. Mary Vic. (Exet.) sometime held by
Prince, author of the " Worthies of Devon," who
died here val. 3607., patr. Duke of Somerset, who
has the manor and B. Castle; church, with fine
screen, rood lofts, and tombs of the Seymours, the
duke's ancestors. Mr. Michelmore's harriers hunt,
and Sir H. Scale's S. Devon hounds meet, here.

Berryfdd House (53) 2 m. NW. of Daventry,
W. Northmptn.

BERRYFIELDS (52) 1 m. W. of Kysoe Row,
N. Beds.

Brrryhill Hall (72) 6 m. SE. of Newcastle, N.
Stafford.

Berrymead Priory (7) near Acton, W. Mid-
dlesex, formerly seat of Evelyn, first Duke of
Kingston, where he was often visited by Geo. II.
now a convent.

Berrymount House (14) 5 m. N. of Killeshandra,
W. Cavan.

BERRYNARBOR par. (27) Braunton hund. 2V.
Devon. 2 m. E. of Ilfracombe-202, near Bristol
chan. was the birthplace of Bp. Jewell (1522-71).
Artvs 5050; pop. 899+10; poor r. 3497. (Barn-
staple U.); real prop. 5431/. St. Peter Reot.
(K.xft.) val. 7157., patr. Bishop, and others.

J'.KKRYS (46) 2 m. NNW. of Biggleswade-45,



Bcrrystead (46) 1 m. E. of Ampthill, A Beds.

BERSHAM-DRELINCOURT tnshp. (74) Wrex-
ham par. E. Denbigh. 1 m. W. of Wrexham-179,
on R. Clwydog, near Wat's Dyke. Pop. 1716
+ 47, in the iron, lead, and coal works ; poor r.
4287. (Wrexh. U.) ; real prop. 50237. ; charities,
Lady Primrose's for school and chapel 2067.
'Capel Madam's' Cur. (St. Asa.) vaL 907., patr.
Bishop. B. Lodge, Farr, Esq.

BEKSTED, SOUTH, par. (9) Aldwick hund.
Chichester rape, S W. Sussex, b m. SE. of Chi-
chester-62, contains N. BERSTED tythg. (pop.
194), Bognor cur., and Shripney. Acres 2750 ;
pop. 2490 + 30 ; poor r. 8907. (Sutton Incorp.) ;
real prop. 14,9207. St.M. Magdalen Vic. (Chic.)
val. 2147., patr. Archbp. of Cant. ; church, has a
tomb to Sir R. Hotham, the founder of Bognor,
who built B. Lodge, Mrs. Smith.

BERT. See BURT, Donegal.

Bert River. See Brit River, Dorset.

Berth f78) 3m. NE. of Newbrough, S. Anglesea.

Berth (60) 4 m. E. of Llanidloes, S. Montgomery.
on R. Severn, C. D. Williames, Esq., near B.
Llwyd, the seat of the Llwyds and Trevors.

Bertha, at the junction of the Almond and Tay,
SE. Perth, near Perth, is supposed to be the site
of the old city, which was washed away by the
river in William the Lion's time.

BERTHLWYD and BRYNHAFOD limits. (41)
Llangathen par. Mid. Carmarthen. 3 m. W. of
Llandeilofawr-202. Pop. 286.

BERTHOLEY. See LLANTILIO PERTHOLY, Man.

Bertie Place (6) near Chiselhurst, NW. Kent.

<& BERTON, or BARTON, DEANERY, dioc. of Ely,
includes the benefices of Arrington vie., Barring-
ton v., Barton v., Comberton v., Coton rect., Foxton
v., Fulmer r., Granehester r., Harleton r., Harston
., Hastingtield v., Orwell r., Gt. Shelford v., Shel-
ford the Less r., Shepreth ., Stapleford ., Thrip-
low ., Trumpington v., Wirnpole r. See THRIP-
LOW and WETHERLEY bunds. Camb.

BERTRAM SIIOTTS. See SHOTTS, Lanark.

% P. M. BERVIE, or INVERBERVIE, par. SE.
Kincardine. 88 m. NE. of Edinbro', on Aberd. rail.
near the mouth of B. River (which rises in Glen-
bervie and runs 12 m. to the N. Sea), including
Gourdon, is a royal and parl. burgh, contributory
to Montrose (elect. 38), first chartered by Dav. Il",
and governed by a provost, 2 bailies, dean of guild,
and 15 councillors, with a revenue of 1527. Acres
2000, partly arable, 400 ft. high at B. Hill ; pop.
1343, of town 864, some fishermen and linen
weavers; real prop. 23617.; for poor 1237. Liv-
ing (Presb. Fordoun) val. 1427., patr. the Crown.
Hallgreen Castle, J. Farquhar, Esq. B. Brow
cliff is called Craig David, after the king, who
landed here in bad weather. Mkt. D. Wed.
Fairs, Thurs. before 19th Maj' and Sept. Wed.
before 22 Nov. and Christmas o. *.

Berw (78) 3 m. S. of Llangefin, S. Anglesea.

BERWICK hmlt. (37) Llanelly par. S. Car'
marthen. near Llanelly-217. Pop. 981 ; church,
in ruins, i^" BERWICK vil. (17) 4m. SE. of
Bridport-135, S W. Dorset. $&* BERWICK (1)
4 m. SSE. of Romford, SW. Essex. $S BER-
WICK tnshp. (61) Atcham par. Mid. Salop, 3 m.
ESE. of Shrewsbury-153, on R. Severn. gig BER-
WICK, or LITTLE BERWICK, tnshp. (61) St. Mary
par. Mid. Salop, 2 m. NW. of Shrewsbury-153.
Pop. 271. Living, a Cur. val. 547., patr. Earl
Tankerville, and others. B. House, Hon..H.W.
Powys ; Great B. J m. SE. fl^" BERWICK par.
(5) Longbridge hund. S. Sussex, 7 m. SE. of
Lewes-50, on R. Cuckmere, near S. Coast rail.
belongs to Duchy of Lancaster. Acres 1250;
pop. 199> poor r. 1917. (W. Firle U.) ; real prop.



178



BER



BER



1625Z. Living, a Reel. (Chic.) val. 3G2Z., patr.
J. Ellman, Esq. B. Court, .

BERWICK-BASSETT par. (34) Calne hund. N.
Wilts. 6 m. NW. of Marlboro'-74. Acres 1930 ;
pop. 175 ; poor r. 102Z. (Marlb. U.) ; real prop.
1565/. St. Nicholas Cur. with Calne. ^ B.-
HALL hmlt. See BARWICK, Essex. IgT B.-
HILL tnshp. ( ) Ponteland par. SE. Northmbrld.
6 m. S. of Morpeth-289. Pop. 112. i^ B.
House (18) 1 m. 8. of Yeovil. S. Somerset. J.
Newman, Esq. igp B.-DJ-ELMET. See BAR-
WICK, W. R. York. ^= B.-ST. JAMES par. (14)
Branch and Dole hund. S. Wilts. 5 m. NNW.
of VVilton-84. Acres 2370 ; pop. 247 + 1 ; poor r.
196Z. (Wilton U.) ; real prop. 2255Z. St. James
Vic. (Sal.) val.54/., patr.Lord Ashburton. giP B.-
ST. JOHN par. (15) Chalk hund. S. Wilts. 10 m.
SW. by W. of VVilton-84, under White Sheet hills,
near Cranborne Chase. Acres 4230; pop. 209,
decreasing ; poor r. 305Z. (Tisbury U.) ; real prop.
2839Z. St. John Rect. (Sal.) 562Z., patr. New ColL
Oxon. Winkelbury camp on the hills, 1 m. S.
itif B.-Sr. LEONARD par. (14) Dunworth hund,
-S W. Wilts, close to Hindon-94. Acres 970 ; pop.
41 ; poor r. 15Z. (Tisbury U.) ; real prop. 1095Z.
St. Leonard Rect. (Sal.) with Sedghill 374Z., patr.
J. Benett, Esq. An old house here is now a barn.

iff P. BERWICK, NORTH, par. 8 m. NNW. of
Haddington-17, N. Hadngtn. a royal and parl.
burgh, and fort on Frith of Forth, on a hill, near
Tantallon (the Douglases) Castle, has the ruined
walls of a cistertian nunnery founded 1154 by
Duncan earl of Fife (val. 220Z.), with part of a
chapel near the harb. ; is a contributory boro' to
Haddington (elect. 42) ; was first chartered by
Rob. III., and is governed by a magistrate, 2
bailies, 12 council., with a revenue of 131Z. Size
3 m. by 2J, fertile and cultivated, on red sand-
stone and trap, 800 ft. high at N. B. Law ; pop.
1708, of burgh 607, decreasing ; houses (burgh)
138, with a reading-room ; real prop. 14,850Z. ;
for poor 353Z. Living (Presb. Hadngtn.) val,
I, patr. Sir H. Dalrymple, Bt, of N. B. House,
chief heritor. The port is a bad rocky tidal harb.
with a pier ; and 4 ves. of 273 tons belong to it.
Craigleith and Bass rocks, etc. are in view.

BERWICKSHIRE, so called from Berwick, which
was formerly the capital, a sea-side and border
county in SE. Scotland, beyond R. Tweed,
was seat of the Ottadini, and part of the roman
Valentia, afterwards of the saxon Bemicia, is
watered by the Tweed, etc., traversed by N.
British rail., and bordered by N. Sea (N. and E.),
Durham and Northmbrld. (SE.), Roxburgh (S.),
Edinbro" (W.), and Hadngtn. (NW.) Length
from Clint's hill to Berwick 35 m., av. breadth 14 ;
relative size 146-10,000ths ; circuit about 125, of
which 25 are coast, for the most part rocky and
dangerous, having along it Berwick harb. and
lights, Burnmo' fishing-cove, Eyemo' harb., St.
Abb's head and Coves fishing^town. It contains
442 sq. m. or 282,880 acres, of which 5-9ths are
in the Merse, about 137,500 are cultivated, and
25,000 unprofitable (in Lammermuir, etc.) ; 34,438
+ 39 persons, of whom 1148 are inLauder, 17,880
are females, 16,003 under 20 yrs. of age, 27,39?
county-born, 3608 or 10"5 per cent, live by trade,
commerce, etc., 6173 or 17-9 percent, byagricult.
(519 being farmers and graziers), 293 professions,
734 are independent, 8364 labourers and servants,
etc. ; 7408 houses (reckoning flats), besides 401
empty and building ; 31 pars. (Lauder, the largest,
58 sq. m.), and parts of 2 others ; 1 royal and parl.
burgh, Lauder ; 5 burghs of barony, Greenlaw (the
co. town, 38 m. SE. of Edinbro', where the sheriff's
and sess. courts are held), Dunse (sometimes called



the capital), Coldstream, Cockburnspath, and
Eyemo', the first three, with Lauder, Ayton,
Ear)ston, being small debt courts; returns one
member to parl. (elect. 1207) and Lauder (el.
56) contributes to Haddington ; is governed by a
lord and vice lieut. 24 deputy lieuts. sheriff and
substitute, etc., and constitutes the presbyteries
of Dunse and Chirnside, with parts of Lauder and
Kilso, in synod of Merse, with 31 clergy whose av.
stipends are 215Z, Real prop. (1815) 245,379i,
('43) 252.945Z. ; rental (1811) 231.973Z. or 16s. bd.
per acre, ('43) 237.042/. or 16s. lOd. per acre ;
valued rent 178,366/. scots. Fiar or av. price of
wheat ('42-8) 49s. 4d. per qr., of meal 17s. bd.
per boll of 140 Ib. Savings banks ('49) 1, with
3197Z. from 216 depositors; expend, for poor
('47-8) in 32 pars. (31 being assessed) 8945Z., of
which 7323Z. on 1322 poor on roll, 403Z. on 417
casual poor. Schools (1837) of all kinds 93, at-
tended by about 6300 children ; av. no. of offenders
('36-'46) 35, but in '48, it was 110. The Lam-
rnermuir district, formed by a range of old slaty
rocks of the Silurian formation, with trap peaks
here and there, divides the county on the N. from
the Lothians, and at one period was covered with
forest, but is now bleak and moory, with a peat
soil, upon which the hardy black-faced sheep find
pasture; it is not destitute of many cultivated
patches in the valleys. The principal heights on
the NW. are Crib law 1615 ft. (the highest of the
range) ; Lammer law, which gives name to the
whole 1500 ft. ; on the W. overlooking Lauderdale
and the Lauder haughs and Yarrow, are Clint's hill
1544 ft., Airhouse law 1054 ft., Tippet knows 1323,
Boon hill 1090 ; to the N. Manslaughter law 1273 ;
to the NE. Cockburnspath law 912, and St. Abb's
Head 300, at the end of the range on the coast
which is further interesting as showing, at Siccar
point, the change from the secondary to the pri-
mary formation. Other heights on the SW. are
Earlston hill 1200, the broomy " Cowdenknowes "
1000, and Bemerside hill 1011 ; and in the centre,
Dirrington great law 1145, Laughton Edge 900,
Kyleshill of porphyry 1110, and Dunse law 630,
commanding a fine view of the Merse, of which
there is also a rich prospect from Chirnside hill.
The Kaimes and Herrit's dyke in Greenlaw par.,
which are gravelly ridges of some extent, have
been supposed to be british works, but most pro-
bably are natural elevations. Freestone, lime-
stone, and whinstone abound ; red sandstone is
quarried at Edrom, Nenthom, Mertoun, Swinton,
and Hutton; good gypsum at Chirnside and
Greenlaw; ironstone near beds of poor coal at
Ayton, Corkburnspath, and Mordington ; slate at
Lauder (with traces of copper) and at Bunkle ;
good lapidary stones are found in the Tweed,
and pure quicksilver has been discovered at
Hidehill. There are two small lochs at Dunse
and Coldingham pars. ; the salmon and trout
fisheries in the streams, though not so plentiful
as formerly, are still valuable, and the deep sea
fisheries at Eyemouth and Burnmouth yield abun-
dance for consumption and importation to the S.
The manufactures are unimportant, those for
cotton and linen employing 208 persons, besides
61 returned as spinners and weavers ; there is a
woollen factory at Mellerstain in Earlstoun (47
hands in 1847), but the papermill at Edrom is
gone. Mineral waters are found at Chirnside
and Dunse. Between the Tweed and the foot
of Lammermuir is a strip from 8 m. long to
10 broad, called the Merse (i. e. march or border,
or else, according to Chalmers, the marsh or
flat), consisting of upwards of 100,000 acres,
for the most part nearly level, of good fertile



BEB

clay soil, with valuable beds of shell marl for
manure, on a substratum of limestone, coal, and
old red sandstone, well and systematically culti-
vated. Chief crops, wheat and turnips, with
barley, oats, beans, etc. Waste land is in course
of being reclaimed, by draining and otherwise, to
which end there are large tile-works at Swinton,
Hutton, and Eccles (which is celebrated for the
luxuriance of its crops). Farms large, and the
farmers, whom Lord Kaimes abused as " born and



Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 50 of 293)