Copyright
James A Sharp.

A new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) online

. (page 71 of 293)
Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 71 of 293)
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Bittadon, Brat ton -Fleming, Braunton, East and
West Buckland, Combe Martin, East and West
Down, Filleigh, Georgeham, Goodleigh, Heanton-
Punchardon, Ilfracombe, Kentisbury, Marwood,
Morthoe, Pilton, and Trentishoe; acres 68,830,
pop. 24,694, houses 4797.

P. BRAUNTON par. (27) in the above hund.
5 m. WNW. of Barnstaple-192, at R. Taw's mouth,
has on B. Sands, lat. 51 4' N. long. 4 12' W.,

2 fixed lights, for leading over Biddeford bar,
933 ft. apart, put up 1820. 86 and 40 ft. high,
seen 14 and llm. Acres 7010, with some rich
land near the sea and manganese ; pop. 2274 + 23 ;
poor r. 7837. (Barnst. U.) ; real prop. 96607. ; cha-
rities 987., of which 757. to school. St. Brannock
Vic. (Exet.) val. 4507., patr. Dean ; church, has
brass of Mrs. Chichester (1548). Remains of as
many as 6 chapels are to be seen.

BRA WHY tnshp. ( ) Salton par. N. R. York.
5 m. NNW. of New Malton-217, on R. Rye.
Acres 1080; pop. 218 + 2; poor r. 817. (Malton
U.) ; real prop. 1761.

BRAWDY par. (40) Dewisland hund. W. Pem-
broke. 6 m. E. of St. David's-265. Pop. 767 ;
poor r. 1507. (Haverford U.) ; real prop. 33047.
Living, a Vic. (St. Dav.) val. with Haycastle
1157., patr. Bishop.

BRAWITH tnshp. ( ) Leake par. N. R. York.

3 m. N. of Thirsk-217, is joined to KNAYTON. B.
Hall, P. Consett, Esq.

Brawnsburn, 2 m. N. of Methvin, SE. Perth.
near Burn Braes, where ' Bessey Bell and Mary
Gray ' of the song lived.

BRAWNY BARONY (22, 29, 39) SW. West-
meath, near Lough Reagh, contains the par. of
St. Mary, with part of Athlone; acres 11,456,
an. val. 78397, pop. 7264, houses 1291. It was Breg-
muin, the old seat of the O'Braoins or O'Briens.

Braxjield, near Lanark, Mid. Lanark. R. Mac-
queen, Esq., late seat of lord just clerk Braxfield.

BRAXTED, GREAT, par. (47) Witham hund.
Mid. Essex, 2 m. E. of Witham-37, had at Tip-
tree a black priory, found, about the time of
Edw. I. Acres 1240; pop. 410; poor r. 1657.
(Witham U.); real prop. 40607.; charities 197.
All Saints Rect. (Roch.) val. 5447., patr. Cor. Chr.
Coll. Camb. B. Park, P. Du Cane, Esq. O" B.,
LITTLE par. as above 1 m. E. Acres 1680; pop.
126 + 3 ; poor r. 567. ; real prop. 8807. ; charities 77.
St. Nicholas Rect. (Roch.) val. 1187., patr. Mrs.
E. D. Clarke.

BRAY HUNDRED (7) E. Berks, contains Bray
par. and part of Maidenhead, and according to
Camden, was a seat of the Bibroci.

P. BKAY par. in the above hund. on the site of



BRA



251



Bibracte, contains part of Maidenhead-26, on tho
Thames (near Monkey isld.), and Gt. West, rail.,
and is part of the Honour of Windsor. Acres
8900 ; pop. 3722 + 24 ; poor r. 13037. (Cookham U.) ;
real prop. 52607. ; charities 787., of which Cherry's
free school 357., besides Norris's almsh. for 18,
and Goddard's Jesus Hosp. for 40, found. 1627,
under Fishmongers' Comp. St. Michael Vic.
(Oxon.) val. 5007., patr. Bishop, held by Sy-
monds or Aleyn, between the times of Hen. VIII.
and Eliz., who, according to Fuller, shifted his
religion with every reign, true however to one prin-
ciple, which was to live and die " Vicar of Bray ; "
church, early eng. and later styles, with 6 brasses
(Sir J. Foxley and wives 1370, W. Smith 1594,
Laken 1475, etc.), and tombs of the ancient fam.
of Norreys of Gattenden and Ockwells an old
seat here. Filberts, now Cresswells, was the site
of Nell Gwynne's house. B. Wick Lodge, AdmL
West, commands a fine view ; B. Grove, W. B.
Atkins, Esq. ^ Bray (26) 2 m. W. of S. Mol-
ton-178, N. Devon, a meet for N. Devon hounds.

P. M. BRAY par. (4, 8) Rathdown bar. N. Wick-
low, in a fine spot, containing part of the bathing
and sessions town, police and coast gd. station, of
Bray, 2 m. S. of Dublin, part called LITTLE B., be-
ing across B. River, in Old Connaught par. S. Dub-
lin, was taken from the O'Tooles 1173, and
granted to Walter de Riddlesford, whence it came
to St. Thomas's abbey and the Brabazons. Acres
2986, including B. Lake and the race course ; pop.
3326, of town 2716 + 12, in a small coasting trade,
and the fisheries ; houses 581, with 2 churches,
large hotel, brewery, savings bank, dispensary,
old bridge, barrack (formerly the castle), manor
court. Living, a Rect. (Du. G. K.) with Old
Connaught, val. 4807., patr. Crown. Kilruddery,
Earl of Meath, who owns the place (near Sugar-
loaf hill, 1120 ft.) ; B. Head, G. Putland, Esq. ;
Old Court, Major Edwards ; Old Connaught Ho.,
Lord Plunket with a noble view from the hill
near it. Coins have been found, and there are
remains of forts. B. River, abounding with trout,
rises 9 m. W.by S. among the hills above Glencree
in B.Loughs(thQ lower, where Sir P.Crampton has
a seat, being 1225 ft. high, and the upper 1453 ft.),
and passing Powerscourt, Tinnahinch, the Dargle
glen, etc. falls into the sea 2 m. N. of B. Head
(807 ft. high), where it forms a little bar harbour.
About 7 m. ESE. is B. Bank, with 1 to 3 fath.
on it, and lying between the Kish Bank on the
N. and the Codling Ridges S. Mkt. Ds. Tu. Sat.
Fairs, 12 Jan. 4 May, 5 Aug. 12 Nov. for freizes ;
1 Mar. May, July, 15 Aug. 20 Sept. 14 Dec. cattle,

BRAY, HIGH and LITTLE. See HIGH BRAY,
Devon. giT B. House (24) near E. Looe, SE.
Cornwall, W. Mayow, Esq.

Brayan River (58) runs into R. Teifi, near
Cardigan, NE. Pembroke.

Brayboeuf (8) near Guildford, W. Surrey, W.
Wight, Esq.

BRAYBROOK par. (64) Rothwell hund. N.
Northmptn. 4 m. NW. of Rothwell-77. Acres
3060 ; pop. 420 + 6 ; poor r. 3987. (Mkt. Harboro'
U.) ; real prop. 47387. ; charities 217. AH Saints
Rect. (Pet.) val. 6007., patr. Rev. J. Field; church,
has effigies of Sir T. Latimer (in wood) and Sir
N. Griffin, who had a castle here, and was an-
cestor of Lord Braybrooke, to whom it gives title
of baron. Rob. de Braybrooke, Ld. Chancellor in
1404, was a native.

BRAYDON hmlt. (34) Purton par. N. Wilts.
4 m. S. of Cricklade-83. Pop. 60.

BRAYE, in Beds, gives title of baroness to a
descendant of the Caves of Stanford. See EATON
BRAY.



252



BRA



BRE



BRAYFIELD, COLD, par. (52) Newport hund.
N. Berks. 3 m. E. of Olney-55, on R. Ouse. Acres
530; pop. 83; poor r. 16/. (Newport U.) ; real
prop. 11707. St. Mary Cur. with Lavendon.

Brat/mount (36) near Trim, S. Meath.

Braynes Hall (73) 3 m. N. of Nantwich, S. CherTi.

Bray's Green (7) 2 m. SW. of Chesham, SE.
Bucks.

BRAYSHAW ( ) 3 m. ESE. of Egremont, S.
Cumbrld.

BRAYSTONES limit. ( ) Lowside Quarter tnshp.
W. Cumbrld. 3 m. S. of Egremont-290.

BRAYTHONE hmlt. ( ) Stainburn chplry. W.
R. York. 3 m. NE. of Otley-205.

BRAYTOFT. See BRATOFT, Lincoln.

BRAYTON tnshp. ( ) Aspatria par. W. Cum-
brld. 7 m. SW. of Wigton-303, on Maryport rail., is
joined to ASPATRIA. B. Hall, W. Lawson, Esq.
$iP BRAYTON par. ( ) Lower Barkstone Ash
wap. W. R. York. 1 m. SSW. of Selby-181, on R.
Ouse, and Leeds rail, and canal, contains Barlow,
and Gateforth curs., Burn, Hambleton, and Thorpe-
Willoughby. Acres 10,690, of tnshp. 1790 ;
pop. 1894+28, and 307 + 3 ; poor r. 567. Selby
U.) ; real prop. 26647. ; charities 411. St. Wil-
fred Vic. (Yk.) val. 2687., patr. Hon. E. R. Petre
and Prebendary of Wistow ; church, has speci-
mens of every style, from the norman downwards.

Brazier's House (13) 4 m. of Wallingford, SE.
Oxford. J. S. Manley, Esq.

Breacan, or Corryvreckan, Gulf, between Jura
and Scarba, W. Argyll, has a race of the tides
through it, which causes a sort of whirlpool.

Breach Brook ( ) runs into Coventry canal, N.
Warwick. igl" B. Farm (13) 4 m. ENE. of
Bampton, Mid. Oxford. igg B. Wood Green
(46) 5 m. SW. of Hitchin, N. Herts.

BREADALBANE DISTRICT, W. Perth, extends
under the Grampians from Argyll to Kenmore,
nearly 100 m. long, 13 to 15 broad, and gives titles
of Marq. to the Campbells of Mochaster and Tay-
mouth castle, to whom it belongs. It contains
Lochs Tay and Lyon in those glens, and abounds
with peat, limestone, and granite, with traces of
talc, potstone, copper, and lead, but great part has
been turned into huntingg-round. At Shuain of
Lawens the first lint-mill in the highlands was
built by H. Cameron, a country millwright of great
mechanical genius. On Craig Challoch car ex
mielichoferi, short brown-spiked sedge, is found.
Prof. Arnott says it should be Braidalbainn, from
' Braid ' a hill, and ' Albainn,' the old name of
Scotland (signifying a hill-country). See Braid
Hermitage and Albany.

P. BREADSALL par. (71) Appletree hund. S.
Derby. 2 m. N. of Derby-126, on Little Eaton
canal, near Midld. rail., had a small priory found,
by the Dethicks, about time of Hen. III. Acres
2410, with good stone at the priory ; pop. 620 + 6,
some hosiery-frame workers ; poor r. 1247. (Shard-
low U.) ; real prop. 39487. ; charities 597. of which
107. to Clayton's school. All Saints Rect. (Lich.)
val. 5807., patr. Sir G. Crewe, Bt., sometime
held by the nonconformist Hierom, who abridged
Poole's ' Synopsis ; ' church, with a tomb to Dr.
Darwin, who died at B. Priory 1802.

BREADSTONE tythg. (35) Berkeley par. W.
Gloucest. 2 m. NE. of Berkeley-114. Pop. 140.

BRKAGE par. (33) Kerrier hund. S W. Cornwall,
8 m. W. of Helston-276, on Mounts' bay, near
Pengerswick castle. Acres 7390 (or 6456) granite,
stone, talc, with rich tin mines at Wheal Vor,
etc.; pop. 6166+102, miners; poor r. 11247.
(Helston U.) ; real prop. 17,4107., of which 67937.
on mines; charities 87. Living a Vic. with
Germoe (Exet.) val. 7607., patr. Crown. Godol-



phin, Duke of Leeds, where Ld. Treas. Godolphin
was born (d. 1712).

BREAGHWY, or BREABY, par. (78-9) Carra
bar. Mid. Mayo, near Castlebar, on R. Minola,
has some remains of a monastery. Acres 52(it',
with some bog and building-stone ; pop. 2452.
Living, a Rect. (Tu. K. A.) with Castlebar. B.
Lodge, C. Browne ; Rockland, J. C. Larminie.

Breahsea Point (20) near Aberthaw point, S.
Glamrgn., a long low point, where many wrecks
have taken place, the most southern in Wales
now marked by a beacon.

Breakspear's House (7) 3 m. N. of Uxbridge,
NW. Middlesex, J. A. Partridge, Esq., through the
Ashbys and Breakspears, of which fam. was
Nicholas, afterwards Pope Adrian IV., who was
born at B. Farm (d. 1159), near Abbot's Langley,
Herts., and first preached Christianity to the
Norwegians.

BREAM chplry. (35) Newland par. W. Gloucest.

6 m. NW. of Berkeley-114, in Dean forest. Pop.
441. i^" B. Hall (48) 2 m. S. of Manningtree,
NE. Essex.

BREAMORE LIBERTY (15) Ringwood Division
W. Hants., contains B. par., as below, gap BKEA-
MORE, or BROMORE, par. (15) in the above lib.
2 m. N. of Fordingbridge-91, on R. Avon, con-
tains Outwick, and had a black priory founded
by Baldwin, Earl of Devon, about the time of
Hen. I. Acres 3440; pop. 647 + 4; poor r. 593'.
(Fordingb. U.) ; real prop. 40247.; charities 117.
St. Mary don. Cur. (Win.) val. 5407., patr. Rev.
J. N. Palmer, curate. B. House, Sir C. Hulse, Bt.,
a meet for New Forest hounds.

BREANE par. (20) Bempstone (locally Brent)
hund. N. Somerset. 8 m. W. of Axbridge-130,
near B. Down, between R. Axe and the Bristol
Channel. Acres 1330 ; pop. 126, some samphire
pickers ; poor r. 547. (Axbr. U.) ; real prop. 23897.
St. Bridget Rect. (Ba. and W.) val. 2167., patr.
W. Willes, Esq. The Down projects 1 m. NW.
into the sea, opposite Steepholm, rising 300 ft.
with the How shoal underneath it.

BREAREY hmlt. ( ) Addle tnshp. W.R. York.
4 m. ESE. of Otley-205.

BREARTON. See BRIERTOX, Durham. Iji?"
BREARTON tnshp. ( ) Knaresboro' par. W. K.
York. 3 m. NE. of Ripley-215. Acres 1560;
pep. 201 ; poor r. 517. ; real prop. 21357. ; cha-
rities 37. Living, a Cur. (Rip.) val. 7., patr. Vicar.

BREASDON chplry. (71) Wilne par. SE. Derby.

7 m. ESE. of Derby-126, on Midld. rail. Pop.
712 + 7, 50 hosiery frames at work; poor r. 2487.
(Shardlow U.); real prop. 37417.; charities 167.
St. Michael Cur. (Lich.) val. 1197., patr. Earl of
Stamford.

BREATHER-HILLS hmlt. (70) Barrowby par.
SW. Lincoln. 2 m. W. of Grantham-110.

BRECHFA par. (41) Cathinog hund. Mid Car-
marthen. 10 m. NE. of Carmarthen-218, in a fine
country on R. Cotley. Pop. 109 + 7 ; poor r. 217.
(Llandeilofawr U.) ; real prop. 3247. St. Teilo
Rect. (St. Dav.) val. 727., patr. Tregib and Aberothy
families. Fair, 3 Oct., cattle.

P. M. a. BRECHIN par. 10 m. NE. of Forfar, by
Aberd. rail. 71 from Edinbro', E. Forfar. on R.
Eske, containing East q. s. par., LITTLE B., and
Trinity Muir, is a royal and parl. burgh, formerly
the county town, and the seat of a culdee house
and a diocese (found. 450 by Dav. I.), and
now contributes to Montrose, no. of electors
172 ; was first chartered by Dav. I., and under
the municipal act is governed by a provost and
13 councillors, with a revenue of 7., arising from
prop, worth 20,7447. Size 5 m. by 4, or 15,840
acres, fertile, with building stone ; pop. 7560 + 105,



BRE

; of burgh 5903 + 89, employed in the making of
osnaburghs, sail-cloth, brown linen ; houses 849,
rising steep from the river, with 5 chapels, town
house, academv (the master being also ' Preceptor
of Maison Dieu,' founded 1205 by Will, de
Brechin), mechanics' institute, 2 banks, hospital,
dispensary, savings bank, brewery, 2 distilleries,
spinning-mills, parish and other schools ; real
prop. 21,2587. ; for poor 1627. Living, a collegiate
charge (pres. Brech.), 1st stipend 2927., 2nd 340*. ;
church b. 1808, close to the spire of 128 ft., etc.,
of St. Ninian's cathedral, adjoining -which is a
fine round tower, 108 ft. high, 16 diameter, a little
out of perpendicular. Gavin Douglas (1475-1522),
Maitland the topographer, Gillies the historian
(1747-1836), and Tytler, who wrote for the first
ed. of ' Encyc. Brit.,' were natives ; and it pub-
lishes the ' B. Advertiser.' Near this, in 1572,
was fought the battle of Brechin, when Huntly, on
the part of Jas. II., defeated the Crawfords ; and
the place was burnt by the Danes 1012, and by
Montrose 1645. B. Castle, Lord Panmure, is on
the site of the old one which was taken by Edw. I.
1303. 3? BRECH.PRESBYTEKY, Synod of Angus and
Mearns, includes Brechin*, Caraldstone, Craig*,
Dene, Edzell*, Farnwell, Fern, Lethnott, Lochlee*,
Logie-Pert*, Marytown, Menmuir *, Montrose*,
Streckalbrow. Ditto Free Church, those marked *.
Episcop. Church diocese, includes Brechin (the
bishop's seat), Arbroath, Drumlithie, Dundee,
Fasque, Katerline, Laurencekirk, Lochlee, Mont-
rose, Muchalls, Stonehaven. M kt. D. Tu. Fairs,
3rd Tu. Jan. 3rd Wed. Apr., cattle ; 2nd Wed.
June and two following days at Trinity Muir,
sheep, cattle, horses ; Frid. after Aikey fair, July
2nd Th. Aug. Mond. before last. Wed. Sept.
cattle, etc.

BRECK (82) 4 m. NE. of Chesterfield-150, NE.
Do-by. ^ BRECK (72) 2 m. NE. of Ashborne
-139, N. Derby.

BRECKENBOROUGH tshp. ( ) Kirkby-Wiske par.
If. R. York. 3 m. N W. of Thirsk-217, is joined to
NEWSHAM. B. House, J. Hinckes, Esq.

BRECKLES par. (66) Wayland hund. S. Norfolk,
5 m. SSE. of Watton-91. Acres 3860 ; pop. 160 ;
poor r. 987. (Wayl. U.}; real prop. 13057. St.
Margaret Vic. (Norw.) val. 45/. patr. Sir E.
Kerrison, Bt., of B. Hall. gaP B., LITTLE hmlt.
now united to Shropham par. (Shropham hund.)
was a separate par. before 1332. J< B. DEANERY,
archd. and dioc. of Norwich, contains the benefices
marked in Wayland hund.

BRECKNOCKSHIRE, or BRECON (41-2, 56-7)
the welsh Brecheinog, an inland county and one
of the most mountainous of S. Wales, was part of
the territory of the Silures in Brit, fecunda, after-
wards called Garth Madrin, is watered by Rs.
Usk, Wye, and Irvon, and bordered bv Radnor.
(N.), 7/ere/(NE.), Monmo 1 (SE.), Glamrgn. (S.),
Carmrthn. (W.), and Cardigan. (NW.). Length,
from R. Clearwen SE. to below Vainor, 36 m.,
greatest breadth 35, av. ditto 20 ; relative size
130-10,000ths ; circuit 140, of which about 35 be-
longs to the Wye on the NE. It contains 754 sq. m.
or 482,560 acres, of which about 2-3rds are inclosed ;
55,603 + 727 persons, of whom 20,375 are in Lla-
nelly, Brecon, Coed -y-Cymmar, Penderyn, Hay,
Builth, Crickhowell, 27,529 are females, 24,900
under 20 yrs. of age, 39,415 county born, 5789 or
10'4 per cent, live by commerce, manufact. etc.
(3315 being miners), 5589 or lO'l per cent, by
agricult. (2107 being farmers and graziers), 379
professions, 1305 are independent, 14,846 labour-
ers and servants, besides others ; 1 1,105 houses,
exclusive of 918 empty and building; 6 hun-
dreds, Builth (N.), Crickhowell (SE.), Devynnock



BRE



253



(SW.), Merthyr (Mid.), Penkelly (Mid.), Tal-
garth (E.), and Brecon boro' ; 63 parishes (ex-
clusive of 3 in Brecon), besides part of Glasbury
and 2 chapelries ; 4 market towns, Brecon the co.
town, etc. (as below), Builth, Crickhowell, Hay,
which are also poor 1. Unions, while Talgarth,
Blaenlynfis, Hay, are decayed boroughs ; returns
two members to part, viz., 1 for the county (elect.
2548), and 1 for Brecon, as below ; is governed by
a lord lieut., high sheriff, and about 45 magistrates ;
is in the Oxford circuit and the home military dis-
trict ; and comprises an archdeaconry (as below) in
dioc. of St. David's, province of Canterbury. Real
prop. (1815) 146,539/. ('43) 198.472/., of which
10,430/. on iron works, 31877. on quarries ; ditto
rentals, 121,6727. or 5*. OJd. per acre (when wheat
was 77s.), and 139,2257. or 5*. 9d. per acre (wheat
55*.). Co. income ('48) 8524/., of which 37387.
from co. rate (on a val .of 171,1337. made 1836
-6), 13217. from the Treasury. Poor r. (yr. '46-7)
for 4 unions 20,0657. on a val. of 185,8397. or 2*. 2rf.
in the (wheat being 59*.) ; cases relieved 4832
(out-door 4337) in estimated pop. of 60,857.
Total charities 15297. ; savings banks (see town) ;
length of road in yr. '38-9, 1100 m. (181 being
turnpike) maintained for 25607. In '46-7 out of
88 pars. 46 had 48 church schools, supported by
14417., with 3058 child, attending, and 50 teachers
(4 being monitors) whose salaries were 11387.
and who had 9 teachers' houses ; out of these 2
were free schools and 13 Sunday sch. (exclusively,
with 153 teachers and 1025 child.), and 13 in
union with the National Soc. had 991 child, and
total grants of 3127. Offenders in '48, 42 (av. of
5 yrs. 42), of whom 30 were convicted, 8 females,
16 could not read or write. Following the 4 sup.
registry districts of '45 (total pop. 55,420 + 662)
the ' births' were 1919, of whom 945 were females,
and 168 or 8'8 per cent, illegit. ; ' deaths' 1182 or
1 in 49, the av. being 46 ; ' marriages ' 454 (at
church 377), of which 525 persons signed with
marks. A range of red sandstone hills runs across
the county S. of the Usk to Crickhowell, and
thence into Herefd. and Monmo', of which the
highest points are the Bannau Brecheinog 2862 ft.,
Mt. Capellante 2394, Trecastle ban 2596, Pen
Cader fawr, near Talgarth forest, 2545. This
ridge determines the course of the numerous
streams which rise in it, some to the Taf and
Taw, which have their sources here, others to R.
Usk. N. of this the Eppynt hills stretch over tff
Builth, having R. Irvon beneath, beyond which,
in a district of barren slaty hills, is Grubarn
2071 ft. ; all, however bare, serve as pasture for
the small mountain sheep. Sufficient grain, crops,
and potatoes are raised for home consumption.
In the valleys towards Hereford hops are culti-
vated, and some orchards are seen ; farm build-
ings unusually good and comfortable ; leases are
various. The native breed of small black cattle
is mixed with the Hereford white-faced, the Suf-
folk punch, and other varieties. Coal is found on
the S. border, to which the great S. Wales coal-
field extends, and limestone on theW., that at
Abercynfig makes a good cement; but iron is
the chief produce, the largest works being at
Beaufort, Clydach, Romney, and Ynyscederin.
Traces of copper, lead, and tripoli are discovered.
Excellent fire clay is quarried at Penderyn. Pen-
nant stone is used for roofing, and chert for mill-
stones and hearths. Leather and a few woollens
(which in '49 employed 81 hands in factories)
are manufactured for the eng. market. Pike and
perch are found in Llynsafeddan lake (which is
the largest piece of water) and trout in the
streams. At Llanwrtvd on R. Irvon is a whole-



254



ERE



BEE



some mineral water. The Mellte is remarkable for
flowing about 900yds. through the Forth Ogov
cave, and then down a fall of 40 ft., near which is
the Gil Hepste fall on K. Hepste ; there are two
other falls of some interest, the Scwd Einon
Gam on R. Pryddain, at a pretty spot called Pont -
neath Vaughan, and Scwd Yr Hen Rhyd on R.
Llech, near Ystradgynlais. Among the antiqui-
ties are the Ty Illteyd cromlech ; british camps at
Penmyarth, Lamhamlwch, Alltfillo, Benni Wood,
Pen-y-Crug, Cefh-y-Gaer, the last three near
Brecon; two large roman camps one, the Caer
Bannau, the chief station near Aberescir and the
Maid's Stone, the other called Caer or Gaer,
near Cwm Dhu both being on the Via Julia
Montana, which went E. through Abergavenny
and Caerleon to Bath, and W. through Maridu-
num to Neath, where it met the Via Julia Marl-
tima on the coast ; two vicinal or cross roads from
Caer Bannau (joining the Montana and Mari-
tima), the Sam Hir through Bryn Oer to Cardiff,
and the Sarn Helen past Ystradvelte and Llia's
stone to Neath a continuation of these is
thought to have gone by Cym on the Irthon to
Chester; remains of old castles at Cart-y-Carw
near Brecon, Crag Hywell or Crickhowell, Tre'r
twr near the Gaer in Cwmdhu, Penkelly (small)
on R. Usk where many roman remains have been
found, Brecknock Dinas (small), Brynllys, Bryn-
llynfi, Builth (small), and part of Brecon priory ;
old houses, most of which are now farms, at Pont
Wilym (HavardsX Trevecca (the Prossers, after-
wards the college), Porthaml ( Vaughans), Dderw
(Morgans), Garth (Gwynnes), Caeran (Lloyds),
Abercraf and Trecastell (Gwyns). The principal
families and seats : Lloyd of Dinas, Gwynne of
Jiuckland, Thomas of Llwynmadock, Wood of
Gwernyfed, Macnamara of Llangoed Cast., Price
of Castell Madoc, Gough of Yniscedwin, Williams
of Abercamlais, Williams of Penpont, Watkins of
Pennoyre. At Builth the last Llewellyn was
killed. Petyn Gwyn was the residence of Sir
David Gam ; Trevecca the birthplace of Howel
Harris; and Ap-Henry, the author of Marton
Mar-Prelate, was a native of the county. The
Normans first settled here 1088 under Bernard
Newmarsh, who defeated the last prince, Rhys
ap Teudwr, at Battle, since which the history of
the county is the history of the possessors of the
lordship, a district appended to the castle, com-
prising nearly all Merthyr hund., Llywel (N. of
Usk) and Llanspyddid, St. David and Cantrev to
R. Cynrig, with Devynock forest, all now held by
the Morgans under a crown lease. Brecon Canal,
made 1811, is 33 rn. long, falls. 68 ft. with 8 locks
down R. Usk for 18J m. to Clydach, past Aber-
gavenny, thence on a level to the Monmouth
canal at Pont-y-Pool. Railways run from this
canal to the Tredegar, Beaufort, and other works ;
another rail, runs from Glan-Usk above Brecon
on R. Usk near Mt. Capellante to the Swansea
canal near Ystradynglais ; a third, made 1812,
runs from Brecon past Llanvihangel-tul-y-llyn
past Talgarth, Glasbury, to Hay and Eardisley,
thence by branches to fcngton, Leominster, and
Hereford. Roads from Brecon : 1. down R. Usk
to Llansainfried 5, Tretower 9, Crickhowell 12,
Abergavenny 17, thence to Chepstow 39. 2. down
Glyn Tan-ell under Brecon Beacons to Glan-y-
rhyd 5> Capel-nant-Dhu 11, Cyfarthfa Park and
Merthyr Tydvil 18, thence down R. Taff to Llan-
daff 38, or to Fforest Lodge 6, under Mt. Capel-
lante to Ystradfelte 14, Pontneddfechan or Pont-
nealle Vaughan 18, down R. Neath to Neath 29.
3. up R. Usk to Capel Bettw 4, Trecastle 10,
Pcutrebach on the border 14, Llandovery 18,



thence to Cardigan or down R. Towy. 4. to Cas-
tell Madoc 5, Capel Diffryn Honddhu 8, Builth
14, thence to Radnor and Rhayader. 5. from Crick-
howell to Tretower 4, Bleanan 7, Talgarth 13
(thence to Hay 20, or to Glasbury 17) up R. Wye
to Boughrood Castle 16, Llanstephan 19, Aberedw
23, Builth 27, thence to Rhayader 39, or up R.
Irvon to Llanfanfechan 32, near Caer Mawr 39,
thence to Llandovery 48.

*P. M. BRECKNOCK, or BRECON, or ABER-
HONDDHU (42) Merthyr-Cynog, Pencelly, and
Devynnock hunds. Mid. Brecon. 171 m. W". by N.
of London, where R. Honddhu joins the Usk in the
midst of fine mountain scenery, is the county,
assize, election, and sessions town, and militia
head qrs., found, after the defeat of Bleddyn ap
Maenarch, the last prince of Brecheinog, near the
roman Caer Bannau, by Bernard Newmarch, who
built the castle 1004 and the priory as a cell to
Battle abbey; has returned one member from
the time of Hen. VIII. the limits under the Re-



Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 71 of 293)