founded with the chplry. above, i^ap" BIRCH tnshp.
(73) Baschurch par. N. Salop, 7 m. NW.of Shrews-
bury-153. Pop. 22. H^ BIRCH tnshp. (73) with
Lythe, Ellesmere par. N. Salop, near Ellesmere
>169. Pop. 65. B.Hall,. $3" BIRCH (55 or 61)
Stottesden hund. SE. Salop, 5 m. NE. of Cleobury-
Mortimer-137. 1* B. Farm (13) 5 m. NE. of
Newbury, Mid. Berks. ^ B. FIELDS (52) Barford
hund. NE. Beds. 5 m. NE. of Bedford-50. ^ B.
Grove (37) 4 m. W. of Neath, W. Glamorgan.
Morgan, Esq. .
P. BIRCH, GREAT and LITTLE, par. (48) Lex-
den hund. NE. Essex, 4m. SW. of Colchester-51,
has the remains of a small castle. Acres 2940 ;
pop. 794 + 3 ; poor r. 2187 (Lexd. U.) ; real prop.
4141/. ; charities 21. St. Peter Rect. (Roch.) val.
469/., patr. Bp. London and C. Round, Esq. of
B. Hall. St. Mary church (in Little B. par.) in
ruins. ^ B. Hills Hall (62) 1 m. NNW. of B.
Walsall, S. Stafford, where anthracite is found.
P. BIRCH, LITTLE, par. (43) Upper Wormelow
hund. 5. Hereford. 5 m. S. of Hereford-134. Acres
930; pop. 37'5; poor r. 1167. (Heref. U.); real
prop. 16647. St. Mary Rect. (Heref.) val. 1707.,
patr. Guy's hospital. gal" B., GREAT or MUCH,
par. J m. SW. of the above. Acres 1330 ; pop.
484; poor r. 1477.; real prop. 19887.; charities
71. St. Mary Cur. 1067., patr. T. Symms, Esq.
t&*B. Lodge (36) near Kinnitty, Mid. King's
Co. i^ B. Tree, 5 m. S. of Haltwhistle, SW.
BIRCH ALL (73) 5 m. SE. of Nantwich, S. Clie-
sliire. gjiP BIKCHALL. See BIRCHOLT, Kent.
BIRCHAM-CLIFFE hmlt. (88) Lindley par. W.
R. York. 2 m. NW. of Huddersfield-189.
P. BIRCHAM-CLIFFE, GREAT, par. (69) Smith-
Ion hund. NW. Norfolk, 7m. SW. of Burnham-
VVestgate-118. Acres 3550 ; pop. 511 + 6 ; poor r.
5107. (Docking U.) ; real prop. 2434/. St. Mary
Rect. (Norw.) val. 514/., patr. A. Hamond, Esq.
B. Heath Farm, Ifc m. SW. ^T B.-NEWTON
par. 1 m. N. of the above. Acres 1150; pop. 107
+ 5; poor r. 66/. ; real prop. 9627. All Saints
Rect. (Norw.) with B. Tofts Rect. val. 4347.,
patr. Marq. of Cholmondeley.. fiT B. TOFTS
par. 1 in. S. of the above. Acres 1450; pop.
142 + 1 ; poor r. 1087. ; real prop. 9467. St. An-
drew Rect. with B.-Newton, as above.
BIRCHANGER par. (47) Uttlesford hund. W.
Essex, 2 m. NE. of Bp. Stortford-30, near E.
Count, rail, had a hosp. found, in John's time by
R. de Newport. Acres 1150 ; pop. 386 + 2 ; poor
r. 2627. (Stockford U.) ; real prop. 23277. St.Mary
Rect. (Roch.) val. 2187., patr. New Coll. Oxon.
Birchen, Old and New (43) 5 m. NNW. of
Ledbury, E. Heref d.
BIRCHER tnshp. Yarpole par. N. Heref d. 4 m.
NNW. of Leominster-137, seat of Col. Smith.
Pop. 2577. ; real prop. 1901. B.Common, 1 m. NW.
BIKCHES tnshp. (55) Gt. Budworth par. Mid.
Cheshire, 3 m. ESE. of Northwich-174. Acres
100 ; pop. 8. |^ Birches (62) 3 m. NW. by N.
of Wolverhampton, S W. Stafd.
BIRCHES, THE (61) between Buildwas and
Colebrook Dale, E. Salop, near Madeley, on R.
Severn, was the scene of a landslip 27 May, 1773,
which turned the course of the river for several
hundred yards, supposed to have been occa-
sioned by an earthquake. The particulars are
given at length in a sermon preached by the pious
Fletcher on the spot where it happened.
Birches Green (62) 3 m. NE. of Birmingham,
.ZV. Warwick, J. Gibbons, Esq.
Birchfield (14) 5m. N. of Ennistimon, NW.
Clare, C. O'Brien, Esq. M. P. ^ Birchfield,
8 m. SE. of Edinburgh, on Leith Water, Miss
Birchfield House (19) near Kilkenny, Mid. Kil-
Birchgrove (53) near Ballinasloe, S. Roscomn.
gif Birchgrove (12) near Roscrea, NE. Tippery,
Birch, Esq. igp" Birchgrove (12) near Wex-
ford, S. Wexford, onR. Slaney, late Adml. Wilson.
Birchhill (50) 1 m. NE. of Antrim, E. Antrim,
near Lough Neagh.
BIRCHILL (26) Shebbear hund. NW. Devon.
2 m. SW. of Torrington-194.
P. BIRCHINGTON par. (3) Ringslow hund. St.
Augustine lathe, NE. Kent, 3 m. W. of Margate
-72, near the coast, belongs to Dover cinque port.
Acres 1760 ; pop. 874 + 3 ; poor r. 3877. (Thanet
U.) ; real prop. 84447. All Saints Cur. with Monk-
ton ; church, ancient, with Quex chapel attached,
containing 5 brasses (from 1449) and tombs
of that family, and the Crispes of Quex, now
a farmhouse, whence Sheriff Crispe was taken
off to France in the Protector's time, by a royalist,
Captain Golding, and afterwards ransomed for
Birchley Hall (63) 5 m. NW. of Coventry, N.
Warwick. B. Heys, a meet for the N. Warwk,
Birchmore House (46) 1 m. N. of Wobnm, S W.
Beds. T B. House (11) 3 m. SSE. of Newport,
I. of Wight, S.Hants.
BIRCHOLT FRANCHISE and BARONY (3) Shep-
way lathe, SE. Kent, contains the pars, of Bir-
cholt, Brabourne, Hastingleigh, Smeeth, and part
of Aldington ; acres 10,100, pop. 2374, houses 432.
BIRCHOLT, or BIRCHALL, par. (3) in the above
Franchise, SE. Kent, 4 m. ESE. of Ashford-53.
Acres 510 ; pop. 37 ; poor r. 967. (Ashf. U.) ; real
prop. 3317. St. Margaret Rect. (Cant.) val. 507.,
patr. Sir E. Knatchbull, Bt. ; church, in ruins.
BIRCHOVER chplry. (81) Youlgreave par. Mid.
Derby. 1 m. N. of Winster-150. Pop. 77 ; poor r.
377. (Bakewell U.) ; real prop. 10687.
Pirchwood, 5 m. SSW. of Biggar, SE. Lanark.
BIRCHWOOD, NETHER, hmlt. (71) Alfreton par.
E. Derby. 2 m. SE. of Alfreton-139. Pop. in the
collieries. gg" B. Park (72) 4 m. S. of Ash-
borne, W. Derby. fiST B. Park (65) 5 m. W. of
Uttoxeter, Mid. Stafd.
Bird Island (147) SW. side of the entrance to
Dunmanus bay, SW. Cork, g^* B. Island (17)
middle of Lough Strangford, NE. Down, is sur-
rounded by dangerous rocks.
BIRDALL tnshp. ( ) Wharram-Percy par.
E. R. York. 8 m. SE. of New Malton. See RAIS-
BIRDBROOK par. (47) Hinckford hand. N.
Essex, 3 m. SSE. of HaverhiIl-59, on the roman
way to Colchester, where remains have been
found. Acres 2640; pop. 557 + 4; poor r. 389Z.
(Risbridge U.); real prop. 3604/. St. Austin
Sect. (Roch.) val. 600, patr. Clare Hall, Camb.
B. Hall, late a seat of Sir W. B. Rush, who had
the manor. Here in 1681, was buried Martha
Blewitt, who, having had nine husbands, had for
the text of her funeral sermon, " Last of all, the
woman died also."
BIRDENBURY. See BREDENBURY, Hereford.
BIRDFORTH WAPENTAKE ( ) N. R. York.
contains the pars, of Old Byland, Cowsby, Cox-
wold cur., Feliskirk vie., E. Harlsey, Hawnby,
Husthwaite c., Kilburn c., S. Kilvington rect.,
Cold Kirby, Kirby-Knowle r., Morton, S. Otter-
ington r., Over Silton c., Thirkleby ., Thirsk c.,
Welbury, and parts of Ampleforth, Leak, Cundall,
Kirby-Wiske, N, Otterington, and Topcliffe ; acres
97,010 ; pop. 14,384 ; houses 2962. See BULMER
DEANERY. ^BIRDFORTH chplry. ( ) Coxwold
par. as above, 5 m. SE. of Thirsk-217. Acres 540 ;
pop. 44 ; poor r. 18/. (Thirsk U.) ; real prop. 801Z.
Living, a Cur. (Yk.) val. 94/., patr. Archbp.
BIRDHAM par. (9) Manhood hund. S W. Sussex,
3 m. SW. of Chichester-62, on C. Harbour, near
S. Coast rail., contains Kingley-Bottom and Lang-
ley Farm. Acres 1930 ; pop. 506 + 2 ; poor r. 1727.
(W. Hampnett D.) ; real prop. 3834Z. St. Leonard
Rect. (Chic.) val. 396/., patr. Dean and Chap.
P. BIRDHILL hmlt. (31) Owney bar. W. Tippery.
4 m. NW. of Newport-109. B. House, S. H.
Birdhurst Lodge (8) near Croydon NE. Surrey,
BIRDINGBURY, or BiRBURY, par. (53) Knight-
low hund. E. Warwick. 4 m. N. of Southam-82,
was given by Earl Leofric to his abbey at Coven-
try. Acres 1180; pop. 201 ; poor r. 39Z. (Rugby
U.) ; real prop. 1639Z. St. Leonard Rect. (Wore.)
val. 120/., patr. Sir T. Biddulph, Bt., of B. Hall,
an ancient seat which came from the Whelers.
BIRDLIP vil. (44) Dudston hund. Mid. Gloucest.
5 m. SE. by E. of Gloucester- 10 2, a meet for
the Cheltenham hounds, near Whitcombe park,
and B. Hill, which is crossed by Ermine St., and
commands a beautiful prospect of the vale of
Gloucester, the Malverns, etc.
BIRDOSWALD. See BURDOSWALD, Cumlrld.
BIKDRIDDING hmlt. ( ) Carlton-Highdale
tnshp. N. R. York. 4 m. SW. of Middleham-232.
BIRD'S GREEN hmlt. (1 or 47) Beauchamp-
Roothing par. W. Essex, 9 m, SSW. of Dun-
BIRDSALL par. ( ) Buckrose wap. E. R. York.
5 m. S. of New Malton-217. Acres 3650 ; pop.
267 + 2; poor r. 126/. (Malton U.); real prop.
4134Z. ; charities BL St. Mary Cur. (Tk.) val.
40Z., patr. Marq. of Hertford; church b. 1824 by
Ld. Middleton. B. Hall, H. Willoughby, Esq.
Birdstown (38) on Lough Swillv, NE. Donegal,
Rev. P. Maxwell
BIRDWELL hmlt. (87) Worsbrough chplry. W.
R. York. 2 m. S. of Barneslev-172.
BIRDWELL FLAT hmlt (87) Swinton chplry.
W. R York. 4 m. NNE. of Rotherham-159.
P. BIRGHAM, or BRIGHAM, viL Eccles par. S.
Berwick, on R. Tweed, opposite Carham, Nor-
thmbrld. 4 m. W. of Coldstream, where the Scot-
tish estates met, and the treaty of peace between
the two kingdoms was signed 1290 ; a treaty
upset by the untimely death of Margaret of Scot-
land. It has a chapel and mineral spring.
Birk Fell, on SE. side of UUeswater, Westmrld.
BIRK RIGGS hmlt. ( ) HolbeckLunds chplry.
N. R. York. 1 m. NE. of Hawes-249.
BIRKBY tnshp. ( ) Cross Canonby par. W.
Cumlrld. 1 m. NE. of Maryport-311, on Carlisle
rail. Pop. 89. igg BIRKBY tnshp. ( ) Mun-
caster par. S W. Cumberland, 2 m. E. of Raven-
glass-279, in Eskdale. Pop. 119 ; real prop. 915/1
On B. Fell are the ruins of Barnscar, (which see).
Muncaster cast, seat of the Penningtons.
BIRKBY par. ( ) Allertonshire wap. 2V. 7?.
York. 5 m. N. of Northallerton-225, on Gt North
of Engld. rail., contains Button Bonville and
Little Smeaton. Acres 3400 ; pop. 256, of town
74 ; poor r. 257. (NorthallertU.) ; real prop. 1386Z.
St. Peter Rect. (Rip.) val. 172/., patr. Bishop.
^* Birkby (88) near Huddersfield, W. R. York.
T. Holroyd, Esq.
BIRKDALE tnshp. (90) N. Meol's par. SW.
Lancash. 7 m. NW. of Ormskirk-219, by the sea.
on Southpt. rail. Acres 2130 ; pop. 557 + 4 ; poor
r. 51Z. (Ormsk. U.) ; real prop. 1255Z. giT BIRK-
DALE hmlt. ( ) Dufton tnshp. NE. Westmrld.
8 m. NE. of Appleby-270. Pop. 13. ^ BIRK-
DALE hmlt. ( ) Muker chplry. N. R. York.
P. M. BIRKENHEAD par. chplry. (79) Lower
Wirrall hund. N W. Chesliire, 203 m. from Lon-
don through Chester, from which it is 15 m., on
R. Mersey opposite Liverpool, a polling and petty
sessions town (governed by a body of 21 commis-
sioners), and the site of a benedict, priory found,
about 1150 by Hamon de Massey, of which there
are some remains, is likely to grow into import-
ance as a port, from the construction of a great
dock of 150 acres (formed by closing the mouth
of a natural inlet called Wallesley Pool, to which
it lies adjacent), projected by Mr. Laird, made
by Kendall, and opened by Lord Morpeth, Aug.
1847. Acres 900, mostly laid out and sewered
though but partly built on with Claughton park
(113 ac.); pop. 8223 + 566 (in 1821, only 236),
some engaged in ship-building; houses 1270,
many_ handsome, with 4 churches (and St. James's,
building), 4 chapels, court-house, bank, St. Aidan's
theolog. coll. (found. 1849), gas and water works,
working-men's houses by C. Long, abattoir, dis-
pensary, new pier, and market-place 430 ft. by 130,
near Hamilton sq. (6 acres) ; poor r. 1059Z. on
54,783Z. (Wirrall U.) ; real prop. 62.597A, of which
6906Z. on railway. St. Mary Cur. (Ches.) val.
153Z., patr. W. Jackson, Esq. ; church, overlook-
ing the river, was part of the abbey restored ;
Holy Trinity Cur. 2501., H. Williams, Esq. ; St.
John Cur. 1., Trustees ; St. Anne, I, W. Potter,
Esq. A constant communication is maintained
by steam-boats from Woodside and Monk's
ferries with Liverpool, to which it may become a
sort of South wark; and a railway 15 m. long,
with 10 stations, first opened Sept. 1840, runs to
Chester, thence to be carried on to N. West. rail,
near Warrington. A log of mahogany sold in
Morpeth dock 1850, contained 4326 cubic ft.
Birhenhead, 2m. SW. ofBathgate, W. Linlthgw.
Birkenhead Burn, Lesmahagow par. S. Lanark.
runs into Nethan Water.
BIRKENSHAW hmlt. (88) Birstall par. W. R.
York. 7 m. SW. Leeds-189. Pop. 3000, in the
coal and ironstone mines, cotton spinning, and
worsted weaving. Living, a Cur. (Rip.) val.
150/., pair. Vicar. g5P B. BOTTOM, hmlt. near
BIRKENSIDE ( ) 9 m. SE. of Hexham, S.
BIKKEK tnshp. ( ) with Austhwaite, Millom
par. S. Cumbrld, 5 m. ENE. of Ravenglass-279,
in Eskdale, near B. Force, 65 feet down, and one
of the finest falls in the county. Pop. 105 ; poor
r. 151 (Bootle U.) ; real prop. 7161.
Birkett House ( ) 5 m. SE. of Hawkeshead,
N. Lancashire, J. Birkett, Esq.
Birkfield Lodge (48) near Ipswich, S. Suffolk,
F. W. Campbell, Esq.
BIRKHIL.L vil. Balmerino par. N, Fife, on R.
Tay, P. Wedderburn, Esq.
Birkhill Pass, in Moffat-dale, N. Dumfries, near
Loch Skene, was a hiding-place for the Cove-
nanters, four of whom were shot opposite the inn
door by the butcher Claverhouse.
Birkhilhide, 2 m. NE. of Melrose, N. Roxburgh.
Col. W. Shillinglaw, in Lauderdale.
BIRKW par. (87) Lower Barkstone Ash wap.
W. R. York. 5 m. ENE. of Pontefract-177, on
R. Airey and Selby canal, near N. Midld. rail.,
contains Chapel and W. Haddlesey, and Courtney
and Temple Hurst. Acres 5890, of town 2330 ;
pop. 921 + 5, and 169 ; poor r. 10U (Gt. Preston
Incorp.) ; real prop. 28137. St. Mary Rect. (Yk.)
val. 1008Z., patr. Rev. T. Hill.
Birkin River ( ) falls into R. Bollin, NE.
Cheshire, near Ashley Hall.
BIKKLE (88) Middleton par. SE. Lancatk. 2 m.
NNW. of Middleton; pop. 1800. Living -. Cur.
(Manch.) val 407., patr. Rector.
BIRKS hmlt. ( ) with Colsterdale, E. Witton
tnshp. N. R. York. 3 m. SE. of Middleham-232.
BIRKSCEUTH. See BRISCOE, Cumbrld.
BIRKWITH hmlt. ( ) Horton-in-Ribblesdale
par. W. R. York. 7 m. N. of Settle-235.
Birhwood, 5 m. SW. of Lanark, Mid. Lanark.
Todd, Esq. ^ BIRKWOOD hmlt. (87) Crof-
ton par. W. R. York. 3 m. SE. of Wakefield-182.
&T B. Hall (83) 2 m. ENE. of Tattershall, Mid.
BIRLET (82) 4 m. NE. of Dronfield, NE.
Derby, gg" BiRLEY par. (55) Stretford hund.
Mid. Hereford. 4 m. SW. of Leominster-137.
Acres 1260, part in hops ; pop. 172 + 3 ; poor r.
607. (Weobly U.) real prop. 12577. St. Peter
Vic. with King's Pion. B. Court, .
BIRLEY-CAB hmlt (82) Ecclesfield tnshp. W.
R. York. 4 m. N. of Sheffield-162.
BIRLFNG par. (6) Larkfield hund. Aylesford
lathe, Mid. Kent, 5 m. N\V. of Maidstone-34.
Acres 2240, part in hops ; pop. 511 ; poor r. 194/.
( Mailing U.) ; real prop. 28977. All Saints Vic.
(Cant.) val. 1587., patr. Earl of Abergavenny,
who holds the manor through the Says, and
many of whose ancestors, the Nevilles, were
buried in the church, which has a brass. B. Place,
of which a gate, remains, and Comfort, now a
farm, were seats of theirs. giT BIIUJNG tnshp.
( ) Warkworth par. E. Northmbrld. 5 m. SE.
of Alnwick-308, on R. Coquet, by the coast.
P. BIRLINGHAM par. (44) Upper Pershore hund.
S. Worcester. 2 m. SSW. of Pershore-202, on R.
Avon, near Glouc. and Birm. rail. Acres 1450 ;
pop. 390 + 3 ; poor r. 1517. (Persh. U.) ; real prop.
37fi57. ; charities 127., and Porter's almshouse.
St. James Rect. (Wore.) val. 2057., patr. Rev. R.
E. Landor, rector. B. Court, M. C. Porter, Esq.
BIRMINGHAM DIVISION, Hemlingford hund.
(G2) NW. Warwick, contains the pars, of Aston,
Coleshill, Curdworth, Sheldon, Sutton-Coldfield,
Wishaw, and Birmingham; acres 26,050, pop.
15,538, houses 2909, without Birmingham.
# # P. M. BIRMINGHAM par. in the above
hund., " the toyshop of Europe," a station on N.
West rail. 112J m. from London, or 110 by road,
and 19 m. NW. of Warwick, a sessions and poll-
ing town and bankruptcy court, a centre of canal
and railway communication, and the chief seat of
the hardware trade, in a healthy spot on Ryknield
St., the Rea brook and the Fazeley and Gd. Jnnct
canals, takes, they say, its common name,
"Brummagem" (as do W. Bromwich, etc.), from
the broom once growing about it ; is Bermengeham
in Domesdy.' and belonged to the DeBremichams
or Berminghams (ancestors of the Benninghams
of Athenry), who b. a castle here 11 54 ; was noted
in Leland's time for its knives, cutting-tools, bits,
nails, etc. ; occupied by Ch. L 1642, and taken by
Pr. Rupert 1643 ; had about 900 houses at the
Restoration, when the metal toy-trade was esta-
blished ; was visited by the plague 1665 ; began
the manufact. of buttons 1689 (by Taylor) of
brass 1740, and steam-engines (at Soho) 1764;
was the scene of a riot 1791, when Dr. Priestley's
house, Hutton's, etc., were burnt, and of great
agitation before the Reform bill, when political
unions were formed ; and was visited by Brit
Associatn. 1839 and '49 ; returns two members
under the Reform bill, which created it a boro',
the bounds including the par., with Edgbaston
par., and Bordesley, Deritend, Duddeston-cum-
Nechels in Aston par., no. of electors 7535 (of
107. houses 44,659) ; and under the charter of Oct
1838, is divided into 13 wards, governed by a
mayor (who is returning officer), 15 aid. 48 coun-
cil, with the style of " may. aid. and burgesses of
boro' of B.," and revenue of 129,0257. Acres of
boro' 18,780, with new red sandstone, and mi-
neral springs, of par. 2660. Pop. (1801) 73,670,
('21) 106,722, ('41) 182,922 + 4467, and of par.
138,215 + 2730, employed in the various trades
and manufacts. peculiar to the town, of articles
in gold, silver, iron, brass, steel, mixed metal,
plated metal, papier macho", japannery, etc.,
as in the following list which gives the best no-
tion of their variety and importance : Anvils 25
(makers), awl blades 43, axletrees 21, bayonets 12,
beads 4, bellows 113, bits 62, smith's work 830,
boilers 31, bolts 10, bone turnery 98, brass foundery
and working 3334, britannia metal 36, bronze 17,
brushes 273, buckles 24 (once a staple article),
buttons of all sorts (2889, 15 or 20 branches),
candlesticks 55, cases 19, castors 40, chains 97,
chairs 83, chandeliers 7, chasers 220 (persons),
clasps 4, clocks and watches 244, coaches 411
(large coach and rail, carriage works now employ
1000 hands), coach-lace 10, cocks 156, collars 5,
combs 109, compasses 4, coppersmiths 30, coral
workers 5, corkscrews 45, crates 7, cruet frames
6, cutlery 49, dies 145, engines 338, (Jngraving
227, escutcheon-pins 2 (women), artificial eyes 4,
fenders 98, ferules 2, figures or images 7, files 191,
fire-irons 91, fish-hooks 3, powder-flasks 19, forges
9, forks 2, frying-pans 35, german silver 63, gim-
lets 49, gins 2, girths 3, glass 964, glass paper
9, glass painters 22, goldbeaters 131, grates 16,
guard chains 26 (20 women), guns and pistols
1801 (11 branches), air-guns 2, gun-barrels, ect
811, hammers 19, handcuffs 3, hinges 130, hoes 1,
hooks and eyes 69 (56 women), inkstands 3, in-
struments 10, iron manufactures of all sorts 500,
ivory turners 70, bottle and other jacks 39, ja-
Eanners 631 (263 women, many articles be-
ig of papier macho"), jet carvers 2, jewel cases
2, jewellers, etc. 1399, jews' harps 2, lamps
256, lanterns 8, lapidaries 90, lathes 7, letters 15;
locks and bells 313 (20 branches), maltsters 153,
matchetts 2, mathematical instruments 23, mea-
sures 3, medalists 9, mills 35, modellers 57, mops
20, moulds 18, nailers 433, brass nails 11 (9
women), needles 13, organs 5., ornaments 37, pans
15, pattens and clogs 80, pearl workers 166, steel
pens 306 (229 women, upwards of 300 millions
are made yearly), pencil cases 43, percussion
caps 29, pewterers 21, pins 120, pincers 2, pipes
58, pivots 1, planes 82, plated ware 34, platers
900 (silver 170), ploughs 1, pocket-books 53, po-
lishers 227 (98 women), casting-pots 13, presses
7, pumps 47, punches 1, steel purse 2, ring makers
40, rivets 8, rollers 6, ropemakers 94, rules 174,
saddlers, saddletree and harness makers 493, saws
36, scabbards 16, scales and scale-beams 109,
screws 438 (315 women), wood screws 33 (21
women), snuffers 146, spades 50, spectacles 92,
spoons 348 (74 women), springs 24, door springs
3, spurs 33, stair-rods 7, stampers 312, steelyards
25, steel workers 79, stirrups 33, studs 3, surgical
instruments 9, swords 86, steel-top thimbles 87
(28 women), tinplatemen 249, tipmakers 8, tools
438, toys 924 (121 women), traps 5, trays 113
(39 women), tubes 27, turners 336, umbrellas and
parasols 129 (56 women), weighing-machines 11,
whips 154, white lead 8, whitesmiths 192, wire-
drawers 511 (28 women), zinc workers 11. Houses
in boro' 36,121, and par. 27,272, placed on several
low dry sandstone hills, which give a good drain-
age, and supply abundance of water, the oldest
buildings being at Digbeth, etc., and the most im-
portant as follow : 15 churches (besides 5 in
Aston par.) ; about 30 chapels ; townhall in Church
St. built 1834, of Anglesea marble, by Hansom,
for 18,0007., after the temple of Jupiter Stator at
Rome, is 166 ft. by 104, and 83 ft. high (on a base
of 23 ft.), with fine Corinthian columns of 40 ft.
surrounding a noble hall for 4000 persons, 145 ft.
by 65, and 65 high, in which the musical festivals,
etc. are held, and which has one of the largest
organs by Hill in the country, 45 ft. by 40, with
4000 pipes (one 35 ft. long) and a bust of Men-
delssohn ; public office (1806) for the co. magis-
trates, etc. ; new boro' gaol by Hill ; Attwoods ',
Moilliets '.Taylor's, Town and District, Birm. bank-
ing comp.,Birm and Midld., and 2 other banks ; sav-
ings bk. (321,1657. from 18,252 depositors) ; bank-
ruptcy court in Waterloo St. (with a jurisdiction
over Warwk., Worcest., Herefd., Salop, Stafd.
Leicest, Parts of Holland and Kesteven in Line.,
S. Notts., S. Derby, ,) ; new market, 3bO ft. by 108,
with 600 stalls, Smithfield cattle mkt., on the
site of the Berminghams' old seat; com ex-
change, navigation office, gasworks ; public li-
brary (1779) of 30,000 vols., new library (1796),
newsrooms at Bennett's hill ; philosoph. soc.,
mechanics' or polytechnic institute ; society of
arts (1821), or school of design since 1835 ;
fine arts institute, in Church St. ; Queen's
college (formerly Mr. Cox's school of medicine),
in tudor style, found. 1843, for medicine, etc., under
a principal, vice-principal, and dean, with tutors
in theology, classics, mathematics etc., german,
french, drawing, and professors of anatomy (ge-
neral, descriptive, and practical), mat, medica,
chemistry, medicine, surgery, midwifery, forensic
medicine, botany, clinical med. and surgery ; Tho-
mason's and other manufactories, pantechnetheca,
glasshouses, founderies, rolling-mills, chemical
works, breweries ; proof-house for ordnance at
Digbeth (where guns were first made in Will.
III.'s time), b. 1813, when the gov. contract
was 30,000 muskets monthly, barrel-proving
house ; theatre, horse barracks (1793), botanical
gardens at Edgbaston, vauxhall gardens, Lady-
well baths, Keyhill cemetery ; Deritend bridge on
R. Rhea, reb. 1823 ; statue of Nelson by West-
macott (1809), in the Bull ring one of the
oldest parts ; Edw. VI.'s free gram, school (inc.
33337., but estimated at 10,7007. now with 10
exhibitions at the universities), found. 1522,
on the site of Holy cross guild, reb. 1707, and
again about 1832, for 40,0007., by Barry, in the
tudor style (with a timber roof), 174 ft. by 127,
and 60 high, with commercial schools at-
tached; Springhill college for dissenters; blue
coat school (1029/.), found. 1724, Lench's (6577.,
but estim. at 60007.), Fentham's (3087.), Scott's
(SO/., est. at 1500/. to 2000/.), and other schools ;
Lench's almshouses, found. Hen. VIII.'s time ;
general hospital, estab. 1766-79, by Dr. Ash (whose
portrait by Reynolds is here, and whose house is
St. James's church), enlarged 1791, and supported
partly by the musical festivals ; fever hospital
(1828), dispensary, deaf and dumb (1813) and in-
fant poor asylums ; a provident institutn. and
new meeting do., in connection with the church
and dissenters' Sunday schools ; people's Christian
instruction soc. founded by Mr. Brooks, with
schools, prov. institutn., news and lecture rooms
attached ; a building for the ' exposition of arts '
1849, which cost 20007. ; and U. poor house, under a
board of 108 guardians. Assd. taxes 28,0007. ; poor
r. 37,8637. on 441,1427.; real prop. 940,1737., of
which 158,0037. on canal, and 61,8267. on railway ;
charities 56777., but reckoned to be near 20,0007.
Livings (Wore, but sometime Lich.), St. Mar-
tin Rect., with St. Bartholomew Cur., val. 10487.,
patr. Hawke's Trustees, church, in Bull ring,
built 13th cent, but much altered, has tombs of
the Berminghams (restored 1846) ; St. Philip
Rect.., I, Bishop, cA. b. 1725 (on a site 460 ft.
above sea-level), has Higg's clerical library, and